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Breeding Methods for better quality fiber in Jute
Presented by: Rana Asif Abbas
Presented to: Dr Fahad Wattoo
Course:PBG-511
Presentation content
What is Jute
Characters of jute fiber
Cultivable species of jute
History of jute
Breeding objectives of jute
What is quality of jute fiber
Breeding methods of improvement of fiber quality
What is jute
 Jute is a long, soft and shining bast fiber that comes from flowering
plants in genre Corchorus.
 The fiber comes from the phloem and skin of plant
 It is just 2nd to cotton in natural fiber production and use
 90% of world jute comes from alone Bangladesh
 Jute fiber is mostly compose of cellulose and lignin.
 Jute plants leaves actually used as vegetable so it is also called as
vegetable fiber.
 Because of its golden-brown colour and high cash value it is called gold
fiber.
 Jute fiber is stronger than cotton
 Jute fiber is more ecofriendly as use less water in production than cotton.
Characters of jute fiber
 There are more than 100 species in genra Corchorus but only 2 of them are cultivated
species.
 The cultivable species are diploid(2n=2x=14) .
Tossa jute(Corchorus olitorius)
 Hardy and highly adaptable
 Grows well on both lowlands and uplands
Cultivable species of jute
White jute(Corchorus Capsularis)
 Does not easily adapt to harsh climatic conditions
 Can be grown only on lowlands
History of jute
 Jute has been used since ancient times in Africa and
Asia(Bengal) to provide cordage and weaving fiber from stem
and food from the leaves.
 In several historical documents(Ain-e-Akbari by Abul Fazal in
1590) states that in Akbar's era poor villagers of India used to
wear cloths made of jute.
Breeding objectives of jute
Breeding for high yielding short duration
jute varieties
Breeding for quality fiber
Breeding for pest and disease resistant
varieties
Breeding for high seed yield
Breeding for improvement of plants
characters(Shattering & pre flowering
habit)
What is quality of jute fiber
Fiber length
Fiber strength
Fiber colour
Luster (Shine)
Percentage and quality of
retting
The quality characters of jute are:
In jute quality is negatively corelated with yield.
Environment play’s a major tole in quality. Environmental conditions that
are favorable for good quality fiber are
Retting in clear and slow running water gives good quality fiber
The tall and thick plants in general gives inferior fiber
Short and thick plants give good quality fiber.
Alternate and fluctuating
bright sunshine
Minimal Humidity
Minimal temperature
Minimal rainfall
Breeding methods of improvement of fiber quality
Introduction Selection Hybridization
Mutation
breeding
Tissue
culture
Application
of molecular
markers
Introduction
 Introduction of jute cultivars having good quality fiber traits as variety in an
area.
 If the new introduced cultivar released as commercial variety without any
modification it is called primary introduction.
 If the new introduced cultivar released after hybridization and selection with
local variety it is secondary introduction.
 It is cross between two plants to get characters of both in their
off spring
Intraspecific hybridization:
 Crossing of different subspecies with in a species.
 The good quality fiber variety huangama 179 obtained from cross of Meifeng
No 2 and minma No 5.
 Majority of fiber quality improvement are obtained by intra specific
hybridization
Hybridization
Interspecific hybridization
Crossing of two species of same genus.
 In 1960 Patel and Datt do inter specific hybridization on wide range of
cultivated and wild jute. It gives non promising results
 In 1980 Arangzeb& khatum reported the F1 hybrid produce by
intraspecific hybridization that show no segregation in F2 and maternal
segregation occurs only.
 In1980 efforts made for intra specific hybridization for donation of good
quality traits from wild to cultivated varieties.
 It is on record that fine fiber traits has been donated from c.trilocularis to
tri cap( native white jute variety of Bangladesh.
Mutation breeding
 Different parts of jute plant(stem,
leaves, flowers) affected by mutagens
to get good quality fiber.
 By irradiating the dry and moist seeds
of cultivated species with x ray ,short
and thick stem obtained.
 In 2004 the jute mutant variety
CMU013 obtained.
 It show slow growth, short height,
reduce lignin(50% less) and lack
secondary phloem fiber(reduce
fiber).But quality is significantly
improved.
Tissue culture
 Due to narrow genetic diversity and strong cross-incompatibility
between two cultivated species of jute ,there are limitation to
improve jute by conventional breeding methods.
 Application of biotechnology is much important in this regard.
Somatic hybridization via
protoplast fusion
Agrobacterium
transformation
Application of molecular markers
 To improve fiber breeder should know the nature of genetic of a crop.
 Molecular markers help in identification of gene for specific traits and their
location.
 Molecular markers use for identification of fiber quality traits are
 In 2016 an association mapping panel has been developed for C.olitorius
and number of RAD.SNP markers are used for mapping of bast fiber
quality traits.
RADDS
Chloroplast SSRS
Gssrs
Breeding Methods for better quality fiber in Jute

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Breeding Methods for better quality fiber in Jute

  • 1. Breeding Methods for better quality fiber in Jute Presented by: Rana Asif Abbas Presented to: Dr Fahad Wattoo Course:PBG-511
  • 2. Presentation content What is Jute Characters of jute fiber Cultivable species of jute History of jute Breeding objectives of jute What is quality of jute fiber Breeding methods of improvement of fiber quality
  • 3. What is jute  Jute is a long, soft and shining bast fiber that comes from flowering plants in genre Corchorus.  The fiber comes from the phloem and skin of plant  It is just 2nd to cotton in natural fiber production and use  90% of world jute comes from alone Bangladesh
  • 4.  Jute fiber is mostly compose of cellulose and lignin.  Jute plants leaves actually used as vegetable so it is also called as vegetable fiber.  Because of its golden-brown colour and high cash value it is called gold fiber.  Jute fiber is stronger than cotton  Jute fiber is more ecofriendly as use less water in production than cotton. Characters of jute fiber
  • 5.
  • 6.  There are more than 100 species in genra Corchorus but only 2 of them are cultivated species.  The cultivable species are diploid(2n=2x=14) . Tossa jute(Corchorus olitorius)  Hardy and highly adaptable  Grows well on both lowlands and uplands Cultivable species of jute
  • 7. White jute(Corchorus Capsularis)  Does not easily adapt to harsh climatic conditions  Can be grown only on lowlands
  • 8. History of jute  Jute has been used since ancient times in Africa and Asia(Bengal) to provide cordage and weaving fiber from stem and food from the leaves.  In several historical documents(Ain-e-Akbari by Abul Fazal in 1590) states that in Akbar's era poor villagers of India used to wear cloths made of jute.
  • 9. Breeding objectives of jute Breeding for high yielding short duration jute varieties Breeding for quality fiber Breeding for pest and disease resistant varieties Breeding for high seed yield Breeding for improvement of plants characters(Shattering & pre flowering habit)
  • 10. What is quality of jute fiber Fiber length Fiber strength Fiber colour Luster (Shine) Percentage and quality of retting The quality characters of jute are:
  • 11. In jute quality is negatively corelated with yield. Environment play’s a major tole in quality. Environmental conditions that are favorable for good quality fiber are Retting in clear and slow running water gives good quality fiber The tall and thick plants in general gives inferior fiber Short and thick plants give good quality fiber. Alternate and fluctuating bright sunshine Minimal Humidity Minimal temperature Minimal rainfall
  • 12. Breeding methods of improvement of fiber quality Introduction Selection Hybridization Mutation breeding Tissue culture Application of molecular markers
  • 13. Introduction  Introduction of jute cultivars having good quality fiber traits as variety in an area.  If the new introduced cultivar released as commercial variety without any modification it is called primary introduction.  If the new introduced cultivar released after hybridization and selection with local variety it is secondary introduction.
  • 14.  It is cross between two plants to get characters of both in their off spring Intraspecific hybridization:  Crossing of different subspecies with in a species.  The good quality fiber variety huangama 179 obtained from cross of Meifeng No 2 and minma No 5.  Majority of fiber quality improvement are obtained by intra specific hybridization Hybridization
  • 15. Interspecific hybridization Crossing of two species of same genus.  In 1960 Patel and Datt do inter specific hybridization on wide range of cultivated and wild jute. It gives non promising results  In 1980 Arangzeb& khatum reported the F1 hybrid produce by intraspecific hybridization that show no segregation in F2 and maternal segregation occurs only.  In1980 efforts made for intra specific hybridization for donation of good quality traits from wild to cultivated varieties.  It is on record that fine fiber traits has been donated from c.trilocularis to tri cap( native white jute variety of Bangladesh.
  • 16. Mutation breeding  Different parts of jute plant(stem, leaves, flowers) affected by mutagens to get good quality fiber.  By irradiating the dry and moist seeds of cultivated species with x ray ,short and thick stem obtained.  In 2004 the jute mutant variety CMU013 obtained.  It show slow growth, short height, reduce lignin(50% less) and lack secondary phloem fiber(reduce fiber).But quality is significantly improved.
  • 17. Tissue culture  Due to narrow genetic diversity and strong cross-incompatibility between two cultivated species of jute ,there are limitation to improve jute by conventional breeding methods.  Application of biotechnology is much important in this regard. Somatic hybridization via protoplast fusion Agrobacterium transformation
  • 18. Application of molecular markers  To improve fiber breeder should know the nature of genetic of a crop.  Molecular markers help in identification of gene for specific traits and their location.  Molecular markers use for identification of fiber quality traits are  In 2016 an association mapping panel has been developed for C.olitorius and number of RAD.SNP markers are used for mapping of bast fiber quality traits. RADDS Chloroplast SSRS Gssrs