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School of Architecture, Building & Design
BUILDING SERVICES 2 (BLD 60503)
GROUP ASSIGNMENT
CASE STUDY ON​ PJ TRADE CENTRE
MECHANICAL VENTILATION AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM
MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM
STUDENT NAME​:
NG HUoY MIIN 0319097
LEE SHZE HWA 0320053
LEE KAILYN 0320273
LIEW POH KA 0320424
HOI WEI HAN 0323335
LECTURER​: Mr. TAN HEE CHAI
DATE OF SUBMISSION​: 9th DEC 2016
WORD COUNT:
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CONTENTS
1.0 INTRODUCTION
2.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING
SYSTEMS
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 Mechanical Ventilation
2.3 Air-Conditioning System
2.4 PROLOGUE
2.5 INTRODUCTIONS AND FUNCTIONS
2.6 Types of The Air Conditioning System
2.7 UBBL REQUIREMENTS AND REGULATIONS.
3.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
3.1 pROLOGUE
3.2 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM
3.3 PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM
3.4 UBBL REQUIREMENT AND REGULATIONS
4.0 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS
4.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
4.2 ELECTRIC TRACTION ELEVATOR (PASSENGER LIFT)
4.3 COMPONENTS
4.4 OPERATING PANELS
4.5 UBBL REQUIREMENTS AND REGULATIONS
5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEMS
5.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
5.2 TNB SUBSTATION
5.3 MAIN SWITCH ROOM
5.4 LOW VOLTAGE SWITCH ROOM
5.5 ELECTRICAL RISER ROOM
5.6 METER ROOM
5.7 BATTERY ROOM
5.8 GUN SET ROOM
5.9 UBBL REQUIREMENTS AND REGULATIONS
6.0 OVERALL CONCLUSION
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INTRODUCTION
PJ Trade Centre has been completed in the month of February 2009 and is designed
by Malaysian Developer, Tujuan Gemilang Sdn.Bhd. It is located in Petaling Jaya
which is Golden Triangle that a dynamic centre for shopping and business. The
surrounding landscape of PJ Trade Centre is designed by Seksan Design.
SECTION DRAWING OF PJ TRADE CENTRE
This building was built in the centre of Bandar
Damansara Perdana,Petaling Jaya and 5.4 acres
of land . It consists of 4 towers and 21 floors
each.
PJ trade centre is designed to achieve
comfortable shopping areas and give the
people have a healthy workspace to work. It
gives natural light which people can enjoy the
sunlight and breeze of wind while staying inside
the building.
The design of this building getting closer to nature motives. It has 12 comfortable sky
terraces which covering with wall creepers and hanging vines. Besides that, PJ trade
center is a plaza covered with 2.5 acres of lushly landscaped that have achieved
green environment.
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Abstract
This case study will be looking into services system of the workspace in PJ trade
Center such as Air Conditioning System, Fire Protection System, Mechanical
Transportation System and Electrical Supply System. The aim of this report is to
introduce the fundamentals of the systems which are mentioned above. We are
required to do an analysis of own understandings based on the regulations of this
building from UBBL Building By Law (UBBL).
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We are grateful that the staff of PJ trade Center willing giving us an opportunity to visit
the building. The staff has brought us to have a tour visit around the building through
the prominent service rooms such as lift motor rooms, fire fighting system room,
electric room and chiller room. Besides that, he also show us more information
secretly to further describe the systems throughout the buildings. We would like to
give a big thank to him for explaining the systems of each room and machines
relentlessly.
We also need to give special thanks to our lecturer Mr Tan Hee Chai for the guidance
and provide us more information for the assignment. Without involvement of his help,
this report cannot sufficiently be finished.
PROJECT OBJECTIVES
· Expose to the real life case study of the basic principles, processes and
equipment of various building services systems for a high raise building.
· Provide an opportunity to demonstrate our understanding of building services
systems in compliance with the local authority requirements.
· To make aware of the challenges and problems in executing the installation of
the various building services.
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PROJECT OUTCOMES
·​​ ​Upon completion of the case study, students should be able to identify and
understand the functions of each system.
·​ ​Understand and the application of the requirements of local authority.
·​ ​Understand and appreciate the solutions to the problems and challenges in
carrying out the installation of the various building services.
PROJECT REQUIREMENT
One case study- the building services of shopping complex.
1. Mechanical Ventilation and Air-Conditioning System
2. Fire Protection System
3. Vertical Transportation System and
4. Electrical Power Supply System
Identify estimate size of the spaces and explain the functions of the building services
components identified. The systems can be illustrated in a diagram and the case study
shall indicate the local uniform building by-laws (UBBL 1984) of the components.
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2.0
MECHANICAL VENTILATION
AND
AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS
2.1 INTRODUCTION
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Heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) is the innovation of indoor and vehicular
natural solace. Its objective is to provide a sustainable thermal comfort and adequate
indoor air quality. HVAC framework configuration is a mechanical engineering’s
subdiscipline, in view of the standards of thermodynamics, heat energy exchange and
also the fluid mechanics. Refrigeration is added to the field's condensing as HVAC or
HVAC & R in some cases.
HVAC is a critical piece of private structures, for example, single family homes, flat
structures, lodgings and soho, medium to substantial mechanical and office structures,
for example, high rises and clinics, locally available vessels, and in marine situations,
where sheltered and sound building conditions are directed regarding temperature
and moistness, utilizing outside air from outside.
2.2 Mechanical Ventilation
Mechanical ventilation system is the system of circulating fresh air by using the
fans and ducts rather than depending on airflow through a cracks or tiny holes of the
wall in a room, roofs or openings. Furthermore, this has been widely utilized since the
earlier of twentieth century, the fan has mostly outmoded the unstable natural system
for the assisting of air movement. There are some of the main components of
mechanical ventilation system:
2.2.1 Fan
It impacts the static pressure or energy and velocity or kinetic energy to
provide the movement of air with the motive power. A fan's ability for air development
relies on upon its qualities, for example, sort, estimate, shape, number of sharp edges
and speed. Other than that, there are four classifications of fan reasonable for air
development in ventilation frameworks, which are cross-stream, propeller, hub stream
and radial.
2.2.2 Filters
Filters are utilized to evacuate suspended particles, smells and contaminants.
Installation of the filters are normally took place at the inlet grille.
2.2.3 Ductworks
The ductworks are responsible for the channeling of the air outside towards
indoors or the indoor air towards outside. It is typically delivered in circular,
rectangular or square cross-sections in a few distinct materials.
2.2.4 Fire dampers
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The function of fire damper is to prevent the spreading of fire from a room to
another room when there is a fire accident occurred in a sudden. It is normally
installed in the compartment wall.
2.2.5 Diffusers
The diffusers extend from straightforward punctured plated and grilles to the
air distribution which is more mind boggling and productive coned. The diffuser and
grille are situated at the ductwork edge where the air can discharged into the room
without much of a stretch .
2.2.6 AHU ( Air Handling Unit )
http://www.daikin.com/products/ac/lineup/ahu_fcu/images/pic_lineup_ahu.jpg
Air Handling Unit unit (AHU) it may be used to circularize and condition air as and only
a HVAC system. An air handler typically holds a blower, cooling or heating elements,
chambers or filter racks, dampers and sound attenuators. Air handlers normally link to
the ductwork that convey the molded air through those building and also come back it
to AHU. Little air handlers need aid called terminal units, and might best incorporate
an air blower, filter and coil. These littler units would also known as blower coils or fan
loop units.
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http://www.gibbonsgroup.co.uk/uploads/assets/infographics/inside-an-ahu-zoom-in-diagram-mark-5-17052016.jpg
The components of AHU (Based on Figure 1.14) perform every duties of course
comparative with an ordinary refrigeration system. However, all of these parts are
bigger in size and have higher capacities. The compressor is about open responding
kind for various cylinders and also will be cooled by the water just in the car motor.
Those compressor and the condenser would about shell and more the tube kind. At
the same time, in the little ventilating system capillary will be utilized as the extension
valve, in the focal ventilating system thermostatic extension valve is utilized.
Those chilled may be passed through those ducts to every last one of rooms, halls
and also other spaces that would with be air molded. Hence, on the whole the rooms
there is best those conduit passim those chilled air and even more that there would
no individual cooling coils, and other parts of the refrigeration system in the rooms.
The thing that will be we get over each room is the totally quiet and also profoundly
viable air conditioning system in the spaces. What is more,, the measure for chilled air
that is required in the space might a chance to be controlled eventually by those
openings contingent upon those aggregate high temperature load inside the space.
​AHU in the PJ Trade Centre.
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2.3 Air-Conditioning System
The air-conditioning system is a system of eliminating of heat from a limited
space, consequently cooling the air, and evacuating the humidity. Air conditioners
frequently utilize a fan to convey the molded air to a possessed space, for example, a
car or a building to enhance indoor air quality and thermal comfort. A relative humidity
within 40 and 60 percentage band and temperature in a range from 19 to 23 degree
Celsius should be achieved for the air temperature. There are available of 4 types of
air-conditioning system :-
2.3.1 Room Unit Air-Conditioning ( Window Unit )
The window unit air conditioner represent the simplest types of air-conditioning
system and it is only suitable for tiny space or room. It is normally installed at the wall
or window openings. The fan blows the air over the evaporator to cooled the interior
air. As a second fan blows the outside air through the condenser, the heat from the
exterior drawn from interior is dissipated into the environment. A building or large
house may have a few such units, permitting every space to be cooled independently.
Furthermore, it can also be separated into two sections, which are the exterior part (
condenser ) and the interior part ( evaporator ) that splitted by an insulated partition.
2.3.2 Split Unit Air-Conditioning System
Split unit air-conditioning system are considered as an one-to-one systems
comprising of a evaporator ( fan coil ) unit connected to another external condensing
unit. The copper tubing and electrical cabling connect the outdoor and indoor units
together. Besides that, this type of air-conditioning system has been very famous
nowadays due to it minimizes the noise produced during operation, has an elegant
outward appearance, and installation without making a hole in the wall.
2.3.3 Plant or Centralized Air-Conditioning System
Central air conditioning plants are usually utilized for application in large
buildings with offices and commercial uses where a high demands of cooling loads
are required. It has the equal limitation of the equal air quality being transferred all
over the building. However, the zoned thermostats can control the temperature of
each element.
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2.3.4 Packaged Unit Air-Conditioning System
Packaged air conditioners are utilized for the cooling storages that available in
the specific rated storages of 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 tons. All the vital components of the air
conditioners are encased in a single casing as the window air conditioner like the
name implies, the packaged air conditioners. Hence the compressor, air handling unit,
filter and the cooling coil are all stored in a single casing and erected at the factory.
The packaged air conditioners are separated into two categories, which ones with
air-cooled condenser, and water-cooled condenser.
2.4 PROLOGUE
Both Air conditioning system and Mechanical Ventilation are alternatively be chosen
as the primary source for providing of a sustainable air circulation, air quality, air
humidity and air temperature control indoor of a building currently. PJ Trade Centre
connected the idea towards greeneries and utilizes a greater amount of natural
ventilation with a specific main goal to minimize the utilization of mechanical air
conditioning system within the building.
For the most part in PJ Trade Centre, there are two sorts of air-conditioning system
have chosen by them to utilize in the building, which are the centralized system and
the split air-conditioning system. Tower A and C utilized the centralized
air-conditioning system while the Tower B (Bata) utilize the Split Air-Conditioning
System. The reason for the choice of air-conditioning system in Tower A and C is both
towers are under a single owner, Gamuda dissimilar with Tower B which is owned by
another holder. Thus, different types of air-conditioning system in PJ Trade Centre has
its own particular point of view in approaching. There will be more focusing on the
Split air-conditioning system in this report as our team are doing Tower B.
The components in the building are mostly covered in the syllabus we had learned in
lecture class with respect to Mechanical Ventilation System. It is truly imperative
aspect by installing the mechanical ventilation mainly in the kitchen, toilet and
basement room. The main objectives of the mechanical ventilation are providing the
fireproof property, cooling of individual room and filtering of tiny substances.
Furthermore, it can also conserve the sustainable amount of oxygen needed (
maintain at 21% volume of air) and eliminate the carbon dioxide. A portion of data are
needed to assemble in order to provide us the advices in accomplishing the
foundation of the building services and also leading it in greeneries way since we are
doing research on Tower B.
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2.5 INTRODUCTIONS AND FUNCTIONS
In PJ Trade Centre, the air conditioning system and mechanical ventilation are
the sources which alternatively vital for providing the sustainable air humidity, air
circulation, air quality and also managing the temperature of air inside the building.
The installation of the mechanical ventilation and air conditioning system should be ‘
reasonably efficient ’ regarding the Building Regulations enforce requirements. Other
than that, the utilization of the mechanical air conditioning system for the buildings is
minimal since the PJ Trade Centre Building is more focusing on the greeneries
concept and maximize the uses of natural ventilation.
2.5.1 COMPONENTS INVOLVED IN THE MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM
Ducting System
In PJ Trade Centre, it has became a trend by exposing the ducting systems
and making it visible since it is quite aesthetically pleasing appearance instead of
hiding all from our sight. The main functions of the ductwork is channeling of the air
outside towards the indoor space or from the indoor space towards outside. The
components that involved in the duct system includes the return air grilles, diffusers
and fire dampers.
In the PJ Trade Centre Building, all the ducting system utilized are normally
insulated in order to minimize the installation cost and the heat loss. Besides, the
ductworks extend from Air Handling Unit (AHU) to the allotted space mainly basement
parking in PJTC. In addition, when the operator been switched on, a loud sound could
be produced and heard. A rectangular shaped ducts with a size range of 1m x 1.5m are
utilized in the ducting system in the building.
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There are couples of Axial Fan behind the Air Handling Unit (AHU) for the
purpose of exhausting air from AHU through the ducting system. It consists of a
number of aerofoil cross sections blades assembled on a motor driven central shaft.
https://continentalfan.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/AID_DWG.jpg
The axial fan in the ductwork can develop a high pressure and provide the moving of
air throughout the long section of ductwork.
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Extract Ventilation
In PJ Trade Centre, setting up of the extract ventilation in a fire pump chamber
provided with the ductworks that linked to the extract fan can furnish the room with
fresher air. Moreover, preventing of the cross-flow of odours, noise and smoke is also
one of the main function of the extract fan.
The Extract Ventilation System in the PJ Trade Centre.
The Extract Ventilation System airflow
directions & components.
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-WTnbzo5dLW4/UUBwYcoZynI/AAAAAAAAAHI/1xFTdhlPMsU/s1600/Heat+recovery+unit.
png
Diagram showing the example of air
escaping through Extract Ventilation
in high rise building.
http://blog.belimo.com/hs-fs/hub/87971/file-15818229-png/images/actuated-dampers-in-smoke-control-systems-9.p
ng?t=1478890538585&width=659&height=635&name=actuated-dampers-in-smoke-control-systems-9.png
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The centrifugal fan, fire damper and circular ductwork location in PJ Trade Centre.
Pressurization & Exhaust System in Fire Protection System
The prevention of leaking smoke flowing through enclosed doors into the stairs
area by feeding clean air into the enclosure of stair is the main function of the system
provided that the pressure at the adjacent fire compartment is lower than the pressure
in the stairs area. Hence, the airflow will be maintained by the system via the open
doorway if the stair door is opened. This also helps in the prevention of contamination
of the stair enclosure and the opposition of the flowing of smoke. The system is widely
applied to enhance the protection of the stairways area for the safety of the owners in
the PJ Trade Centre.
There are three components that include in this system. The first component is
the Supply Air which is to transport the air to a specific space. Secondly, there is the
Pressure Relief which is to avoid the pressure from exceeding the limits. Next is the
Air Release which the smokes and air are discharged from adjacent fire area. It
develops a positive pressure difference because of having these components and the
prevention of smokes from entering the lobbies and staircase area in the building is
then established.
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Other than that, the distance of the separation from the edge of the exhaust
louvres housing to the supply air fan should be at least 5 metres. So, it provides a
prevention of the smoke from having a potential to shift into the supply air shaft. A
motor fans which can suck the air into the stair are installed as well. The motor fans
are positioned in the basement in the PJ Trade Centre. A cover up with has the
particle filter is available to captured the outside air.
Fire damper located at the emergency staircase area.
This is the emergency staircase area in PJ Trade
Centre.
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Ductworks for channeling the smokes during a fire event.
Centrifugal Fan on the rooftop of the building.
The propeller fan in water system
room.
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The propeller fan and fire damper location in PJ Trade Centre.
2.6 Types of The Air Conditioning System
In the PJ Trade Centre building, there are consisting of four different blocks of
building which is Tower A, Tower B, Tower C and Tower D. They are utilizing the
centralized unit air conditioning system except for the Tower B due to there are less
occupants own the building units. This also leads to the less assumption of air
conditioning system compared to the other three blocks. To resolve the problem of
paying the high cost of electrical bills for the low usage of the air conditioning system
in Tower B, the split air conditioning system is then installed in the building. This
decreases the electrical bills that needed to pay by the few occupants in the building.
Whereas, the other 3 blocks are using the centralized air conditioning system.
2.6.1 Split Unit Air-Conditioning System
The split unit air conditioning system has been widely utilize by people nowadays due
to its silent operation properties, elegant outer appearance and the elimination of
making a hole in the walling of the room. The ‘split’ means the separation of the
indoor unit ( condenser ) and the outdoor unit ( compressor ) which one is located in
the room and one is located outside the room. There are multiple indoor units for
some of the models which using of only one compressor, it is known as the multi split
air conditioning system.
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http://www.thermospace.com/ductless_split/installation_pic.gif
There are consisting two parts of components for the split unit air conditioner
which is the outdoor unit and the indoor unit. The outdoor unit will be located at the
outside of the room or space. It is like a chamber that containing the condenser,
expansion valve and compressor. In the other hand, the indoor unit includes the
cooling coil and evaporator. The split unit air conditioner has the ability to cool the air
condition within one or two rooms. One of the advantage of this system is to prevent
making any slot in the walling system of the room.
The operation is to re-circulate and recycle the existing indoor air instead of
renewing or supplying the fresh air to the room or space since it is a ductless split unit
system. It is usually utilized for small space or room area. They are utilizing the indoor
unit types in Tower B.
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2.6.1.1 The Components of The Split Unit Air Conditioning System.
There are two separate components that available in the split air conditioning system
which is the indoor and outdoor units. Initiation of the cooling process will be carried
out by the compressor in the outdoor unit whereas the components that house in the
indoor unit are fan and evaporator. There are a connection between the two units by a
set of electrical wiring and tubing system which transfers electricity and the air. It is a
very energy efficient cooling system and preferred by the people nowadays with the
elimination the needs of the ducts property. For the mean of saving energy, the
energy will loss up to thirty percent from the transferring of air through the duct. There
are some components consist in the split unit air conditioning system,;-
(1)​ ​ Indoor Unit
The components that are housed inside the indoor unit are the cooling or evaporator
coil, filter and long blower. The chilled Freon fluid will enter the cooling coil after going
through from the expansion coil. The filtered, hot and humid air is then sucked out
from the room by the blower and blows it through the cooling coil. The temperature of
air will reduce drastically and the excess moisture of air will also lose after it passed
over the cooling coil.
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Example for the indoor unit ac in PJ Trade Centre building:
Ceiling mounted type.
Wall mounted type.
(2)​ Outdoor Unit
The main source of noise produced is from the compressor. Since it is located at the
outside of the room, the noise produced by it can be easily eliminated from the
occupants inside the room. There is a compressed Freon gas in the condenser and
requires a fan to blow air over it and cool the gas. The gas are passing through the
expansion coil and converted into low temperature partial gas, low pressure and
partial liquid Freon fluid.
The outdoor unit ac of the PJ Trade Centre.
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(3)​ Compressor
Compressor represent the main spirit of any air conditioning system. Before it is sent
to the condenser by the external power, it is used for the compressing of refrigerant
which is in low temperature and the increasing it to a high pressure. The boiling point
will be raised to a higher levels by the conversion and the heat brought in by the
outdoor air can be also eliminated by the facilitation.
(4)​ Condenser
The gas at high temperature and pressure is received by the condenser from the
compressor. The gas is also cooled to change its status and turn into the liquid form
by the metallic surfaces in the air-cooled condensers. Production of the same cooling
effect by the water circulation will be carried out in the case of water-cooled
condensers. Since the rate of conduction of it is considered high, the material to make
the tubing will be copper. Besides that, aluminium fins is also covered the condenser
so that the removal of the heat from the refrigerant can be established at a faster rate.
(5)​ Evaporator
Absorption of the heat from surrounding and replacing it with the cooled air will be
carried out by evaporator for this system.
(6)​ Capillary Tube
Capillary tube is considered as a simple refrigerant liquid metering application that
controls the flow of refrigerant from the arriving high pressure side ( condenser or
compressor ) into the low pressure side ( cooling coil ).
(7)​ Expansion Valve
The expansion valve is generally considered as a capillary tubing made from copper
with a number circular coils. The greater capacities thermostatic property of the
expansion valve in the split air conditioners is utilized which is run electronically
automatically. The medium temperature and high pressure refrigerant discharge from
the condenser and moves into the expansion valve, where there is a sudden dropping
of its pressure and temperature.
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2.6.2 OPERATION OF SYSTEM
http://www.central-air-conditioner-and-refrigeration.com/images/Refigeration_Cycle_Diagram1.jpg
The missions of the split unit air conditioner are the pumping the heat outside the
room or space and transferring it to cooling when it runs through the cycle of
refrigeration. The refrigerant will experience the changes of the phase, changes of
temperature and the changes of pressure when the refrigeration cycle is took placed.
How does a split unit air conditioner work ?
The process is begun with the compressor that is run through a thermostat inside. The
thermostat operates the compressor at the outdoor once it detects the warm air.
Furthermore, the circulation of refrigerant gas, rising of the temperature and pressure
of refrigerant by the compressor will be taken place as it compressed via a chains of
pipes. The refrigerant is then transferred to the condenser for other operation.
On the other hand, a cooling system eliminates heat from the high pressure gas and
the gas transforms into liquid in the condenser. The indoor tubing pushes the chilled
liquid until it arrives to the evaporator system.
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The warm air is collected by the evaporator fan inside the building and is passed
through a chamber that contains the chilled liquid refrigerant. Moreover, the blowing
process of the now-cooled air returns into the room by the fan system and decreasing
of the overall temperature of the room will be served. The process will be
continuously repeated if there is a detection of the warmer air compared to the
desired air by the thermostat. Besides that, if there is any excess heat or the
refrigerant remains in the system, the flowing back process will begin to the
compressor outdoor so that a new cycle can be begun.
2.7 UBBL REQUIREMENTS AND REGULATIONS.
Under UBBL 1984 Section 41 : Mechanical Ventilation and Air-Conditioning.
1. The place where the everlasting air-conditioning or mechanical ventilation is
deliberated, the applicable fabricating by-laws identifying with the natural
lighting, natural ventilation and the height of spaces or rooms might make
waived In those carefulness of the neighborhood power.
2. Whatever provision for the waiver of the pertinent by-laws should be a chance
to be considered if What's more of the permanency air-conditioning framework
there is given elective affirmed method for ventilating those ventilated
enclosure, such-and-such inside half an hour of the air-conditioning framework
failing, not under those stipulated volume from claiming new air specified
hereinafter should be acquainted under those nook Throughout those time At
the air-conditioning framework is not working.
3. Those procurements of The 3rd Schedule to all these By-laws might apply to
edifices which are air-conditioned or mechanically ventilated.
4. The place permanency mechanical ventilation On appreciation of lavatories,
bathrooms, corridors or water-closets, will be furnished for· What's more
supported over understanding for those prerequisites of The 3rd Schedule to
these By-laws, the procurements about these By-laws identifying with regular
ventilation Furthermore regular lighting ought not apply should such
water-closets, corridors, bathrooms or lavatories.
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3.1 PROLOGUE
In Malaysia, the fire problem has become getting serious and important issue. We
must always aware to the hazard of fires to ourselves to prevent this situation
happens. This is because it may cause a serious consequence to all of us such as it
will cause damages to people, vehicles and properties. For example, fire in buildings
is a major risk to kill our lives, it will destroy the buildings and also causes loss of lives.
Fire protection shall be fully equipped in every building or shopping mall. It shall be
installed, operated and maintained in a functioning condition at all times. The fire
protection in every building and shopping malls are required and apply to the design
of the building.Fire protection systems is the basic requirement in a building. The
system is used to ensure the building fully capable to withstand for the fire to be
controlled The fire protection systems consist of two components which are active fire
system and passive fire system. Both active fire system and passive fire system have
different function in the fire protection system. It is important that both fire system to
work together in an event of fire because they are playing different roles to prevent
and minimize the risk of fire.
3.2 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
What is active fire protection?
Active fire protection is the process of protecting a building from fire with the
component of fire detection and prevention which reacts to action or motion. It is one
of most important elements to consider when building modern structure.The role of
active fire protection is to detect,alert about, and seek to eliminate any potential fire
hazards, in order to provide a safer and more protected environment for people to
making use of them.
3.2. 1 Manual Initiating Devices
Manual initiating devices should be located near the exits of the building. It should be
easily accessible, operated and identified.
Fire Break Glass Alarm
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The PJ trade centre fitted with “Fire-Break Glass Alarm”. It allow occupants to activate
the fire alarm and the Fire Brigade is alerted easily. The red panel on the wall houses
a small button. When the small button depressed, it will contact the Fire Brigade and
Fire Brigade will respond instantly to the building.The glass of the red panel is easy to
break and sometimes smashing the glass will activate the button automatically.
3.2.2 Automatic Initiating Devices
Automatic initiating devices will all sense changes in the environment. It will react
automatically in the event of an emergency.
3.2.2.1 Smoke Detector
Smoke detector is an indicator of fire which detects smoke. It is typically housed in a
disk-shaped plastic enclosure.Smoke detectors in large commercial are powered by a
central fire alarm system, which is building power with battery backup.
TYPE OF SMOKE DETECTOR
Ionization smoke detectors
Can quickly detect the small amount of
smoke product by fast flaming
fires.(cooking fires, flammable liquids, fire
fueled by paper)
Photoelectric smoke detectors
Respond faster to afire in its early,
smoldering stage before the fire burst into
flames. (large combustion particles)
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The detection system in PJ Trade Centre may sense smoke
in the building. Because of the function of earlier warning of
an emergency situation, smoke detector are increasingly
being used. It may also used to activate fire doors to isolate
zones in the building. The smoke detector can activate the
alarm system as well as sprinkler system.
Fire Intercom Panel
Fire intercom system provides consists of remote handset
station and Master control panel.It provides communication
between Fire Command Centre and remote Handset
Stations. The system is installed at the Fire Control Room in
PJ Trade Centre.
3.2.3 ALARM SYSTEM
3.2.3.1 EMERGENCY VOICE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
Telephone
During the fire outbreak,it used to communicate to the
Command Centre or nearby fire station directly by the
telephone provided. It is located at staircases of each floor in
PJ Trade Centre.
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Speaker
PJ Trade Centre use this speaker for Emergency Voice
Communication System. Pre-recorded messages will be used
and it is access be used to communicate to people nearby
the exits during fire outbreak.
Fire alarm panel
It located on the ground floor near the entrance. The panel is
in a cabinet on the wall and there are a number of lights and
buttons. Fire sensors in the building have activated the lights.
When one of its sensor locates a fire, this FIP will
automatically notify the Fire Brigade of an alarm. It talks to
EWIS and notify the building occupants that they need to
evacuate.
Fireman Switch
It is used to switch off the power supply from certain power
system of PJ Trade Centre. It can be found in every level of the
building and it have different types of electrical supply
switches. The switches can only be turned off by the fireman.
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3.2.4 FIRE CONTROL SYSTEMS
3.2.4.1 SPRINKLER SYSTEMS
The commercial buildings need to have protection in case of fire or smoke. Sprinkler
system installation is good preventative measure to take and water represents the
ideal extinguishing agent. Sprinkler systems are most effective during fire’s initial
flame growth stage while the fire is easy to control. The sprinkler head has a liquid
filled glass bulb breaks due to the fire and as a result the sprinkler will release water
to spray over the fire.
How do sprinklers operation?
1.) During the initial fire stage, the heat output is relatively low and not able to
cause sprinkler operation.
2.) As fire intensity increase, the sprinkler sensing elements become exposed to
elevated temperatures which typically in excess of 57-107 degree celsius, the
sensing elements begin to deform.
3.) During the increasing fire and the temperature remain high, the element will
fatigue after an approximate 30 to 120 second period.
4.) The sprinkler seals was released and the water was allowed to discharge onto
the fire, the suppression action. begin.
There are various types of sprinkler head can be found in PJ Trade Centre. In different
places, each sprinkler head has their different function.It can be found in the entire PJ
Trade Centre easily.It is a component of fire sprinkler system that discharging water
when detect the effect of a fire
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Upright Sprinkler Head
It can be found in the mechanical area and basement
of PJ Trade Centre. During a fire, upright sprinkler
head can function when there are obstructions
around the water spray. It is upright so it can aim
water effectively.
Pendent Sprinkler Head
Although the water spray are minimal, we can found
that there are some of them installed in few places in
PJ Trade Centre.
Fire Pump
It is fire sprinkler system’s water supply that
can be found in PJ Trade Centre’s fire pump
room.
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3.2.4.2 FIRE HOSE REEL SYSTEMS
Hose reel system can be found most around the stairways and electrical room of PJ
Trade Centre. It consists of pumps, pipes, water supply and hose reel which ensuring
proper coverage of water to combat a fire.
Fire Hose Reel
Fire Hose Reel with between 18 and 36 metre hose which has
`13mm ,19mm, 25mm internal dia are fitted on the wall. It is
supplied with a fast fit mounting bracket, an inlet pipe with
thread and stop valve.
Fire hose reels are located at reasonably accessible places in
PJ Trade Centre which provide the supply of water to combat
fire risk, especially for the occupants who are trapped in the
building and cannot escape to emergency exit when fire
outbreak.
Hose Reel Operation
1) Make sure the jet and nozzle is in the closed
position
2) Turn on the main control valve
3) Break glass of glass fronted cabinet and reel out
the hose toward the fire
4) Open the valve or nozzle and the stream of
water is directed at the fire from a safe distance.
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3.2.4.3 WET RISER SYSTEMS
Typical Wet Riser Installation
Fireman use wet risers as a form of internal
hydrant. Wet risers are always charge with water
and only required for buildings where the
topmost floor is higher than 30.5 meters above
the fire appliance access level.
Wet riser system comprises duty fire pumps with
standby pump discharging into riser pipe with
landing valves at each level except the ground.
The pipe system is connect to permanent water
supply which fed from the town mains.
Wet riser system is a system of rigid piping which can
be found in PJ Trade Centre. In PJ Trade Centre, dry
riser system cannot be used because the building is
too tall and it cannot manage to rely the building
codes. Therefore, wet riser system is a better choice
and it provide water towards the floors.
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Jockey Pump
A jockey pump is usually provide to maintain system
pressure.Jockey Pump is the first pump to start. The
controlling pressure switch is set to start at a
pressure of 150 psi and set to stop at a pressure of
230 psi. If wet riser piping(wet riser/hose reel) have a
small leak exist, the pump will start in order to
compensate for the leak.
Pressure Gauge
Pressure gauge most common
pressure measuring devices to check
the pressure by compressed gas or
liquid. When identify it has high
pressure, it should have potential
safety threats.
Fire Alarm Control Panel
This is fire alarm control panel which receive
information from environmental sensors. It is
designed to detect changes associated with fire and
monitors their operational integrity. Besides that, it
provides transmission of necessary information and
automatic control of equipment for preparing the
facility for fire.
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Alarm Valves
The 4 towers of the PJ Trade Centre has
different types of alarm valves and each has
match with different installation systems such
as dry pipe system,wet pipe system etc.This
is valves prevent a reverse flow of water from
the installation. It is located outside fire pump
room and it will open and allow the water
flow into the system. In the meantime, the fire
pump will receive a signal from a pressure
switch.Contrary, it is normally close for the
technician to get maintenance for the valves.
Sprinkler Valve and Wet Valve
Two of these valves include pressure switches and
valve monitors.
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3.2.4.4 CARBON DIOXIDE SYSTEMS
3.2.4.4.1 CO2 SUPPRESSION SYSTEM
CO 2 suppression systems extinguishes fire by lowering the level of oxygen or
removing oxygen to cut the fire. The mechanism of fire suppression makes CO2
suppression requiring minimal clean up and highly effective. It is used in unoccupied
hazard locations and avoided by personnel when discharged.Cylinder valves can be
open automatically by remotely using electric ,or manually by using mechanical valve
actuators.
CO2 storage
In PJ Trade Centre, CO2 suppression system is
used in some places that have high risk of fire
outbreak such as electrical room and generator
room.
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3.2.4.4.2 Portable Fire Extinguisher
Portable fire extinguisher apply an
extinguishing agent that will stop fire from
burning either displace or remove oxygen, cool
burning fuel or stop the chemical reaction. The
agent is expelled out the nozzle when the
handle of an extinguisher is compressed.
How it operation?
It can described by the acronym “​PASS​”
1.​P​-The safety pin is pulled.
2.​A​- The nozzle is aimed at the based of
the fire from a safe distance
3.​S​-The handles are squeezed.
4.​S​-The extinguisher are swept from side
to side while aiming a the based of the
fire.
CO2 Fire Extinguishers
CO2 fire extinguishers can be found in PJ Trade
Centre. Carbon dioxide extinguishers contain
pressurized liquid carbon dioxide which turns to gas
when expelled.It can extinguish Class B and Class C
fires. However, it has no post fire security and the fire
could re-ignite.
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Classification and Use
Fire extinguishers are classified by the type of fire that they will extinguish.
1) Class A​ fire extinguishers
Ordinary Combustibles:
It is used for ordinary combustibles (such as paper, wood, plastics and textiles) and it
requires the heat-absorbing effects of water or the coating effects of certain dry
chemicals.
2)Class B​ fire extinguishers
Flammable liquids:
It is used for flammable liquid and gas fires (such as oil, gasoline, etc. ) It deprive the
fire of oxygen and interrupt the fire chain by inhibiting the release of combustible
vapors.
3)Class C​ fire extinguishers
Electrical Equipment:
It is used on fires that involve live electrical equipment that require the use of
electrically nonconductive extinguishing agents. Once the electrical equipment is
de-energized, extinguishers for Class A or B fires may be used.
4)Class D​ fire extinguishers
Combustible Metals
It is used on combustible metals (such as magnesium, titanium, sodium, etc.), that
require an extinguishing medium that does not react with the burning metal.
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3.3 PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM
Passive fire protection is the use of fire protection systems that are applied into the
structure of a building. Their purpose is to contain fires and slow the rate at which they
spread efficiently for people to escape immediately in the event of fire. They also used
to protect load bearing columns and other critical structures through fire-resistance
walls, floors and doors to prevent the building collapsing during fires.
By making a fire resistant compartment between rooms and floors, passive fire
protection greatly slows down the spread of the fire from the room where it originated.
This is to reduce the amount of damage to the building. In addition, this will provide
more time to the building’s occupants to leave the building and arrive a more safety
place.
The passive fire protection is different from active fire protection which it does not
require any action or motion or to be activated by electronics. There are few example
for passive fire protection such as fire door closers, means of escape, fire curtain and
fire dampers.
3.3.2 Opening Protection
3.3.2.1 Fire door
​A fire door is an important part of a building’s
passive fire protection system. The doors provide
life safety by providing people to escape quickly
when necessary and it also stop the spread of fire,
smoke and toxic gases. This fire door requires a
proper installation and maintenance is a critical
part of the building fire protection system. Still, the
requirements remain a mystery for many architects
and specifiers.
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​Photo of a door closer
3.3.2.2 Types of door openings
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​ ​ Example of one hour rating
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Example of two hours rating
3.3.2.3 Fibre Reinforced Plastic Door
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Fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) door can be found at the external opening of the
building. It can be perform well in high corrosive area. A FRP door consists of fire
resistance composite that can be used in the opening rated up to one and half hours.
It is also protected by fire curtain.
3.3.3 Lighting and Signage
3.3.3.1 Emergency Exit
An emergency exit is an another exit in a building that can be used in case of
emergency in an event of fire. The purpose of emergency exit is to allow people to
leave the building in a faster way or shortest time because when a building in fire, it
may block all the normal exits. It is usually placed on the above of the fire exit door
where it is clearly visible.
3.3.3.2 Emergency Evacuation Plan
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Emergency evacuation plan ​is to provide immediate and urgent movement of people
away from the risk or real incidence of a danger​. The purpose of an emergency
evacuation plan is to facilitate and organize employer and employee actions during
workplace emergencies. An emergency evacuation plan can be found on the wall
nearby the lift of every floor. Based on the plan, it is clearly stated that the location of
emergency staircase, fire extinguisher, bomba lift and fire alarms. It is to provide the
people to find the emergency ways to leave the building in the fastest way.
3.3.3.3 Fire exit signs
Fire exit signs with arrows is used to guide people to the emergency exits and
staircase. It is usually placed at points around the PJ Trade Centre to provide
information to tell people where should they go during in an event of fire and
emergency situation. It is usually green and white in colour. This combination of colour
is to tell people that it is a safe condition. It will also shows a pictogram of “ running to
the door” on the sign.
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3.3.3.4 Fire Indicator Light
Fire indicator light can be found at PJ Trade Centre. It is usually placed above the
entrance of every high risk room. It is used to tell people the safety status of a room
before entering to the room. It will provide a notification to people by using different
colour light, to tell people when they are in any emergencies. A fire indicator light
contains of a green and red light bulb. A green light bulb is light up is to tell the users
it is safe to enter the room while a red light bulb is light up is to tell the users that the
room is in a dangerous situation. It is used to prevent people to enter into the room
when it is in the dangerous situation.
3.3.4 Fire curtain
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A fire curtain can be found at the entrance of PJ Trade Centre. A fire curtains require
side guides to provide a cover between the fabric and the structure of the building.
The main purpose of fire curtain contains of smoke and it is used for 1 hour fire rated
curtains is generally used for smoke curtains. This system is placed at every generator
room in PJ Trade Centre.
3.3.5 Fire escape staircase
A fire escape staircase can be found at every
floor in PJ Trade Centre. The fire escape
staircase is used to allow people to escape to a
safety place or outside of the building during
emergencies and in an event of fire. It is not
allowed to use the elevator when fire is in a
building.
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3.4 UBBL By Law Requirements
ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
UBBL By laws - Section 153 - Smoke Detection
- Smoke detectors are required in all lift lobbies
UBBL By laws - Section 225 - Fire Detection
- Fire alarm are provided together with highlighted exit signs to detect and
extinguish every buildings
UBBL By laws -Section 237- Fire Alarms
- Accordance with the Tenth Schedule to By-laws, fire alarm need to be
provided.
- Two stage alarm system are provided if the gross floor area in the buildings
exceeding 9290 square meters or exceeding 30.5 meters in height, excluding
car park and storage areas.
- For general evacuation of the premises, provisions shall be made by action of a
master control.
UBBL By laws- Section 238
- Sprinkler valves must be located on the exterior wall which is safe and
enclosed position. It should be accessible by Fire Authority
UBBL By laws -Section 239- Voice Communication System
- Two voice communications systems-Fire brigade communication system and
other public address system should separated approved and electrically
supervised.
(a)staircases, lifts, lifts lobby and corridors.
(b)The size of every office exceeding 92.9 square metres
(c)Fire brigade system combined with public address system in each dwelling unit
UBBL by laws- section 240 - Electrical Isolation switch
- Electrical isolation switch are provided when size of zone of any floor
exceeding 929 square meters. It is located within staircase enclosure to permit
the disconnection of electrical power supply.
- Fireman’s switch must be similar with the specified type
UBBL by laws - Section 228 - Sprinkler valves
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- Sprinkler shall be readily to the fire authority therefore is located in safe
enclosed position on the exterior wall
- To provide automatic relay and immediate of alarm when activated, all sprinkler
system shall be connected to the nearest fire station.
UBBL By Laws -Section 231- Installation and testing of wet rising system
- Topmost floor of every building must provide wet rising systems when
exceeding 30.5 meters above fire appliance access level.
UBBL By Laws -Section 248 - Marking on wet risers
- Wet riser and sprinkler shall painted red.
- All fire installations that recessed in wall shall be clearly identified to fire
authority
UBBL By Laws - section 227- Portable extinguishers
- Portable fire extinguisher must be positioned visible on exit routes and
provided with relevant codes of practice.
PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
UBBL By laws - section 10 - No obstruction in staircases
1) There might be no obstacle in any staircase between the highest landing there and
the exit discharge on the ground floor.
UBBL By laws - section 164 - Door closers for fire doors
1) The automatic door closers of hydraulically spring operated type can fit with all fire
in the proper sequence.
2) To ensure that leafs close in the proper sequence, the double door shall be
provided with the coordinating device.
3) Fire doors might be held open provided the hold open device incorporates a heat
actuated device to release the doors protecting openings to protected corridors or
protected staircases.
UBBL By laws - section 110 - Exits to accessible at all time
1) Except as allowed by law 167 at the very least two separate ways out might be given
from every story together with such extra exits as might be necessary.
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2) The exits should be sited and the leave get to might be arranged to the point that
the ways out are with the breaking points of travel separation as determined in the
Seventh Schedule to these By-laws are promptly available at all circumstances.
UBBL By laws - section 168 - Staircases
1) Except as allowed for in by-law 194 every upper floor shall have means of way out
via at least two separate staircases.
2)Staircases should be of to such an extent that in case of any one staircase no being
accessible for escape purposes the rest of the staircases might suit the most
important occupancy load of any one story releasing into it figured as per
arrangements in the Seventh Schedule to these By-laws
UBBL By laws - section 172 - Emergency Exit Signs
1) Story exits and access to such exits should be set apart by promptly obvious signs
and might not be covered by any decorations, furnishing or other equipment.
UBBL By laws - section 198 - Ventilation of staircase enclosure
1)All staircase restricted in areas should be ventilated at every floor or landing level by
either permanent openings or operable windows to the outside having a free area of
at least 1 square meter for each floor.
UBBL By laws - section 217 - Fire resistance of structural member
1) Fire resistance of not less than minimum period shall required by any structural
member or overloading wall required by-laws for any element which it carries.
UBBL By laws - section 222 - Fire resistance for walls
1) Other than external wall, enclosing a protected shaft shall, if every side of the wall is
independently presented to the test by fire, having imperviousness to fire for at the
very least time frame required by this part.
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4.0
MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION
SYSTEMS
4.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
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Mechanical transportation systems are the vertical transportation system which allows
goods or people to move efficiently from floor to floor or between decks and levels of
a building. These mechanical transportation systems are classified as escalators,
travelators and elevators which are known as lifts. In PJ trade centre, they are using
elevators only throughout the whole building. They do not require escalators as this is
an office building which consists of 21 floors.
Mechanical transportation system is usually used in a building to transport goods or
passengers from floor to floor within a building. Elevators or lifts are used to transport
vertically in a building. A set of staircase will be designed to the buildings that consists
more than one storey. It is counted into consideration when they are designing the
building because it is used to allow occupant or user in the building to travel from floor
to floor. In accordance to Malaysia Uniform Building By-Laws (UBBL) 1984, clause 124:
Lift is required for all non-residential buildings which are exceeding 4 storeys and
above or below the main entrance. If the buildings that is not exceeding 4 storeys but
there are seniors or disabled access, lifts are required as well. Other than clause 124, it
must fulfill the requirement of Clause 153 in UBBL as it state smoke detector must be
provided at the lift lobbies in order to detect if there is any fire occurred.
Elevators are powered by electric motors. It is activated by driving traction cables or
counterweight systems, for example: hoist. The hydraulic fluid will be pumped to raise
the cylindrical piston. Quality of the elevator is an important factor in the choice of
tenants. Elevator performances mostly are depend on speed of door operation,
acceleration, car speed, stability of speed and performance with variations of car load.
In PJ Trade Centre, there are 21 floors and traction elevators are used throughout the
building. They are allowed to transport goods or people by using traction elevators. It
can carry high loads compared to other type of elevators. Hoist mechanism is used in
traction elevators. Hence, there are some types of hoist mechanism elevators:
I.​ ​Traction elevators
II.​ ​Pneumatic elevators
III.​ ​Hydraulic elevators
IV.​ ​Climbing elevators
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4.2 ELECTRIC TRACTION ELEVATORS
PJ Trade Centre is a high rise building which consists of 21 storeys. Hence, the speed
of and efficiency of the elevator are very important. Electric traction elevators are used
throughout the whole building. In more specific term, it is using geared traction
elevators. Electric traction elevators have the ability to carry higher load which due to
the height of the building. It provides efficiency and speedy properties to the
occupants.
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Figure 1: Location of elevator in PJ Trade Centre
4.3 COMPONENTS
There are some important components can be found in the lift motor room which is
located at the highest floor. There are control valves, drive motor, controller and
counterweight.
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Lift Car
This is known as car of the lift. It is made of fire resistance material. The car is
supported on a structural frame to which the lifting cables are attached to a top
member. The car is guided by the guide shoes on its side member guide during
vertical travel in the shaft. This car is equipped with ventilation, operating control
system, safety doors, emergency exit, illumination and floor level indicators. The
capacity of this car is 1365 kg and maximum passengers occupied are 20 persons.
When the lift is broken down, the ventilation and light are still functioning. It can
withstand for two hours in order to wait for technician to arrive.
Cables
There are lifting ropes or cables in the lift in order to function the lift. There are groups
of steel wires that are designed to carry and support the weight of the car and allowed
to move from floor to floor. The cables are attached to the crosshead which is known
as the top beam of the elevator. The cables are depending on the car speed and the
capacity of the car. If there is an emergency happened in the lift, for example, the one
of the lifting ropes in the lift has broken, the car will not fall to the lowest floor because
there are emergency brakes that will brakes the car immediately. There will be other
lifting ropes in the lift as well to support the car, so that there will be no accident
happened to the lift and the occupants are safe. There are about four to eight cables
in each lift to support the weight of the car with occupants.
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Geared Traction Elevator
Geared traction machines are
interposed between the hoisting
sheave and driving motor. The
electric motor in geared traction
elevators is used to drive gear
type reduction unit which
allowed turning of hoisting
sheave. It can be used for car
speed up to 2.3m/s
approximately. There is an
electrical controlled brake
between reduction unit and
motor in order to stop and hold
the car at the required floor
level. A geared traction machine
will gives accurate, smooth ride and high quality to elevator with appropriate drive and
control system.
Counterweight
Counterweight is made by cut steel plates
which staked in a frame and attached to the
opposite ends of the cables which are
fastened to the car. The car is supported by
the counterweight which the weight is almost
same amount when it is loaded half full. It is
located in the shaft and set into the wall of the
shaft by two guide rails. Counterweight helps
to reduce the energy cost and power demand.
It also provides adequate traction at the
sheave for the car of the lift.
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Shaft
Shaft can be known as hoistway as well. It is basically the vertical passageway for the
car and counterweights of the lift. There are guide rails on the walls of the shaft for
counterweight. There are car and counterweight buffer at the bottom of the shaft
which can be known as pit as well. The top of the shaft is designed as structural
platform to support the machines of the elevator. The elevator machine room usually
required one or two levels and it is located directly top of the shaft. Traction machine
and some control system are located in the elevator machine room in order to activate
the elevator. Hence, they are designed for vibration-free operation and quiet.
4.4 OPERATING PANEL
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General Control System
These are the floor switch numbering for passengers to choose the floor that they
wanted to stop. There is also an alarm button which connected to control room of the
building. It allows the passengers to ask for help when they are trapped in the
elevator. In this elevator, there is some information such as the capacity of the lift
which is not allowed to exceed the capacity of the lift to prevent breakdown of the lift.
Other than that, there are some controller switches for technician to control and
service the elevators. Overload sensor can be found at the door of the lift and it is to
prevent the car from exceeding the maximum load. It will trigger the alarm when
exceeding the maximum load.
Key Switch Panel
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Key switch panel is located at the control room of the building. It can control the car of
the lift when there is an emergency or lift breakdown occurs. Also, when lift
breakdown, the passengers are able to contact or ask for help from the control
through the help button. When emergency or lift breakdown occurs, technicians are
able to know clearly where the elevator has stopped through the key switch panel.
4.5 UBBL Bylaw Requirements
UBBL By laws - Section 124 - Lift
- Lift is required for all non-residential buildings which are exceeding 4 storeys
and above or below the main entrance.
UBBL By laws - Section 153 - Smoke Detector
- Smoke detector must be provided at the lift lobbies in order to detect if there is
any fire occurred.
UBBL By laws - Section 154 - Emergency Mode
- On failure of mains power all lifts shall return in sequence directly to
designated floor, commencing with the fire lifts, without answering any car or
landing calls and park with doors open.
- After all lifts are parked the lifts on emergency power shall resume normal
operation: provided that where sufficient emergency power is available for
operation of all lifts, this mode of operation need not apply.
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5.0 Electrical Supply System
5.1 Literature Review
Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) and Independent Power Producers (IPPs) in the
Peninsular Malaysia are using a Gird Code as main guidelines in electricity supply
operation in order to make sure the electricity supply in Peninsular Malaysia are
always reliable. The Grid Code and also the Distribution Code stated the
responsibilities of parties that involved in managing the electrical supply system.
Example of the responsible parties are generators, grid system operators, distribution
system operators, single buyer and also the large power of consumer.
Structure of the Power System, responsible parties and applicable codes
So, how TNB generate, transmit and distribute the electricity to all the consumer? The
four main components that make up the electricity grid are generation plants,
transmission lines, distribution substation and consumer use.
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The process of power supply from generation to end-use customer
There have varies type of power plant are used to generate electricity. For example,
coal and nuclear power plants have less flexibility to adjust their electricity output
which means it consume more time to step up or step down the electricity.
Natural-gas fired plants can be ramped up faster and it often used to cope with the
high demand. However, in Malaysia, we heavily use natural gas and coal to generate
electricity because our country is rich on both resources. Next, transmission system is
essential as it transmit the electricity from the generators to the distribution substation.
Transformers are required to convert the low voltage electricity which generate by the
power plants to high voltage electricity in order to reduce the loss of electricity during
the transmission process over the long distance. Transmission lines are made by
aluminium alloy and reinforced with steel and it can be overhead power lines or
underground power cables. Typically, the transmission level voltages are at or above
138kV and the transmission system and carry up to 765kV. Besides, the distribution
substation is where the transmission lines end and pick up by the distribution network.
The distribution network start at the transformers which step-down the voltage of
electricity from transmission lines and distribute the electricity to all the consumer
from the area of heavy and light industry, commercial and residential.
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The diagram above has shown the electric supply system from the generators plants
which generate 25 kV electricity and then step-up the voltage to 230/138kV and
transmits through the transmission lines until the distribution substation. The
transformers from the distribution substation step-down the voltage to 33Kv. After
that, the electricity transmits through the sub-transmission lines and reach the TNB
room which located at the basement of PJ Trade Centre and step-down the voltage to
11Kv which consider as medium voltage. If for residential area, it only required
400/230 volts which consider as low voltage.
The table shows the classification based on voltage levels.
The diagram shows the location of electrical room at PJ Trade Centre.
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In this section, we will introduce and explain the function of every electrical room such
as TNB Room, Main Switch Room, Low Voltage Switch Room and Gen Set Room
which located at the Basement 7 in Tower B of PJ Trade Centre. All the electrical room
are located at the same area to reduce the loss of voltage over the distance travel.
Moreover, we also will discuss about the process on how the electrical generate from
the generator plants distribute throughout the building.
Besides, we will also explain about the design consideration through our observation
when we having the site visit there. For example, for safety reason, each electrical
room has an alternative emergency exit door and also carbon dioxide fire extinguisher
to reduce fire losses especially human life. Lastly, we will discuss about the UBBL 1984
law that the PJ Trade Centre included in their design of all the electrical room.
5.2 TNB Substation
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The diagram shows the location of TNB Substation (orange colour) on the plan view.
Substation is an important part in the electrical supply system as it links between
generating station, transmission systems, distribution systems and the load points.
The TNB Substation of PJ Trade Centre is an indoor substation and it is located at
Basement 7 in Tower B. TNB Substation consists several electrical components such
as power transformers, bus bars, switchgear and more. Bus bars is an electrical
conductor that carry a large current from the generator plants or distribution
substation. It is a thick strip or tube that made up of copper or aluminium.
The main function of TNB Substation is to protect the transmission system, control the
exchange of energy, make sure the transient stability, maintain the system frequency
within the target limits and provide sufficient line capacity to secure the supply.
Besides, the TNB Substation also able to determine the energy transfer through the
transmission lines and it is a reliable supply by feeding the network at various load
point.
The types of substation can be classified in several ways which shows as following:
1. Classification based on voltage level.
2. Classification based on outdoor or indoor.
3. Classification based on configuration.
4. Classification based on application.
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5.3 Main Switch Room
The diagram shows the location of Main Switch Room (yellow colour) on the plan view.
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Main Switch Room Schematic Diagram
​ ​ ​Incoming from Kepong ​Incoming from Klang
The electrical source for PJ Trade Centre comes from Kepong and Klang. In PJ Trade
Centre, the main switch room is basically used to receive the electrical supply from
TNB room and distribute it to every level of the building. Switchboard is a combination
of several electrical panels. Each electric panel consists of switches that used to
control the electric circuit and other power control equipment. The main function of
switchboards is to receive, control and protect the electrical source, then divide the
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electrical source to smaller chunks and distribute it throughout the building. The
electrical source distribute from switchboard will pass through transformer, panels and
any other equipment to prevent the loss of electric sources over the distance
travelled. Besides, the switchboard mounted several load sharing controls and gauges
to control and monitor the electrical supply process. This can make sure the total
amount of electrical source received by switchboard is equal to the total amount of
electrical distributed.
5.3.1 Main Switch Room components and devices
Circuit breaker
Circuit breaker is used at the equipment and machine that received the high volume
of voltage. Circuit breaker as one of the important component in switchboard because
it provides protection for high current incomers and feeders electrical supply. Besides,
the circuit breaker must remain closed connection when short-circuits happened. This
is to allow the downstream circuit breaker break down the faults. The circuit breaker
functioning by using the time delayed basis. It using the two common method which
are Electro Dynamic Withstand (EDW) and high thermal withstand characterised by a
short time.
The criteria to settle a suitable circuit breaker:
1. Must comply with standard of BSEN 60947-2.
2. Must have high breaking capacity from 40 to 150 kA.
3. Must have stored energy operating mechanism which allow the source
coupling.
4. Must have shunt trip function.
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Fuses
The function of fuses is act as a protection to the
electrical equipment by preventing too much
current enter the switchboards. Fuse is a low
resistance device which will break down the
electrical supply under faulty conditions. For
example, when the electrical supply more than
the desired value, the temperature will increase
and cause the fuses disconnect the electrical
supply.
Bus bars
Bus bars is a thick tube that made up by
copper or aluminium. The bus bars
normally act as electrical conductor to
carry the high electric current from
generation or distribution substation to
the switchboards. The bus bars connect
from the fuses to carry the high voltage
to each section of connected
switchboard and energize each section.
Step-down transformers
Transformers within panel box
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For large building such as PJ Trade Centre, more than one transformer is required to
step-down the high voltage from the TNB substation. The transformers lower the
voltage from 11Kv to 480/277 volts which is the usable level of power supply for the
building. After the transformers have step-down the voltage of electric supply, the
electric supply will then transmit to the switchboard and distribute to every level of the
building.
Voltage Light Indication
Voltage light indication is used to show the voltage of the switchboards. For the blue
light indicate the voltage of the switchboards is maintaining the desired level. While
for the yellow light indicate that the voltage level is slightly higher. In this stage, the
authority should take action in order to control the voltage and prevent the
switchboards from burning. If the red light brightens up, it means the voltage level is
very high. In this stage, immediately action is required to find out the problem and
solve it as soon as possible.
5.3.2 Analysis and observation on Main Switch Room
Air Conditioned
The temperature inside the main switch room
must be always maintain at 25°C because it is
one of the requirement of electric room. This is
to prevent the switchboards from overheating.
and prevent the switchboards from damaging.
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Main Switch Room Access
The main switch room door is open outward and it is always locked. This is to prevent
unauthorised person enter the room due to the hazards of high voltage electricity.
Besides, the room of electrical room must be designed to open outward to prevent
obstacle fall and block the door from opening when the electrical room in fire.
Sprinkler Systems
There have total 8 sprinkler heads throughout the
main switch room as it able to detect the high
temperature in the room and spray the water out to
reduce the fire losses and also prevent the spread of
fire.
CO2 FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
There have total 4 CO2 fire extinguishers in the
main switch room. It can be use when the
switchboards heated up and fire due to the high
voltage.
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Equipment hand on wall
The equipment that used to service or
repair the switchboards is unique and
expensive. Therefore, it cannot be taken
away by authority. It should be always
hang up on the wall after the use.
Unfortunately, the one of equipment in
main switch room have loss and they force
to use the spare equipment.
5.4 Low Voltage Switch Room
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The diagram shows the location of Low Voltage Switch Room (blue colour)
The diagram shows the location of Low Voltage Switch Room (blue colour).
In PJ Trade Centre, the low voltage switch room is located between the TNB
substation and the main switch room. Low voltage switch room is the optimal solution
to provide a higher functional low voltage distribution equipment which means it able
to protect, control and monitor the electrical distribution systems in a more safety,
efficiently and efficiency way.
The low voltage switchgear is used to provide centralized control and protection to
the low voltage power equipment and circuits in the building. It capable to provide
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electrical protection against the overload currents, short circuit currents and also
insulation failure. Besides, the switchgear is allowed to control through the functional
switching, emergency switching, emergency stopping and the off switch for
maintenance or service purposes.
5.4.1 Low Voltage Switch Room components and devices
Main Switchboards
There are total five main switchboards that used to separate the power distribution
system into five different zones. One switchboard will distribute the electrical supply to
the first zone which is from the ground floor level to basement 7. While another four
switchboards will separately distribute the electrical supply to from floor level of 1​st​
to
5​th​
floor, 6​th​
to 10​th​
floor, 11​th​
to 15​th​
floor and 16​th​
to 20​th​
floor. The electrical disconnect
switch and circuit breaker are used to protect and control each of the switchboards.
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Low voltage drawout power circuit breakers
Low voltage drawout power circuit breakers connect to the primary and secondary
connections without nuts, bolts or connector kits. The main function of low voltage
drawout power circuit is to provide automatic protection to electrical circuit from
damage due to the overload circuit, short circuit currents and insulation failure.
Circuit Breaker Compartments
There have two type of circuit breaker compartment inside the switchboards which
are the horizontal circuit breaker compartments and vertical circuit breaker
compartments. Horizontal circuit compartments used to distribute the electrical power
to every switchboard section. While for vertical circuit breaker compartments are used
to distribute electrical power to every circuit protection device in a single structure.
Primary and Secondary Power Connections
The power connections divided into primary and secondary power. Primary power is
the connections from the main electrical distribution system directly to the load points.
While for secondary power, the connections are made by extending busbars into the
breaker compartments. It is used to connect the main system power components of
the drawout power circuit breaker. Whilst, the secondary power also provide power to
the equipment that use to control and monitor the electrical operation devices.
Secondary Control Compartments
The main function of secondary control compartments is to segregate and protect the
low voltage control and also used to monitor the cables from other areas where the
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switchgear located. It capable to connect devices in various control compartments to
others through the dedicated control circuit wire ways.
Busbars Couple
Busbars couple is made by silver or tin-plated copper. Vertical busbars couple are
connected to horizontal busbars couple and it used to distribute the power from
circuit breakers. The horizontal busbars couple are then distribute the power from one
switchboard to another switchboard.
Overhead Current Transmission Cable
The overhead current transmission cables are used to distribute the power from
switchboards to every level of the building.
5.4.2 Analysis and observation on Low Voltage Switch Room
Air Conditioned & Main Switch Room Access & Sprinkler Systems
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All the electrical room must fulfil the same requirement. Hence, the low voltage switch
room is designed in the same way as main switch room. The low voltage room is air
conditioned, have total 4 sprinkle heads, the door is open outward and located sign
board to prevent unauthorised and create awareness among people.
Apparent Death from Electric Shock Signboard
The apparent death from electric shock signboard
was placed in both main switch room and also low
voltage switch room. With this signboard, we able to
conduct a cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). CPR
is a lifesaving technique that useful in emergencies
case to someone who stop breathing or the
heartbeat has stopped.
CO2 Suppression Systems
Normally, CO2 suppression
systems used in unoccupied
hazard room such as low voltage
switch room. Difference from
main switch room, the low
voltage room used CO2
suppression systems instead of
CO2 fire extinguishers. It can be
operated automatically by
remotely using electric.
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Equipment hand on wall
The equipment that used in the work of
service and repair the low voltage
switchboards is different with main
switch room. However, the equipment in
low voltage room is also required to
hand on the wall nicely after use and it is
prohibited to take out the room by any
authority.
Temperature Sensor
There was only one temperature
sensor in low voltage room. It is used
to detect the temperature in the low
voltage switch room to ensure the
room temperature always maintain at
25°C. If the room temperature increase,
it will detect by the sensor and the
sensor will activate the alarm system at
security room.
5.5 Electrical Riser Room
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Electrical riser room is located at every floor of the building which means at PJ Trade
Centre there have total 21 electrical rise room in each tower. The electrical riser room
is where the electrical distribution equipment such as switchgears and panels installed
to distribute the electrical supply to every load point. The electrical conduits feed the
various electrical equipment, switch, and AC units. Most of the electrical supply are
distribute to AC units as it requires a lot of electricity to provide a cool indoor
environment to the offices at every floor at PJ Trade Centre. Each office needed
around 240V of electricity. Riser is a rectangular hollow metal box which used to
protect the transmission cable from the electrical room at basement 7 and goes
vertically up to 21th floor of the building.
5.6 Meter Room
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The diagram shows the meter of Tujuan Gemilang Sdn. Bhd (Menara Bata) in block A
All the floor mounted metering cubicle placed a sticker which written the information
of the organization such as the name of the organization, address, C.T ratio, P.T ratio
and more. This is to allow the authority to know the meter is from which organization
in the building when conducting the electrical bill.
5.7 Battery Room
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Battery Bank
Battery room switchboard
The battery in battery room are used to supply stored to control and operate the
substation when no power supply. Self-regulated battery charges are set to the
battery to keep the battery in a fully charged level. The battery charger cannot reply
upon to supply DC current that operate the protection equipment because it will
increase the probability of fault happen and lead to the charger stop to function. This
will affect the performance of the battery and cause interruption to local service,
significant damage to substation equipment and major system disturbances in serious
case. Extra caution should be taken if not having sufficient battery capacity available
at all times. Besides, more attention should also be taken to abnormal situation
including DC systems. For example, we must always ensure the battery is clean, no
cracks, no leaks, dry on top, not lifting and always clean the excessive sedimentation.
Besides, maintenance of the battery and chargers is essential to keep the efficiency of
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the battery. Replacement is necessary if the battery capacity is less than 80% of the
manufacturer’s nameplate. The replacement of the battery should be made with one
year.
5.8 Gun Set Room
Generator in gun set room
The diagram shows the location of Gun Set Room (red colour) on the plan view.
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Battery bank in gen set room
Control panel that shows the amount of electrical power generated by the generator.
This diagram shows the switchboard in gen set room
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.
This diagram shows the pipe that allow the smoke produced by generator transfer
outside the gun set room.
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When there is no power supply to the building, the generator in gun set room is useful
to provide power supply in the event of failure of power supply automatically. Different
electrical and physical configurations of generators are use depends on different
applications. An electrical generator is a device that convey mechanical energy into
electrical energy (output). The generator uses the mechanical energy to force the
movement of electric charges that present in the wire of its windings through the
external electrical circuit. The movement of electrical charges are the main key to
produce the output electric current. The electric current supply will transmit through
the transmission cable which connect from the generator to the common area and
also emergency system such as fire alarm systems and also fire lifts. The common
area include lobby, staircase and basement.
The following are the main components of the generator:
1. Engine
2. Alternator
3. Fuel system
4. Voltage regulator
5. Cooling and exhaust systems
6. Lubrication system
7. Battery charger
8. Control Panel
9. Main Assembly
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5.9 UBBL REQUIREMENTS AND REGULATIONS
​UBBL By laws - Section 253 – Emergency Power Supply
Section 253 (1)
Emergency power system must be provide when failure of the normal supply or
accident happened to the elements of the system.
Section 253 (2)
Emergency power supply systems must provide power for:
1. Smoke control systems
2. Illumination
3. Fire alarm systems
4. Fire pumps
5. Public address systems
6. Fire lifts
7. Other emergency systems
Section 253 (3)
Emergency systems must have sufficient capacity and rating for all emergency
operation, including simultaneous operation of all fire lift and one other lift.
Section 253 (5)
Current supply must provide to emergency lighting or emergency power or both
within 10 seconds when failure of the normal supply or interruption of normal supply.
Section 253 (5) (a) – Storage Battery
Storage battery with suitable capacity and rating must supply and maintain not less
than 87 ½ % of the system voltage.
Total power supply to emergency lighting and emergency power must last at least 1 ½
hours.
Section 253 (5) (b) – Generator Set
Generator set automatically starting the prime mover on the event of failure of normal
supply.
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6.0 Overall Conclusion
Through this case study report, we have learnt a lot and gain the knowledge of the
mechanical ventilation air conditioning system, fire protection system, mechanical
transportation system and also electrical supply system. It is a great opportunity for us
to conduct a case study on PJ Trade Centre. We have learnt extra knowledge while
having the site visit and more understand about the theories that we learnt from the
lecture classes by applying it to the case study. Overall, it was a memorable
experience to all of us together to complete this case study report.
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References
1) Active/Passive fire protection systems. (2016). ​Boeingconsult.com. Retrieved 9
December 2016, from
http://www.boeingconsult.com/tafe/fire/Week%203-5-HO-ppt.htm
2) Extinguishes and Hose Reels. (2016). ​Fireprotection.org.nz. Retrieved 9 December
2016, from
http://www.fireprotection.org.nz/information-on/extinguishes-and-hose-reels
3) I Dig Hardware » Survey Q2: “What is the purpose of a fire door?”. (2016).
Idighardware.com. Retrieved 9 December 2016, from
http://idighardware.com/2010/01/survey-q2-what-is-the-purpose-of-a-fire-door/
4) "Substation Main Functions And Classification | EEP". ​EEP - Electrical Engineering
Portal. N.p., 2016. Web. 9 Dec. 2016.
Website:​http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/substation-main-functions-and-classifi
cation
5) "Electric Supply System". ​iiteeeestudents. N.p., 2016. Web. 9 Dec. 2016.
Website:​https://iiteeeestudents.wordpress.com/2011/08/28/electric-supply-system/
6) "The Role Of An Electric Switchboard In Power Flow". ​East Coast Power Services.
N.p.,2016.Web9Dec.2016.Website:​http://www.ecpowersystems.com/resources/switch
boards/the-role-of-an-electric-switchboard-in-power-flow/
7) "Circuit Breaker Specific Features For Main Switchboard - Electrical Engineering
Centre".​Electrical Engineering Centre. N.p., 2016. Web. 9 Dec. 2016.
Website:​http://www.electricneutron.com/circuit-breaker/circuit-breaker-specific-feature
s-for-main-switchboard/
8) "What Is The Function Of A Fuse?". ​Reference. N.p., 2016. Web. 9 Dec. 2016.
Website:​https://www.reference.com/home-garden/function-fuse-7be22f90717cef59
August 2016 semester
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School of Architecture, Building & Design
9) Stein, Andrea and Andrea Stein. "What Is The Function Of A Switchboard? | Ehow".
eHow.N.p.,2016.Web.9Dec.2016.
Website:​http://www.ehow.com/facts_7682798_function-switchboard.html
10) "Cite A Website - Cite This For Me". ​Fs.illinois.edu. N.p., 2016. Web. 9 Dec. 2016.
Website:​http://www.fs.illinois.edu/docs/default-source/facility-standards/general-guidel
ines/building-elements-and-spaces/equipment-rooms-electricalB616D43F6933.pdf?sfv
rsn=2.docx?sfvrsn=2
11) "Electrical Systems: Designing Electrical Rooms—Your Questions Answered |
Consulting-Specifying Engineer". ​Csemag.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 9 Dec. 2016.
Website:​http://www.csemag.com/single-article/electrical-systems-designing-electrical-r
ooms-your-questions-answered/10355ed7cdf1261632f06dbce127c2c9.html
12) "The Basic Functions Of LV Switchgear - Electrical Installation Guide".
Electrical-installation.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 9 Dec. 2016. Website:
http://www.electrical-installation.org/enwiki/The_basic_functions_of_LV_switchgear
August 2016 semester
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Bs 2 group assignment

  • 1. School of Architecture, Building & Design BUILDING SERVICES 2 (BLD 60503) GROUP ASSIGNMENT CASE STUDY ON​ PJ TRADE CENTRE MECHANICAL VENTILATION AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM STUDENT NAME​: NG HUoY MIIN 0319097 LEE SHZE HWA 0320053 LEE KAILYN 0320273 LIEW POH KA 0320424 HOI WEI HAN 0323335 LECTURER​: Mr. TAN HEE CHAI DATE OF SUBMISSION​: 9th DEC 2016 WORD COUNT: August 2016 semester 0
  • 2. School of Architecture, Building & Design CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION 2.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.2 Mechanical Ventilation 2.3 Air-Conditioning System 2.4 PROLOGUE 2.5 INTRODUCTIONS AND FUNCTIONS 2.6 Types of The Air Conditioning System 2.7 UBBL REQUIREMENTS AND REGULATIONS. 3.0 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 3.1 pROLOGUE 3.2 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 3.3 PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 3.4 UBBL REQUIREMENT AND REGULATIONS 4.0 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS 4.1 LITERATURE REVIEW 4.2 ELECTRIC TRACTION ELEVATOR (PASSENGER LIFT) 4.3 COMPONENTS 4.4 OPERATING PANELS 4.5 UBBL REQUIREMENTS AND REGULATIONS 5.0 ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEMS 5.1 LITERATURE REVIEW 5.2 TNB SUBSTATION 5.3 MAIN SWITCH ROOM 5.4 LOW VOLTAGE SWITCH ROOM 5.5 ELECTRICAL RISER ROOM 5.6 METER ROOM 5.7 BATTERY ROOM 5.8 GUN SET ROOM 5.9 UBBL REQUIREMENTS AND REGULATIONS 6.0 OVERALL CONCLUSION August 2016 semester 1
  • 3. School of Architecture, Building & Design INTRODUCTION PJ Trade Centre has been completed in the month of February 2009 and is designed by Malaysian Developer, Tujuan Gemilang Sdn.Bhd. It is located in Petaling Jaya which is Golden Triangle that a dynamic centre for shopping and business. The surrounding landscape of PJ Trade Centre is designed by Seksan Design. SECTION DRAWING OF PJ TRADE CENTRE This building was built in the centre of Bandar Damansara Perdana,Petaling Jaya and 5.4 acres of land . It consists of 4 towers and 21 floors each. PJ trade centre is designed to achieve comfortable shopping areas and give the people have a healthy workspace to work. It gives natural light which people can enjoy the sunlight and breeze of wind while staying inside the building. The design of this building getting closer to nature motives. It has 12 comfortable sky terraces which covering with wall creepers and hanging vines. Besides that, PJ trade center is a plaza covered with 2.5 acres of lushly landscaped that have achieved green environment. August 2016 semester 2
  • 4. School of Architecture, Building & Design Abstract This case study will be looking into services system of the workspace in PJ trade Center such as Air Conditioning System, Fire Protection System, Mechanical Transportation System and Electrical Supply System. The aim of this report is to introduce the fundamentals of the systems which are mentioned above. We are required to do an analysis of own understandings based on the regulations of this building from UBBL Building By Law (UBBL). ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We are grateful that the staff of PJ trade Center willing giving us an opportunity to visit the building. The staff has brought us to have a tour visit around the building through the prominent service rooms such as lift motor rooms, fire fighting system room, electric room and chiller room. Besides that, he also show us more information secretly to further describe the systems throughout the buildings. We would like to give a big thank to him for explaining the systems of each room and machines relentlessly. We also need to give special thanks to our lecturer Mr Tan Hee Chai for the guidance and provide us more information for the assignment. Without involvement of his help, this report cannot sufficiently be finished. PROJECT OBJECTIVES · Expose to the real life case study of the basic principles, processes and equipment of various building services systems for a high raise building. · Provide an opportunity to demonstrate our understanding of building services systems in compliance with the local authority requirements. · To make aware of the challenges and problems in executing the installation of the various building services. August 2016 semester 3
  • 5. School of Architecture, Building & Design PROJECT OUTCOMES ·​​ ​Upon completion of the case study, students should be able to identify and understand the functions of each system. ·​ ​Understand and the application of the requirements of local authority. ·​ ​Understand and appreciate the solutions to the problems and challenges in carrying out the installation of the various building services. PROJECT REQUIREMENT One case study- the building services of shopping complex. 1. Mechanical Ventilation and Air-Conditioning System 2. Fire Protection System 3. Vertical Transportation System and 4. Electrical Power Supply System Identify estimate size of the spaces and explain the functions of the building services components identified. The systems can be illustrated in a diagram and the case study shall indicate the local uniform building by-laws (UBBL 1984) of the components. August 2016 semester 4
  • 6. School of Architecture, Building & Design 2.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS 2.1 INTRODUCTION August 2016 semester 5
  • 7. School of Architecture, Building & Design Heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) is the innovation of indoor and vehicular natural solace. Its objective is to provide a sustainable thermal comfort and adequate indoor air quality. HVAC framework configuration is a mechanical engineering’s subdiscipline, in view of the standards of thermodynamics, heat energy exchange and also the fluid mechanics. Refrigeration is added to the field's condensing as HVAC or HVAC & R in some cases. HVAC is a critical piece of private structures, for example, single family homes, flat structures, lodgings and soho, medium to substantial mechanical and office structures, for example, high rises and clinics, locally available vessels, and in marine situations, where sheltered and sound building conditions are directed regarding temperature and moistness, utilizing outside air from outside. 2.2 Mechanical Ventilation Mechanical ventilation system is the system of circulating fresh air by using the fans and ducts rather than depending on airflow through a cracks or tiny holes of the wall in a room, roofs or openings. Furthermore, this has been widely utilized since the earlier of twentieth century, the fan has mostly outmoded the unstable natural system for the assisting of air movement. There are some of the main components of mechanical ventilation system: 2.2.1 Fan It impacts the static pressure or energy and velocity or kinetic energy to provide the movement of air with the motive power. A fan's ability for air development relies on upon its qualities, for example, sort, estimate, shape, number of sharp edges and speed. Other than that, there are four classifications of fan reasonable for air development in ventilation frameworks, which are cross-stream, propeller, hub stream and radial. 2.2.2 Filters Filters are utilized to evacuate suspended particles, smells and contaminants. Installation of the filters are normally took place at the inlet grille. 2.2.3 Ductworks The ductworks are responsible for the channeling of the air outside towards indoors or the indoor air towards outside. It is typically delivered in circular, rectangular or square cross-sections in a few distinct materials. 2.2.4 Fire dampers August 2016 semester 6
  • 8. School of Architecture, Building & Design The function of fire damper is to prevent the spreading of fire from a room to another room when there is a fire accident occurred in a sudden. It is normally installed in the compartment wall. 2.2.5 Diffusers The diffusers extend from straightforward punctured plated and grilles to the air distribution which is more mind boggling and productive coned. The diffuser and grille are situated at the ductwork edge where the air can discharged into the room without much of a stretch . 2.2.6 AHU ( Air Handling Unit ) http://www.daikin.com/products/ac/lineup/ahu_fcu/images/pic_lineup_ahu.jpg Air Handling Unit unit (AHU) it may be used to circularize and condition air as and only a HVAC system. An air handler typically holds a blower, cooling or heating elements, chambers or filter racks, dampers and sound attenuators. Air handlers normally link to the ductwork that convey the molded air through those building and also come back it to AHU. Little air handlers need aid called terminal units, and might best incorporate an air blower, filter and coil. These littler units would also known as blower coils or fan loop units. August 2016 semester 7
  • 9. School of Architecture, Building & Design http://www.gibbonsgroup.co.uk/uploads/assets/infographics/inside-an-ahu-zoom-in-diagram-mark-5-17052016.jpg The components of AHU (Based on Figure 1.14) perform every duties of course comparative with an ordinary refrigeration system. However, all of these parts are bigger in size and have higher capacities. The compressor is about open responding kind for various cylinders and also will be cooled by the water just in the car motor. Those compressor and the condenser would about shell and more the tube kind. At the same time, in the little ventilating system capillary will be utilized as the extension valve, in the focal ventilating system thermostatic extension valve is utilized. Those chilled may be passed through those ducts to every last one of rooms, halls and also other spaces that would with be air molded. Hence, on the whole the rooms there is best those conduit passim those chilled air and even more that there would no individual cooling coils, and other parts of the refrigeration system in the rooms. The thing that will be we get over each room is the totally quiet and also profoundly viable air conditioning system in the spaces. What is more,, the measure for chilled air that is required in the space might a chance to be controlled eventually by those openings contingent upon those aggregate high temperature load inside the space. ​AHU in the PJ Trade Centre. August 2016 semester 8
  • 10. School of Architecture, Building & Design 2.3 Air-Conditioning System The air-conditioning system is a system of eliminating of heat from a limited space, consequently cooling the air, and evacuating the humidity. Air conditioners frequently utilize a fan to convey the molded air to a possessed space, for example, a car or a building to enhance indoor air quality and thermal comfort. A relative humidity within 40 and 60 percentage band and temperature in a range from 19 to 23 degree Celsius should be achieved for the air temperature. There are available of 4 types of air-conditioning system :- 2.3.1 Room Unit Air-Conditioning ( Window Unit ) The window unit air conditioner represent the simplest types of air-conditioning system and it is only suitable for tiny space or room. It is normally installed at the wall or window openings. The fan blows the air over the evaporator to cooled the interior air. As a second fan blows the outside air through the condenser, the heat from the exterior drawn from interior is dissipated into the environment. A building or large house may have a few such units, permitting every space to be cooled independently. Furthermore, it can also be separated into two sections, which are the exterior part ( condenser ) and the interior part ( evaporator ) that splitted by an insulated partition. 2.3.2 Split Unit Air-Conditioning System Split unit air-conditioning system are considered as an one-to-one systems comprising of a evaporator ( fan coil ) unit connected to another external condensing unit. The copper tubing and electrical cabling connect the outdoor and indoor units together. Besides that, this type of air-conditioning system has been very famous nowadays due to it minimizes the noise produced during operation, has an elegant outward appearance, and installation without making a hole in the wall. 2.3.3 Plant or Centralized Air-Conditioning System Central air conditioning plants are usually utilized for application in large buildings with offices and commercial uses where a high demands of cooling loads are required. It has the equal limitation of the equal air quality being transferred all over the building. However, the zoned thermostats can control the temperature of each element. August 2016 semester 9
  • 11. School of Architecture, Building & Design 2.3.4 Packaged Unit Air-Conditioning System Packaged air conditioners are utilized for the cooling storages that available in the specific rated storages of 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 tons. All the vital components of the air conditioners are encased in a single casing as the window air conditioner like the name implies, the packaged air conditioners. Hence the compressor, air handling unit, filter and the cooling coil are all stored in a single casing and erected at the factory. The packaged air conditioners are separated into two categories, which ones with air-cooled condenser, and water-cooled condenser. 2.4 PROLOGUE Both Air conditioning system and Mechanical Ventilation are alternatively be chosen as the primary source for providing of a sustainable air circulation, air quality, air humidity and air temperature control indoor of a building currently. PJ Trade Centre connected the idea towards greeneries and utilizes a greater amount of natural ventilation with a specific main goal to minimize the utilization of mechanical air conditioning system within the building. For the most part in PJ Trade Centre, there are two sorts of air-conditioning system have chosen by them to utilize in the building, which are the centralized system and the split air-conditioning system. Tower A and C utilized the centralized air-conditioning system while the Tower B (Bata) utilize the Split Air-Conditioning System. The reason for the choice of air-conditioning system in Tower A and C is both towers are under a single owner, Gamuda dissimilar with Tower B which is owned by another holder. Thus, different types of air-conditioning system in PJ Trade Centre has its own particular point of view in approaching. There will be more focusing on the Split air-conditioning system in this report as our team are doing Tower B. The components in the building are mostly covered in the syllabus we had learned in lecture class with respect to Mechanical Ventilation System. It is truly imperative aspect by installing the mechanical ventilation mainly in the kitchen, toilet and basement room. The main objectives of the mechanical ventilation are providing the fireproof property, cooling of individual room and filtering of tiny substances. Furthermore, it can also conserve the sustainable amount of oxygen needed ( maintain at 21% volume of air) and eliminate the carbon dioxide. A portion of data are needed to assemble in order to provide us the advices in accomplishing the foundation of the building services and also leading it in greeneries way since we are doing research on Tower B. August 2016 semester 10
  • 12. School of Architecture, Building & Design 2.5 INTRODUCTIONS AND FUNCTIONS In PJ Trade Centre, the air conditioning system and mechanical ventilation are the sources which alternatively vital for providing the sustainable air humidity, air circulation, air quality and also managing the temperature of air inside the building. The installation of the mechanical ventilation and air conditioning system should be ‘ reasonably efficient ’ regarding the Building Regulations enforce requirements. Other than that, the utilization of the mechanical air conditioning system for the buildings is minimal since the PJ Trade Centre Building is more focusing on the greeneries concept and maximize the uses of natural ventilation. 2.5.1 COMPONENTS INVOLVED IN THE MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM Ducting System In PJ Trade Centre, it has became a trend by exposing the ducting systems and making it visible since it is quite aesthetically pleasing appearance instead of hiding all from our sight. The main functions of the ductwork is channeling of the air outside towards the indoor space or from the indoor space towards outside. The components that involved in the duct system includes the return air grilles, diffusers and fire dampers. In the PJ Trade Centre Building, all the ducting system utilized are normally insulated in order to minimize the installation cost and the heat loss. Besides, the ductworks extend from Air Handling Unit (AHU) to the allotted space mainly basement parking in PJTC. In addition, when the operator been switched on, a loud sound could be produced and heard. A rectangular shaped ducts with a size range of 1m x 1.5m are utilized in the ducting system in the building. August 2016 semester 11
  • 13. School of Architecture, Building & Design There are couples of Axial Fan behind the Air Handling Unit (AHU) for the purpose of exhausting air from AHU through the ducting system. It consists of a number of aerofoil cross sections blades assembled on a motor driven central shaft. https://continentalfan.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/AID_DWG.jpg The axial fan in the ductwork can develop a high pressure and provide the moving of air throughout the long section of ductwork. August 2016 semester 12
  • 14. School of Architecture, Building & Design Extract Ventilation In PJ Trade Centre, setting up of the extract ventilation in a fire pump chamber provided with the ductworks that linked to the extract fan can furnish the room with fresher air. Moreover, preventing of the cross-flow of odours, noise and smoke is also one of the main function of the extract fan. The Extract Ventilation System in the PJ Trade Centre. The Extract Ventilation System airflow directions & components. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-WTnbzo5dLW4/UUBwYcoZynI/AAAAAAAAAHI/1xFTdhlPMsU/s1600/Heat+recovery+unit. png Diagram showing the example of air escaping through Extract Ventilation in high rise building. http://blog.belimo.com/hs-fs/hub/87971/file-15818229-png/images/actuated-dampers-in-smoke-control-systems-9.p ng?t=1478890538585&width=659&height=635&name=actuated-dampers-in-smoke-control-systems-9.png August 2016 semester 13
  • 15. School of Architecture, Building & Design The centrifugal fan, fire damper and circular ductwork location in PJ Trade Centre. Pressurization & Exhaust System in Fire Protection System The prevention of leaking smoke flowing through enclosed doors into the stairs area by feeding clean air into the enclosure of stair is the main function of the system provided that the pressure at the adjacent fire compartment is lower than the pressure in the stairs area. Hence, the airflow will be maintained by the system via the open doorway if the stair door is opened. This also helps in the prevention of contamination of the stair enclosure and the opposition of the flowing of smoke. The system is widely applied to enhance the protection of the stairways area for the safety of the owners in the PJ Trade Centre. There are three components that include in this system. The first component is the Supply Air which is to transport the air to a specific space. Secondly, there is the Pressure Relief which is to avoid the pressure from exceeding the limits. Next is the Air Release which the smokes and air are discharged from adjacent fire area. It develops a positive pressure difference because of having these components and the prevention of smokes from entering the lobbies and staircase area in the building is then established. August 2016 semester 14
  • 16. School of Architecture, Building & Design Other than that, the distance of the separation from the edge of the exhaust louvres housing to the supply air fan should be at least 5 metres. So, it provides a prevention of the smoke from having a potential to shift into the supply air shaft. A motor fans which can suck the air into the stair are installed as well. The motor fans are positioned in the basement in the PJ Trade Centre. A cover up with has the particle filter is available to captured the outside air. Fire damper located at the emergency staircase area. This is the emergency staircase area in PJ Trade Centre. August 2016 semester 15
  • 17. School of Architecture, Building & Design Ductworks for channeling the smokes during a fire event. Centrifugal Fan on the rooftop of the building. The propeller fan in water system room. August 2016 semester 16
  • 18. School of Architecture, Building & Design The propeller fan and fire damper location in PJ Trade Centre. 2.6 Types of The Air Conditioning System In the PJ Trade Centre building, there are consisting of four different blocks of building which is Tower A, Tower B, Tower C and Tower D. They are utilizing the centralized unit air conditioning system except for the Tower B due to there are less occupants own the building units. This also leads to the less assumption of air conditioning system compared to the other three blocks. To resolve the problem of paying the high cost of electrical bills for the low usage of the air conditioning system in Tower B, the split air conditioning system is then installed in the building. This decreases the electrical bills that needed to pay by the few occupants in the building. Whereas, the other 3 blocks are using the centralized air conditioning system. 2.6.1 Split Unit Air-Conditioning System The split unit air conditioning system has been widely utilize by people nowadays due to its silent operation properties, elegant outer appearance and the elimination of making a hole in the walling of the room. The ‘split’ means the separation of the indoor unit ( condenser ) and the outdoor unit ( compressor ) which one is located in the room and one is located outside the room. There are multiple indoor units for some of the models which using of only one compressor, it is known as the multi split air conditioning system. August 2016 semester 17
  • 19. School of Architecture, Building & Design http://www.thermospace.com/ductless_split/installation_pic.gif There are consisting two parts of components for the split unit air conditioner which is the outdoor unit and the indoor unit. The outdoor unit will be located at the outside of the room or space. It is like a chamber that containing the condenser, expansion valve and compressor. In the other hand, the indoor unit includes the cooling coil and evaporator. The split unit air conditioner has the ability to cool the air condition within one or two rooms. One of the advantage of this system is to prevent making any slot in the walling system of the room. The operation is to re-circulate and recycle the existing indoor air instead of renewing or supplying the fresh air to the room or space since it is a ductless split unit system. It is usually utilized for small space or room area. They are utilizing the indoor unit types in Tower B. August 2016 semester 18
  • 20. School of Architecture, Building & Design 2.6.1.1 The Components of The Split Unit Air Conditioning System. There are two separate components that available in the split air conditioning system which is the indoor and outdoor units. Initiation of the cooling process will be carried out by the compressor in the outdoor unit whereas the components that house in the indoor unit are fan and evaporator. There are a connection between the two units by a set of electrical wiring and tubing system which transfers electricity and the air. It is a very energy efficient cooling system and preferred by the people nowadays with the elimination the needs of the ducts property. For the mean of saving energy, the energy will loss up to thirty percent from the transferring of air through the duct. There are some components consist in the split unit air conditioning system,;- (1)​ ​ Indoor Unit The components that are housed inside the indoor unit are the cooling or evaporator coil, filter and long blower. The chilled Freon fluid will enter the cooling coil after going through from the expansion coil. The filtered, hot and humid air is then sucked out from the room by the blower and blows it through the cooling coil. The temperature of air will reduce drastically and the excess moisture of air will also lose after it passed over the cooling coil. August 2016 semester 19
  • 21. School of Architecture, Building & Design Example for the indoor unit ac in PJ Trade Centre building: Ceiling mounted type. Wall mounted type. (2)​ Outdoor Unit The main source of noise produced is from the compressor. Since it is located at the outside of the room, the noise produced by it can be easily eliminated from the occupants inside the room. There is a compressed Freon gas in the condenser and requires a fan to blow air over it and cool the gas. The gas are passing through the expansion coil and converted into low temperature partial gas, low pressure and partial liquid Freon fluid. The outdoor unit ac of the PJ Trade Centre. August 2016 semester 20
  • 22. School of Architecture, Building & Design (3)​ Compressor Compressor represent the main spirit of any air conditioning system. Before it is sent to the condenser by the external power, it is used for the compressing of refrigerant which is in low temperature and the increasing it to a high pressure. The boiling point will be raised to a higher levels by the conversion and the heat brought in by the outdoor air can be also eliminated by the facilitation. (4)​ Condenser The gas at high temperature and pressure is received by the condenser from the compressor. The gas is also cooled to change its status and turn into the liquid form by the metallic surfaces in the air-cooled condensers. Production of the same cooling effect by the water circulation will be carried out in the case of water-cooled condensers. Since the rate of conduction of it is considered high, the material to make the tubing will be copper. Besides that, aluminium fins is also covered the condenser so that the removal of the heat from the refrigerant can be established at a faster rate. (5)​ Evaporator Absorption of the heat from surrounding and replacing it with the cooled air will be carried out by evaporator for this system. (6)​ Capillary Tube Capillary tube is considered as a simple refrigerant liquid metering application that controls the flow of refrigerant from the arriving high pressure side ( condenser or compressor ) into the low pressure side ( cooling coil ). (7)​ Expansion Valve The expansion valve is generally considered as a capillary tubing made from copper with a number circular coils. The greater capacities thermostatic property of the expansion valve in the split air conditioners is utilized which is run electronically automatically. The medium temperature and high pressure refrigerant discharge from the condenser and moves into the expansion valve, where there is a sudden dropping of its pressure and temperature. August 2016 semester 21
  • 23. School of Architecture, Building & Design 2.6.2 OPERATION OF SYSTEM http://www.central-air-conditioner-and-refrigeration.com/images/Refigeration_Cycle_Diagram1.jpg The missions of the split unit air conditioner are the pumping the heat outside the room or space and transferring it to cooling when it runs through the cycle of refrigeration. The refrigerant will experience the changes of the phase, changes of temperature and the changes of pressure when the refrigeration cycle is took placed. How does a split unit air conditioner work ? The process is begun with the compressor that is run through a thermostat inside. The thermostat operates the compressor at the outdoor once it detects the warm air. Furthermore, the circulation of refrigerant gas, rising of the temperature and pressure of refrigerant by the compressor will be taken place as it compressed via a chains of pipes. The refrigerant is then transferred to the condenser for other operation. On the other hand, a cooling system eliminates heat from the high pressure gas and the gas transforms into liquid in the condenser. The indoor tubing pushes the chilled liquid until it arrives to the evaporator system. August 2016 semester 22
  • 24. School of Architecture, Building & Design The warm air is collected by the evaporator fan inside the building and is passed through a chamber that contains the chilled liquid refrigerant. Moreover, the blowing process of the now-cooled air returns into the room by the fan system and decreasing of the overall temperature of the room will be served. The process will be continuously repeated if there is a detection of the warmer air compared to the desired air by the thermostat. Besides that, if there is any excess heat or the refrigerant remains in the system, the flowing back process will begin to the compressor outdoor so that a new cycle can be begun. 2.7 UBBL REQUIREMENTS AND REGULATIONS. Under UBBL 1984 Section 41 : Mechanical Ventilation and Air-Conditioning. 1. The place where the everlasting air-conditioning or mechanical ventilation is deliberated, the applicable fabricating by-laws identifying with the natural lighting, natural ventilation and the height of spaces or rooms might make waived In those carefulness of the neighborhood power. 2. Whatever provision for the waiver of the pertinent by-laws should be a chance to be considered if What's more of the permanency air-conditioning framework there is given elective affirmed method for ventilating those ventilated enclosure, such-and-such inside half an hour of the air-conditioning framework failing, not under those stipulated volume from claiming new air specified hereinafter should be acquainted under those nook Throughout those time At the air-conditioning framework is not working. 3. Those procurements of The 3rd Schedule to all these By-laws might apply to edifices which are air-conditioned or mechanically ventilated. 4. The place permanency mechanical ventilation On appreciation of lavatories, bathrooms, corridors or water-closets, will be furnished for· What's more supported over understanding for those prerequisites of The 3rd Schedule to these By-laws, the procurements about these By-laws identifying with regular ventilation Furthermore regular lighting ought not apply should such water-closets, corridors, bathrooms or lavatories. August 2016 semester 23
  • 25. School of Architecture, Building & Design August 2016 semester 24
  • 26. School of Architecture, Building & Design 3.1 PROLOGUE In Malaysia, the fire problem has become getting serious and important issue. We must always aware to the hazard of fires to ourselves to prevent this situation happens. This is because it may cause a serious consequence to all of us such as it will cause damages to people, vehicles and properties. For example, fire in buildings is a major risk to kill our lives, it will destroy the buildings and also causes loss of lives. Fire protection shall be fully equipped in every building or shopping mall. It shall be installed, operated and maintained in a functioning condition at all times. The fire protection in every building and shopping malls are required and apply to the design of the building.Fire protection systems is the basic requirement in a building. The system is used to ensure the building fully capable to withstand for the fire to be controlled The fire protection systems consist of two components which are active fire system and passive fire system. Both active fire system and passive fire system have different function in the fire protection system. It is important that both fire system to work together in an event of fire because they are playing different roles to prevent and minimize the risk of fire. 3.2 ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS What is active fire protection? Active fire protection is the process of protecting a building from fire with the component of fire detection and prevention which reacts to action or motion. It is one of most important elements to consider when building modern structure.The role of active fire protection is to detect,alert about, and seek to eliminate any potential fire hazards, in order to provide a safer and more protected environment for people to making use of them. 3.2. 1 Manual Initiating Devices Manual initiating devices should be located near the exits of the building. It should be easily accessible, operated and identified. Fire Break Glass Alarm August 2016 semester 25
  • 27. School of Architecture, Building & Design The PJ trade centre fitted with “Fire-Break Glass Alarm”. It allow occupants to activate the fire alarm and the Fire Brigade is alerted easily. The red panel on the wall houses a small button. When the small button depressed, it will contact the Fire Brigade and Fire Brigade will respond instantly to the building.The glass of the red panel is easy to break and sometimes smashing the glass will activate the button automatically. 3.2.2 Automatic Initiating Devices Automatic initiating devices will all sense changes in the environment. It will react automatically in the event of an emergency. 3.2.2.1 Smoke Detector Smoke detector is an indicator of fire which detects smoke. It is typically housed in a disk-shaped plastic enclosure.Smoke detectors in large commercial are powered by a central fire alarm system, which is building power with battery backup. TYPE OF SMOKE DETECTOR Ionization smoke detectors Can quickly detect the small amount of smoke product by fast flaming fires.(cooking fires, flammable liquids, fire fueled by paper) Photoelectric smoke detectors Respond faster to afire in its early, smoldering stage before the fire burst into flames. (large combustion particles) August 2016 semester 26
  • 28. School of Architecture, Building & Design The detection system in PJ Trade Centre may sense smoke in the building. Because of the function of earlier warning of an emergency situation, smoke detector are increasingly being used. It may also used to activate fire doors to isolate zones in the building. The smoke detector can activate the alarm system as well as sprinkler system. Fire Intercom Panel Fire intercom system provides consists of remote handset station and Master control panel.It provides communication between Fire Command Centre and remote Handset Stations. The system is installed at the Fire Control Room in PJ Trade Centre. 3.2.3 ALARM SYSTEM 3.2.3.1 EMERGENCY VOICE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM Telephone During the fire outbreak,it used to communicate to the Command Centre or nearby fire station directly by the telephone provided. It is located at staircases of each floor in PJ Trade Centre. August 2016 semester 27
  • 29. School of Architecture, Building & Design Speaker PJ Trade Centre use this speaker for Emergency Voice Communication System. Pre-recorded messages will be used and it is access be used to communicate to people nearby the exits during fire outbreak. Fire alarm panel It located on the ground floor near the entrance. The panel is in a cabinet on the wall and there are a number of lights and buttons. Fire sensors in the building have activated the lights. When one of its sensor locates a fire, this FIP will automatically notify the Fire Brigade of an alarm. It talks to EWIS and notify the building occupants that they need to evacuate. Fireman Switch It is used to switch off the power supply from certain power system of PJ Trade Centre. It can be found in every level of the building and it have different types of electrical supply switches. The switches can only be turned off by the fireman. August 2016 semester 28
  • 30. School of Architecture, Building & Design 3.2.4 FIRE CONTROL SYSTEMS 3.2.4.1 SPRINKLER SYSTEMS The commercial buildings need to have protection in case of fire or smoke. Sprinkler system installation is good preventative measure to take and water represents the ideal extinguishing agent. Sprinkler systems are most effective during fire’s initial flame growth stage while the fire is easy to control. The sprinkler head has a liquid filled glass bulb breaks due to the fire and as a result the sprinkler will release water to spray over the fire. How do sprinklers operation? 1.) During the initial fire stage, the heat output is relatively low and not able to cause sprinkler operation. 2.) As fire intensity increase, the sprinkler sensing elements become exposed to elevated temperatures which typically in excess of 57-107 degree celsius, the sensing elements begin to deform. 3.) During the increasing fire and the temperature remain high, the element will fatigue after an approximate 30 to 120 second period. 4.) The sprinkler seals was released and the water was allowed to discharge onto the fire, the suppression action. begin. There are various types of sprinkler head can be found in PJ Trade Centre. In different places, each sprinkler head has their different function.It can be found in the entire PJ Trade Centre easily.It is a component of fire sprinkler system that discharging water when detect the effect of a fire August 2016 semester 29
  • 31. School of Architecture, Building & Design Upright Sprinkler Head It can be found in the mechanical area and basement of PJ Trade Centre. During a fire, upright sprinkler head can function when there are obstructions around the water spray. It is upright so it can aim water effectively. Pendent Sprinkler Head Although the water spray are minimal, we can found that there are some of them installed in few places in PJ Trade Centre. Fire Pump It is fire sprinkler system’s water supply that can be found in PJ Trade Centre’s fire pump room. August 2016 semester 30
  • 32. School of Architecture, Building & Design 3.2.4.2 FIRE HOSE REEL SYSTEMS Hose reel system can be found most around the stairways and electrical room of PJ Trade Centre. It consists of pumps, pipes, water supply and hose reel which ensuring proper coverage of water to combat a fire. Fire Hose Reel Fire Hose Reel with between 18 and 36 metre hose which has `13mm ,19mm, 25mm internal dia are fitted on the wall. It is supplied with a fast fit mounting bracket, an inlet pipe with thread and stop valve. Fire hose reels are located at reasonably accessible places in PJ Trade Centre which provide the supply of water to combat fire risk, especially for the occupants who are trapped in the building and cannot escape to emergency exit when fire outbreak. Hose Reel Operation 1) Make sure the jet and nozzle is in the closed position 2) Turn on the main control valve 3) Break glass of glass fronted cabinet and reel out the hose toward the fire 4) Open the valve or nozzle and the stream of water is directed at the fire from a safe distance. August 2016 semester 31
  • 33. School of Architecture, Building & Design 3.2.4.3 WET RISER SYSTEMS Typical Wet Riser Installation Fireman use wet risers as a form of internal hydrant. Wet risers are always charge with water and only required for buildings where the topmost floor is higher than 30.5 meters above the fire appliance access level. Wet riser system comprises duty fire pumps with standby pump discharging into riser pipe with landing valves at each level except the ground. The pipe system is connect to permanent water supply which fed from the town mains. Wet riser system is a system of rigid piping which can be found in PJ Trade Centre. In PJ Trade Centre, dry riser system cannot be used because the building is too tall and it cannot manage to rely the building codes. Therefore, wet riser system is a better choice and it provide water towards the floors. August 2016 semester 32
  • 34. School of Architecture, Building & Design Jockey Pump A jockey pump is usually provide to maintain system pressure.Jockey Pump is the first pump to start. The controlling pressure switch is set to start at a pressure of 150 psi and set to stop at a pressure of 230 psi. If wet riser piping(wet riser/hose reel) have a small leak exist, the pump will start in order to compensate for the leak. Pressure Gauge Pressure gauge most common pressure measuring devices to check the pressure by compressed gas or liquid. When identify it has high pressure, it should have potential safety threats. Fire Alarm Control Panel This is fire alarm control panel which receive information from environmental sensors. It is designed to detect changes associated with fire and monitors their operational integrity. Besides that, it provides transmission of necessary information and automatic control of equipment for preparing the facility for fire. August 2016 semester 33
  • 35. School of Architecture, Building & Design Alarm Valves The 4 towers of the PJ Trade Centre has different types of alarm valves and each has match with different installation systems such as dry pipe system,wet pipe system etc.This is valves prevent a reverse flow of water from the installation. It is located outside fire pump room and it will open and allow the water flow into the system. In the meantime, the fire pump will receive a signal from a pressure switch.Contrary, it is normally close for the technician to get maintenance for the valves. Sprinkler Valve and Wet Valve Two of these valves include pressure switches and valve monitors. August 2016 semester 34
  • 36. School of Architecture, Building & Design 3.2.4.4 CARBON DIOXIDE SYSTEMS 3.2.4.4.1 CO2 SUPPRESSION SYSTEM CO 2 suppression systems extinguishes fire by lowering the level of oxygen or removing oxygen to cut the fire. The mechanism of fire suppression makes CO2 suppression requiring minimal clean up and highly effective. It is used in unoccupied hazard locations and avoided by personnel when discharged.Cylinder valves can be open automatically by remotely using electric ,or manually by using mechanical valve actuators. CO2 storage In PJ Trade Centre, CO2 suppression system is used in some places that have high risk of fire outbreak such as electrical room and generator room. August 2016 semester 35
  • 37. School of Architecture, Building & Design 3.2.4.4.2 Portable Fire Extinguisher Portable fire extinguisher apply an extinguishing agent that will stop fire from burning either displace or remove oxygen, cool burning fuel or stop the chemical reaction. The agent is expelled out the nozzle when the handle of an extinguisher is compressed. How it operation? It can described by the acronym “​PASS​” 1.​P​-The safety pin is pulled. 2.​A​- The nozzle is aimed at the based of the fire from a safe distance 3.​S​-The handles are squeezed. 4.​S​-The extinguisher are swept from side to side while aiming a the based of the fire. CO2 Fire Extinguishers CO2 fire extinguishers can be found in PJ Trade Centre. Carbon dioxide extinguishers contain pressurized liquid carbon dioxide which turns to gas when expelled.It can extinguish Class B and Class C fires. However, it has no post fire security and the fire could re-ignite. August 2016 semester 36
  • 38. School of Architecture, Building & Design Classification and Use Fire extinguishers are classified by the type of fire that they will extinguish. 1) Class A​ fire extinguishers Ordinary Combustibles: It is used for ordinary combustibles (such as paper, wood, plastics and textiles) and it requires the heat-absorbing effects of water or the coating effects of certain dry chemicals. 2)Class B​ fire extinguishers Flammable liquids: It is used for flammable liquid and gas fires (such as oil, gasoline, etc. ) It deprive the fire of oxygen and interrupt the fire chain by inhibiting the release of combustible vapors. 3)Class C​ fire extinguishers Electrical Equipment: It is used on fires that involve live electrical equipment that require the use of electrically nonconductive extinguishing agents. Once the electrical equipment is de-energized, extinguishers for Class A or B fires may be used. 4)Class D​ fire extinguishers Combustible Metals It is used on combustible metals (such as magnesium, titanium, sodium, etc.), that require an extinguishing medium that does not react with the burning metal. August 2016 semester 37
  • 39. School of Architecture, Building & Design 3.3 PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM Passive fire protection is the use of fire protection systems that are applied into the structure of a building. Their purpose is to contain fires and slow the rate at which they spread efficiently for people to escape immediately in the event of fire. They also used to protect load bearing columns and other critical structures through fire-resistance walls, floors and doors to prevent the building collapsing during fires. By making a fire resistant compartment between rooms and floors, passive fire protection greatly slows down the spread of the fire from the room where it originated. This is to reduce the amount of damage to the building. In addition, this will provide more time to the building’s occupants to leave the building and arrive a more safety place. The passive fire protection is different from active fire protection which it does not require any action or motion or to be activated by electronics. There are few example for passive fire protection such as fire door closers, means of escape, fire curtain and fire dampers. 3.3.2 Opening Protection 3.3.2.1 Fire door ​A fire door is an important part of a building’s passive fire protection system. The doors provide life safety by providing people to escape quickly when necessary and it also stop the spread of fire, smoke and toxic gases. This fire door requires a proper installation and maintenance is a critical part of the building fire protection system. Still, the requirements remain a mystery for many architects and specifiers. August 2016 semester 38
  • 40. School of Architecture, Building & Design ​Photo of a door closer 3.3.2.2 Types of door openings August 2016 semester 39
  • 41. School of Architecture, Building & Design ​ ​ Example of one hour rating August 2016 semester 40
  • 42. School of Architecture, Building & Design Example of two hours rating 3.3.2.3 Fibre Reinforced Plastic Door August 2016 semester 41
  • 43. School of Architecture, Building & Design Fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) door can be found at the external opening of the building. It can be perform well in high corrosive area. A FRP door consists of fire resistance composite that can be used in the opening rated up to one and half hours. It is also protected by fire curtain. 3.3.3 Lighting and Signage 3.3.3.1 Emergency Exit An emergency exit is an another exit in a building that can be used in case of emergency in an event of fire. The purpose of emergency exit is to allow people to leave the building in a faster way or shortest time because when a building in fire, it may block all the normal exits. It is usually placed on the above of the fire exit door where it is clearly visible. 3.3.3.2 Emergency Evacuation Plan August 2016 semester 42
  • 44. School of Architecture, Building & Design Emergency evacuation plan ​is to provide immediate and urgent movement of people away from the risk or real incidence of a danger​. The purpose of an emergency evacuation plan is to facilitate and organize employer and employee actions during workplace emergencies. An emergency evacuation plan can be found on the wall nearby the lift of every floor. Based on the plan, it is clearly stated that the location of emergency staircase, fire extinguisher, bomba lift and fire alarms. It is to provide the people to find the emergency ways to leave the building in the fastest way. 3.3.3.3 Fire exit signs Fire exit signs with arrows is used to guide people to the emergency exits and staircase. It is usually placed at points around the PJ Trade Centre to provide information to tell people where should they go during in an event of fire and emergency situation. It is usually green and white in colour. This combination of colour is to tell people that it is a safe condition. It will also shows a pictogram of “ running to the door” on the sign. August 2016 semester 43
  • 45. School of Architecture, Building & Design 3.3.3.4 Fire Indicator Light Fire indicator light can be found at PJ Trade Centre. It is usually placed above the entrance of every high risk room. It is used to tell people the safety status of a room before entering to the room. It will provide a notification to people by using different colour light, to tell people when they are in any emergencies. A fire indicator light contains of a green and red light bulb. A green light bulb is light up is to tell the users it is safe to enter the room while a red light bulb is light up is to tell the users that the room is in a dangerous situation. It is used to prevent people to enter into the room when it is in the dangerous situation. 3.3.4 Fire curtain August 2016 semester 44
  • 46. School of Architecture, Building & Design A fire curtain can be found at the entrance of PJ Trade Centre. A fire curtains require side guides to provide a cover between the fabric and the structure of the building. The main purpose of fire curtain contains of smoke and it is used for 1 hour fire rated curtains is generally used for smoke curtains. This system is placed at every generator room in PJ Trade Centre. 3.3.5 Fire escape staircase A fire escape staircase can be found at every floor in PJ Trade Centre. The fire escape staircase is used to allow people to escape to a safety place or outside of the building during emergencies and in an event of fire. It is not allowed to use the elevator when fire is in a building. August 2016 semester 45
  • 47. School of Architecture, Building & Design 3.4 UBBL By Law Requirements ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS UBBL By laws - Section 153 - Smoke Detection - Smoke detectors are required in all lift lobbies UBBL By laws - Section 225 - Fire Detection - Fire alarm are provided together with highlighted exit signs to detect and extinguish every buildings UBBL By laws -Section 237- Fire Alarms - Accordance with the Tenth Schedule to By-laws, fire alarm need to be provided. - Two stage alarm system are provided if the gross floor area in the buildings exceeding 9290 square meters or exceeding 30.5 meters in height, excluding car park and storage areas. - For general evacuation of the premises, provisions shall be made by action of a master control. UBBL By laws- Section 238 - Sprinkler valves must be located on the exterior wall which is safe and enclosed position. It should be accessible by Fire Authority UBBL By laws -Section 239- Voice Communication System - Two voice communications systems-Fire brigade communication system and other public address system should separated approved and electrically supervised. (a)staircases, lifts, lifts lobby and corridors. (b)The size of every office exceeding 92.9 square metres (c)Fire brigade system combined with public address system in each dwelling unit UBBL by laws- section 240 - Electrical Isolation switch - Electrical isolation switch are provided when size of zone of any floor exceeding 929 square meters. It is located within staircase enclosure to permit the disconnection of electrical power supply. - Fireman’s switch must be similar with the specified type UBBL by laws - Section 228 - Sprinkler valves August 2016 semester 46
  • 48. School of Architecture, Building & Design - Sprinkler shall be readily to the fire authority therefore is located in safe enclosed position on the exterior wall - To provide automatic relay and immediate of alarm when activated, all sprinkler system shall be connected to the nearest fire station. UBBL By Laws -Section 231- Installation and testing of wet rising system - Topmost floor of every building must provide wet rising systems when exceeding 30.5 meters above fire appliance access level. UBBL By Laws -Section 248 - Marking on wet risers - Wet riser and sprinkler shall painted red. - All fire installations that recessed in wall shall be clearly identified to fire authority UBBL By Laws - section 227- Portable extinguishers - Portable fire extinguisher must be positioned visible on exit routes and provided with relevant codes of practice. PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS UBBL By laws - section 10 - No obstruction in staircases 1) There might be no obstacle in any staircase between the highest landing there and the exit discharge on the ground floor. UBBL By laws - section 164 - Door closers for fire doors 1) The automatic door closers of hydraulically spring operated type can fit with all fire in the proper sequence. 2) To ensure that leafs close in the proper sequence, the double door shall be provided with the coordinating device. 3) Fire doors might be held open provided the hold open device incorporates a heat actuated device to release the doors protecting openings to protected corridors or protected staircases. UBBL By laws - section 110 - Exits to accessible at all time 1) Except as allowed by law 167 at the very least two separate ways out might be given from every story together with such extra exits as might be necessary. August 2016 semester 47
  • 49. School of Architecture, Building & Design 2) The exits should be sited and the leave get to might be arranged to the point that the ways out are with the breaking points of travel separation as determined in the Seventh Schedule to these By-laws are promptly available at all circumstances. UBBL By laws - section 168 - Staircases 1) Except as allowed for in by-law 194 every upper floor shall have means of way out via at least two separate staircases. 2)Staircases should be of to such an extent that in case of any one staircase no being accessible for escape purposes the rest of the staircases might suit the most important occupancy load of any one story releasing into it figured as per arrangements in the Seventh Schedule to these By-laws UBBL By laws - section 172 - Emergency Exit Signs 1) Story exits and access to such exits should be set apart by promptly obvious signs and might not be covered by any decorations, furnishing or other equipment. UBBL By laws - section 198 - Ventilation of staircase enclosure 1)All staircase restricted in areas should be ventilated at every floor or landing level by either permanent openings or operable windows to the outside having a free area of at least 1 square meter for each floor. UBBL By laws - section 217 - Fire resistance of structural member 1) Fire resistance of not less than minimum period shall required by any structural member or overloading wall required by-laws for any element which it carries. UBBL By laws - section 222 - Fire resistance for walls 1) Other than external wall, enclosing a protected shaft shall, if every side of the wall is independently presented to the test by fire, having imperviousness to fire for at the very least time frame required by this part. August 2016 semester 48
  • 50. School of Architecture, Building & Design 4.0 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS 4.1 LITERATURE REVIEW August 2016 semester 49
  • 51. School of Architecture, Building & Design Mechanical transportation systems are the vertical transportation system which allows goods or people to move efficiently from floor to floor or between decks and levels of a building. These mechanical transportation systems are classified as escalators, travelators and elevators which are known as lifts. In PJ trade centre, they are using elevators only throughout the whole building. They do not require escalators as this is an office building which consists of 21 floors. Mechanical transportation system is usually used in a building to transport goods or passengers from floor to floor within a building. Elevators or lifts are used to transport vertically in a building. A set of staircase will be designed to the buildings that consists more than one storey. It is counted into consideration when they are designing the building because it is used to allow occupant or user in the building to travel from floor to floor. In accordance to Malaysia Uniform Building By-Laws (UBBL) 1984, clause 124: Lift is required for all non-residential buildings which are exceeding 4 storeys and above or below the main entrance. If the buildings that is not exceeding 4 storeys but there are seniors or disabled access, lifts are required as well. Other than clause 124, it must fulfill the requirement of Clause 153 in UBBL as it state smoke detector must be provided at the lift lobbies in order to detect if there is any fire occurred. Elevators are powered by electric motors. It is activated by driving traction cables or counterweight systems, for example: hoist. The hydraulic fluid will be pumped to raise the cylindrical piston. Quality of the elevator is an important factor in the choice of tenants. Elevator performances mostly are depend on speed of door operation, acceleration, car speed, stability of speed and performance with variations of car load. In PJ Trade Centre, there are 21 floors and traction elevators are used throughout the building. They are allowed to transport goods or people by using traction elevators. It can carry high loads compared to other type of elevators. Hoist mechanism is used in traction elevators. Hence, there are some types of hoist mechanism elevators: I.​ ​Traction elevators II.​ ​Pneumatic elevators III.​ ​Hydraulic elevators IV.​ ​Climbing elevators August 2016 semester 50
  • 52. School of Architecture, Building & Design 4.2 ELECTRIC TRACTION ELEVATORS PJ Trade Centre is a high rise building which consists of 21 storeys. Hence, the speed of and efficiency of the elevator are very important. Electric traction elevators are used throughout the whole building. In more specific term, it is using geared traction elevators. Electric traction elevators have the ability to carry higher load which due to the height of the building. It provides efficiency and speedy properties to the occupants. August 2016 semester 51
  • 53. School of Architecture, Building & Design Figure 1: Location of elevator in PJ Trade Centre 4.3 COMPONENTS There are some important components can be found in the lift motor room which is located at the highest floor. There are control valves, drive motor, controller and counterweight. August 2016 semester 52
  • 54. School of Architecture, Building & Design Lift Car This is known as car of the lift. It is made of fire resistance material. The car is supported on a structural frame to which the lifting cables are attached to a top member. The car is guided by the guide shoes on its side member guide during vertical travel in the shaft. This car is equipped with ventilation, operating control system, safety doors, emergency exit, illumination and floor level indicators. The capacity of this car is 1365 kg and maximum passengers occupied are 20 persons. When the lift is broken down, the ventilation and light are still functioning. It can withstand for two hours in order to wait for technician to arrive. Cables There are lifting ropes or cables in the lift in order to function the lift. There are groups of steel wires that are designed to carry and support the weight of the car and allowed to move from floor to floor. The cables are attached to the crosshead which is known as the top beam of the elevator. The cables are depending on the car speed and the capacity of the car. If there is an emergency happened in the lift, for example, the one of the lifting ropes in the lift has broken, the car will not fall to the lowest floor because there are emergency brakes that will brakes the car immediately. There will be other lifting ropes in the lift as well to support the car, so that there will be no accident happened to the lift and the occupants are safe. There are about four to eight cables in each lift to support the weight of the car with occupants. August 2016 semester 53
  • 55. School of Architecture, Building & Design Geared Traction Elevator Geared traction machines are interposed between the hoisting sheave and driving motor. The electric motor in geared traction elevators is used to drive gear type reduction unit which allowed turning of hoisting sheave. It can be used for car speed up to 2.3m/s approximately. There is an electrical controlled brake between reduction unit and motor in order to stop and hold the car at the required floor level. A geared traction machine will gives accurate, smooth ride and high quality to elevator with appropriate drive and control system. Counterweight Counterweight is made by cut steel plates which staked in a frame and attached to the opposite ends of the cables which are fastened to the car. The car is supported by the counterweight which the weight is almost same amount when it is loaded half full. It is located in the shaft and set into the wall of the shaft by two guide rails. Counterweight helps to reduce the energy cost and power demand. It also provides adequate traction at the sheave for the car of the lift. August 2016 semester 54
  • 56. School of Architecture, Building & Design Shaft Shaft can be known as hoistway as well. It is basically the vertical passageway for the car and counterweights of the lift. There are guide rails on the walls of the shaft for counterweight. There are car and counterweight buffer at the bottom of the shaft which can be known as pit as well. The top of the shaft is designed as structural platform to support the machines of the elevator. The elevator machine room usually required one or two levels and it is located directly top of the shaft. Traction machine and some control system are located in the elevator machine room in order to activate the elevator. Hence, they are designed for vibration-free operation and quiet. 4.4 OPERATING PANEL August 2016 semester 55
  • 57. School of Architecture, Building & Design General Control System These are the floor switch numbering for passengers to choose the floor that they wanted to stop. There is also an alarm button which connected to control room of the building. It allows the passengers to ask for help when they are trapped in the elevator. In this elevator, there is some information such as the capacity of the lift which is not allowed to exceed the capacity of the lift to prevent breakdown of the lift. Other than that, there are some controller switches for technician to control and service the elevators. Overload sensor can be found at the door of the lift and it is to prevent the car from exceeding the maximum load. It will trigger the alarm when exceeding the maximum load. Key Switch Panel August 2016 semester 56
  • 58. School of Architecture, Building & Design Key switch panel is located at the control room of the building. It can control the car of the lift when there is an emergency or lift breakdown occurs. Also, when lift breakdown, the passengers are able to contact or ask for help from the control through the help button. When emergency or lift breakdown occurs, technicians are able to know clearly where the elevator has stopped through the key switch panel. 4.5 UBBL Bylaw Requirements UBBL By laws - Section 124 - Lift - Lift is required for all non-residential buildings which are exceeding 4 storeys and above or below the main entrance. UBBL By laws - Section 153 - Smoke Detector - Smoke detector must be provided at the lift lobbies in order to detect if there is any fire occurred. UBBL By laws - Section 154 - Emergency Mode - On failure of mains power all lifts shall return in sequence directly to designated floor, commencing with the fire lifts, without answering any car or landing calls and park with doors open. - After all lifts are parked the lifts on emergency power shall resume normal operation: provided that where sufficient emergency power is available for operation of all lifts, this mode of operation need not apply. August 2016 semester 57
  • 59. School of Architecture, Building & Design August 2016 semester 58
  • 60. School of Architecture, Building & Design 5.0 Electrical Supply System 5.1 Literature Review Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) and Independent Power Producers (IPPs) in the Peninsular Malaysia are using a Gird Code as main guidelines in electricity supply operation in order to make sure the electricity supply in Peninsular Malaysia are always reliable. The Grid Code and also the Distribution Code stated the responsibilities of parties that involved in managing the electrical supply system. Example of the responsible parties are generators, grid system operators, distribution system operators, single buyer and also the large power of consumer. Structure of the Power System, responsible parties and applicable codes So, how TNB generate, transmit and distribute the electricity to all the consumer? The four main components that make up the electricity grid are generation plants, transmission lines, distribution substation and consumer use. August 2016 semester 59
  • 61. School of Architecture, Building & Design The process of power supply from generation to end-use customer There have varies type of power plant are used to generate electricity. For example, coal and nuclear power plants have less flexibility to adjust their electricity output which means it consume more time to step up or step down the electricity. Natural-gas fired plants can be ramped up faster and it often used to cope with the high demand. However, in Malaysia, we heavily use natural gas and coal to generate electricity because our country is rich on both resources. Next, transmission system is essential as it transmit the electricity from the generators to the distribution substation. Transformers are required to convert the low voltage electricity which generate by the power plants to high voltage electricity in order to reduce the loss of electricity during the transmission process over the long distance. Transmission lines are made by aluminium alloy and reinforced with steel and it can be overhead power lines or underground power cables. Typically, the transmission level voltages are at or above 138kV and the transmission system and carry up to 765kV. Besides, the distribution substation is where the transmission lines end and pick up by the distribution network. The distribution network start at the transformers which step-down the voltage of electricity from transmission lines and distribute the electricity to all the consumer from the area of heavy and light industry, commercial and residential. August 2016 semester 60
  • 62. School of Architecture, Building & Design The diagram above has shown the electric supply system from the generators plants which generate 25 kV electricity and then step-up the voltage to 230/138kV and transmits through the transmission lines until the distribution substation. The transformers from the distribution substation step-down the voltage to 33Kv. After that, the electricity transmits through the sub-transmission lines and reach the TNB room which located at the basement of PJ Trade Centre and step-down the voltage to 11Kv which consider as medium voltage. If for residential area, it only required 400/230 volts which consider as low voltage. The table shows the classification based on voltage levels. The diagram shows the location of electrical room at PJ Trade Centre. August 2016 semester 61
  • 63. School of Architecture, Building & Design In this section, we will introduce and explain the function of every electrical room such as TNB Room, Main Switch Room, Low Voltage Switch Room and Gen Set Room which located at the Basement 7 in Tower B of PJ Trade Centre. All the electrical room are located at the same area to reduce the loss of voltage over the distance travel. Moreover, we also will discuss about the process on how the electrical generate from the generator plants distribute throughout the building. Besides, we will also explain about the design consideration through our observation when we having the site visit there. For example, for safety reason, each electrical room has an alternative emergency exit door and also carbon dioxide fire extinguisher to reduce fire losses especially human life. Lastly, we will discuss about the UBBL 1984 law that the PJ Trade Centre included in their design of all the electrical room. 5.2 TNB Substation August 2016 semester 62
  • 64. School of Architecture, Building & Design The diagram shows the location of TNB Substation (orange colour) on the plan view. Substation is an important part in the electrical supply system as it links between generating station, transmission systems, distribution systems and the load points. The TNB Substation of PJ Trade Centre is an indoor substation and it is located at Basement 7 in Tower B. TNB Substation consists several electrical components such as power transformers, bus bars, switchgear and more. Bus bars is an electrical conductor that carry a large current from the generator plants or distribution substation. It is a thick strip or tube that made up of copper or aluminium. The main function of TNB Substation is to protect the transmission system, control the exchange of energy, make sure the transient stability, maintain the system frequency within the target limits and provide sufficient line capacity to secure the supply. Besides, the TNB Substation also able to determine the energy transfer through the transmission lines and it is a reliable supply by feeding the network at various load point. The types of substation can be classified in several ways which shows as following: 1. Classification based on voltage level. 2. Classification based on outdoor or indoor. 3. Classification based on configuration. 4. Classification based on application. August 2016 semester 63
  • 65. School of Architecture, Building & Design 5.3 Main Switch Room The diagram shows the location of Main Switch Room (yellow colour) on the plan view. August 2016 semester 64
  • 66. School of Architecture, Building & Design Main Switch Room Schematic Diagram ​ ​ ​Incoming from Kepong ​Incoming from Klang The electrical source for PJ Trade Centre comes from Kepong and Klang. In PJ Trade Centre, the main switch room is basically used to receive the electrical supply from TNB room and distribute it to every level of the building. Switchboard is a combination of several electrical panels. Each electric panel consists of switches that used to control the electric circuit and other power control equipment. The main function of switchboards is to receive, control and protect the electrical source, then divide the August 2016 semester 65
  • 67. School of Architecture, Building & Design electrical source to smaller chunks and distribute it throughout the building. The electrical source distribute from switchboard will pass through transformer, panels and any other equipment to prevent the loss of electric sources over the distance travelled. Besides, the switchboard mounted several load sharing controls and gauges to control and monitor the electrical supply process. This can make sure the total amount of electrical source received by switchboard is equal to the total amount of electrical distributed. 5.3.1 Main Switch Room components and devices Circuit breaker Circuit breaker is used at the equipment and machine that received the high volume of voltage. Circuit breaker as one of the important component in switchboard because it provides protection for high current incomers and feeders electrical supply. Besides, the circuit breaker must remain closed connection when short-circuits happened. This is to allow the downstream circuit breaker break down the faults. The circuit breaker functioning by using the time delayed basis. It using the two common method which are Electro Dynamic Withstand (EDW) and high thermal withstand characterised by a short time. The criteria to settle a suitable circuit breaker: 1. Must comply with standard of BSEN 60947-2. 2. Must have high breaking capacity from 40 to 150 kA. 3. Must have stored energy operating mechanism which allow the source coupling. 4. Must have shunt trip function. August 2016 semester 66
  • 68. School of Architecture, Building & Design Fuses The function of fuses is act as a protection to the electrical equipment by preventing too much current enter the switchboards. Fuse is a low resistance device which will break down the electrical supply under faulty conditions. For example, when the electrical supply more than the desired value, the temperature will increase and cause the fuses disconnect the electrical supply. Bus bars Bus bars is a thick tube that made up by copper or aluminium. The bus bars normally act as electrical conductor to carry the high electric current from generation or distribution substation to the switchboards. The bus bars connect from the fuses to carry the high voltage to each section of connected switchboard and energize each section. Step-down transformers Transformers within panel box August 2016 semester 67
  • 69. School of Architecture, Building & Design For large building such as PJ Trade Centre, more than one transformer is required to step-down the high voltage from the TNB substation. The transformers lower the voltage from 11Kv to 480/277 volts which is the usable level of power supply for the building. After the transformers have step-down the voltage of electric supply, the electric supply will then transmit to the switchboard and distribute to every level of the building. Voltage Light Indication Voltage light indication is used to show the voltage of the switchboards. For the blue light indicate the voltage of the switchboards is maintaining the desired level. While for the yellow light indicate that the voltage level is slightly higher. In this stage, the authority should take action in order to control the voltage and prevent the switchboards from burning. If the red light brightens up, it means the voltage level is very high. In this stage, immediately action is required to find out the problem and solve it as soon as possible. 5.3.2 Analysis and observation on Main Switch Room Air Conditioned The temperature inside the main switch room must be always maintain at 25°C because it is one of the requirement of electric room. This is to prevent the switchboards from overheating. and prevent the switchboards from damaging. August 2016 semester 68
  • 70. School of Architecture, Building & Design Main Switch Room Access The main switch room door is open outward and it is always locked. This is to prevent unauthorised person enter the room due to the hazards of high voltage electricity. Besides, the room of electrical room must be designed to open outward to prevent obstacle fall and block the door from opening when the electrical room in fire. Sprinkler Systems There have total 8 sprinkler heads throughout the main switch room as it able to detect the high temperature in the room and spray the water out to reduce the fire losses and also prevent the spread of fire. CO2 FIRE EXTINGUISHERS There have total 4 CO2 fire extinguishers in the main switch room. It can be use when the switchboards heated up and fire due to the high voltage. August 2016 semester 69
  • 71. School of Architecture, Building & Design Equipment hand on wall The equipment that used to service or repair the switchboards is unique and expensive. Therefore, it cannot be taken away by authority. It should be always hang up on the wall after the use. Unfortunately, the one of equipment in main switch room have loss and they force to use the spare equipment. 5.4 Low Voltage Switch Room August 2016 semester 70
  • 72. School of Architecture, Building & Design The diagram shows the location of Low Voltage Switch Room (blue colour) The diagram shows the location of Low Voltage Switch Room (blue colour). In PJ Trade Centre, the low voltage switch room is located between the TNB substation and the main switch room. Low voltage switch room is the optimal solution to provide a higher functional low voltage distribution equipment which means it able to protect, control and monitor the electrical distribution systems in a more safety, efficiently and efficiency way. The low voltage switchgear is used to provide centralized control and protection to the low voltage power equipment and circuits in the building. It capable to provide August 2016 semester 71
  • 73. School of Architecture, Building & Design electrical protection against the overload currents, short circuit currents and also insulation failure. Besides, the switchgear is allowed to control through the functional switching, emergency switching, emergency stopping and the off switch for maintenance or service purposes. 5.4.1 Low Voltage Switch Room components and devices Main Switchboards There are total five main switchboards that used to separate the power distribution system into five different zones. One switchboard will distribute the electrical supply to the first zone which is from the ground floor level to basement 7. While another four switchboards will separately distribute the electrical supply to from floor level of 1​st​ to 5​th​ floor, 6​th​ to 10​th​ floor, 11​th​ to 15​th​ floor and 16​th​ to 20​th​ floor. The electrical disconnect switch and circuit breaker are used to protect and control each of the switchboards. August 2016 semester 72
  • 74. School of Architecture, Building & Design Low voltage drawout power circuit breakers Low voltage drawout power circuit breakers connect to the primary and secondary connections without nuts, bolts or connector kits. The main function of low voltage drawout power circuit is to provide automatic protection to electrical circuit from damage due to the overload circuit, short circuit currents and insulation failure. Circuit Breaker Compartments There have two type of circuit breaker compartment inside the switchboards which are the horizontal circuit breaker compartments and vertical circuit breaker compartments. Horizontal circuit compartments used to distribute the electrical power to every switchboard section. While for vertical circuit breaker compartments are used to distribute electrical power to every circuit protection device in a single structure. Primary and Secondary Power Connections The power connections divided into primary and secondary power. Primary power is the connections from the main electrical distribution system directly to the load points. While for secondary power, the connections are made by extending busbars into the breaker compartments. It is used to connect the main system power components of the drawout power circuit breaker. Whilst, the secondary power also provide power to the equipment that use to control and monitor the electrical operation devices. Secondary Control Compartments The main function of secondary control compartments is to segregate and protect the low voltage control and also used to monitor the cables from other areas where the August 2016 semester 73
  • 75. School of Architecture, Building & Design switchgear located. It capable to connect devices in various control compartments to others through the dedicated control circuit wire ways. Busbars Couple Busbars couple is made by silver or tin-plated copper. Vertical busbars couple are connected to horizontal busbars couple and it used to distribute the power from circuit breakers. The horizontal busbars couple are then distribute the power from one switchboard to another switchboard. Overhead Current Transmission Cable The overhead current transmission cables are used to distribute the power from switchboards to every level of the building. 5.4.2 Analysis and observation on Low Voltage Switch Room Air Conditioned & Main Switch Room Access & Sprinkler Systems August 2016 semester 74
  • 76. School of Architecture, Building & Design All the electrical room must fulfil the same requirement. Hence, the low voltage switch room is designed in the same way as main switch room. The low voltage room is air conditioned, have total 4 sprinkle heads, the door is open outward and located sign board to prevent unauthorised and create awareness among people. Apparent Death from Electric Shock Signboard The apparent death from electric shock signboard was placed in both main switch room and also low voltage switch room. With this signboard, we able to conduct a cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). CPR is a lifesaving technique that useful in emergencies case to someone who stop breathing or the heartbeat has stopped. CO2 Suppression Systems Normally, CO2 suppression systems used in unoccupied hazard room such as low voltage switch room. Difference from main switch room, the low voltage room used CO2 suppression systems instead of CO2 fire extinguishers. It can be operated automatically by remotely using electric. August 2016 semester 75
  • 77. School of Architecture, Building & Design Equipment hand on wall The equipment that used in the work of service and repair the low voltage switchboards is different with main switch room. However, the equipment in low voltage room is also required to hand on the wall nicely after use and it is prohibited to take out the room by any authority. Temperature Sensor There was only one temperature sensor in low voltage room. It is used to detect the temperature in the low voltage switch room to ensure the room temperature always maintain at 25°C. If the room temperature increase, it will detect by the sensor and the sensor will activate the alarm system at security room. 5.5 Electrical Riser Room August 2016 semester 76
  • 78. School of Architecture, Building & Design Electrical riser room is located at every floor of the building which means at PJ Trade Centre there have total 21 electrical rise room in each tower. The electrical riser room is where the electrical distribution equipment such as switchgears and panels installed to distribute the electrical supply to every load point. The electrical conduits feed the various electrical equipment, switch, and AC units. Most of the electrical supply are distribute to AC units as it requires a lot of electricity to provide a cool indoor environment to the offices at every floor at PJ Trade Centre. Each office needed around 240V of electricity. Riser is a rectangular hollow metal box which used to protect the transmission cable from the electrical room at basement 7 and goes vertically up to 21th floor of the building. 5.6 Meter Room August 2016 semester 77
  • 79. School of Architecture, Building & Design The diagram shows the meter of Tujuan Gemilang Sdn. Bhd (Menara Bata) in block A All the floor mounted metering cubicle placed a sticker which written the information of the organization such as the name of the organization, address, C.T ratio, P.T ratio and more. This is to allow the authority to know the meter is from which organization in the building when conducting the electrical bill. 5.7 Battery Room August 2016 semester 78
  • 80. School of Architecture, Building & Design Battery Bank Battery room switchboard The battery in battery room are used to supply stored to control and operate the substation when no power supply. Self-regulated battery charges are set to the battery to keep the battery in a fully charged level. The battery charger cannot reply upon to supply DC current that operate the protection equipment because it will increase the probability of fault happen and lead to the charger stop to function. This will affect the performance of the battery and cause interruption to local service, significant damage to substation equipment and major system disturbances in serious case. Extra caution should be taken if not having sufficient battery capacity available at all times. Besides, more attention should also be taken to abnormal situation including DC systems. For example, we must always ensure the battery is clean, no cracks, no leaks, dry on top, not lifting and always clean the excessive sedimentation. Besides, maintenance of the battery and chargers is essential to keep the efficiency of August 2016 semester 79
  • 81. School of Architecture, Building & Design the battery. Replacement is necessary if the battery capacity is less than 80% of the manufacturer’s nameplate. The replacement of the battery should be made with one year. 5.8 Gun Set Room Generator in gun set room The diagram shows the location of Gun Set Room (red colour) on the plan view. August 2016 semester 80
  • 82. School of Architecture, Building & Design Battery bank in gen set room Control panel that shows the amount of electrical power generated by the generator. This diagram shows the switchboard in gen set room August 2016 semester 81
  • 83. School of Architecture, Building & Design . This diagram shows the pipe that allow the smoke produced by generator transfer outside the gun set room. August 2016 semester 82
  • 84. School of Architecture, Building & Design When there is no power supply to the building, the generator in gun set room is useful to provide power supply in the event of failure of power supply automatically. Different electrical and physical configurations of generators are use depends on different applications. An electrical generator is a device that convey mechanical energy into electrical energy (output). The generator uses the mechanical energy to force the movement of electric charges that present in the wire of its windings through the external electrical circuit. The movement of electrical charges are the main key to produce the output electric current. The electric current supply will transmit through the transmission cable which connect from the generator to the common area and also emergency system such as fire alarm systems and also fire lifts. The common area include lobby, staircase and basement. The following are the main components of the generator: 1. Engine 2. Alternator 3. Fuel system 4. Voltage regulator 5. Cooling and exhaust systems 6. Lubrication system 7. Battery charger 8. Control Panel 9. Main Assembly August 2016 semester 83
  • 85. School of Architecture, Building & Design 5.9 UBBL REQUIREMENTS AND REGULATIONS ​UBBL By laws - Section 253 – Emergency Power Supply Section 253 (1) Emergency power system must be provide when failure of the normal supply or accident happened to the elements of the system. Section 253 (2) Emergency power supply systems must provide power for: 1. Smoke control systems 2. Illumination 3. Fire alarm systems 4. Fire pumps 5. Public address systems 6. Fire lifts 7. Other emergency systems Section 253 (3) Emergency systems must have sufficient capacity and rating for all emergency operation, including simultaneous operation of all fire lift and one other lift. Section 253 (5) Current supply must provide to emergency lighting or emergency power or both within 10 seconds when failure of the normal supply or interruption of normal supply. Section 253 (5) (a) – Storage Battery Storage battery with suitable capacity and rating must supply and maintain not less than 87 ½ % of the system voltage. Total power supply to emergency lighting and emergency power must last at least 1 ½ hours. Section 253 (5) (b) – Generator Set Generator set automatically starting the prime mover on the event of failure of normal supply. August 2016 semester 84
  • 86. School of Architecture, Building & Design 6.0 Overall Conclusion Through this case study report, we have learnt a lot and gain the knowledge of the mechanical ventilation air conditioning system, fire protection system, mechanical transportation system and also electrical supply system. It is a great opportunity for us to conduct a case study on PJ Trade Centre. We have learnt extra knowledge while having the site visit and more understand about the theories that we learnt from the lecture classes by applying it to the case study. Overall, it was a memorable experience to all of us together to complete this case study report. August 2016 semester 85
  • 87. School of Architecture, Building & Design References 1) Active/Passive fire protection systems. (2016). ​Boeingconsult.com. Retrieved 9 December 2016, from http://www.boeingconsult.com/tafe/fire/Week%203-5-HO-ppt.htm 2) Extinguishes and Hose Reels. (2016). ​Fireprotection.org.nz. Retrieved 9 December 2016, from http://www.fireprotection.org.nz/information-on/extinguishes-and-hose-reels 3) I Dig Hardware » Survey Q2: “What is the purpose of a fire door?”. (2016). Idighardware.com. Retrieved 9 December 2016, from http://idighardware.com/2010/01/survey-q2-what-is-the-purpose-of-a-fire-door/ 4) "Substation Main Functions And Classification | EEP". ​EEP - Electrical Engineering Portal. N.p., 2016. Web. 9 Dec. 2016. Website:​http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/substation-main-functions-and-classifi cation 5) "Electric Supply System". ​iiteeeestudents. N.p., 2016. Web. 9 Dec. 2016. Website:​https://iiteeeestudents.wordpress.com/2011/08/28/electric-supply-system/ 6) "The Role Of An Electric Switchboard In Power Flow". ​East Coast Power Services. N.p.,2016.Web9Dec.2016.Website:​http://www.ecpowersystems.com/resources/switch boards/the-role-of-an-electric-switchboard-in-power-flow/ 7) "Circuit Breaker Specific Features For Main Switchboard - Electrical Engineering Centre".​Electrical Engineering Centre. N.p., 2016. Web. 9 Dec. 2016. Website:​http://www.electricneutron.com/circuit-breaker/circuit-breaker-specific-feature s-for-main-switchboard/ 8) "What Is The Function Of A Fuse?". ​Reference. N.p., 2016. Web. 9 Dec. 2016. Website:​https://www.reference.com/home-garden/function-fuse-7be22f90717cef59 August 2016 semester 86
  • 88. School of Architecture, Building & Design 9) Stein, Andrea and Andrea Stein. "What Is The Function Of A Switchboard? | Ehow". eHow.N.p.,2016.Web.9Dec.2016. Website:​http://www.ehow.com/facts_7682798_function-switchboard.html 10) "Cite A Website - Cite This For Me". ​Fs.illinois.edu. N.p., 2016. Web. 9 Dec. 2016. Website:​http://www.fs.illinois.edu/docs/default-source/facility-standards/general-guidel ines/building-elements-and-spaces/equipment-rooms-electricalB616D43F6933.pdf?sfv rsn=2.docx?sfvrsn=2 11) "Electrical Systems: Designing Electrical Rooms—Your Questions Answered | Consulting-Specifying Engineer". ​Csemag.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 9 Dec. 2016. Website:​http://www.csemag.com/single-article/electrical-systems-designing-electrical-r ooms-your-questions-answered/10355ed7cdf1261632f06dbce127c2c9.html 12) "The Basic Functions Of LV Switchgear - Electrical Installation Guide". Electrical-installation.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 9 Dec. 2016. Website: http://www.electrical-installation.org/enwiki/The_basic_functions_of_LV_switchgear August 2016 semester 87