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MODERN TECHNIQUES FOR YIELD
ENHANCEMENT
PRESENTEDBY : RANAASIFABBAS
PRESENTEDTO: DR.MUNIRAHMAD
What is yield
Why increase in yield
Techniques for yield enhancement
Conclusion
PRESENTATION CONTENT
Crop yield is a measurement of the amount of
agricultural production harvested per unit of land area.
What is Yield ?
 With the increasing world population there is relative increased demand of food.
 Conventional breeding methods no more remain viable to overcome this
situation.
 The field of biotechnology and molecular biology revolutionize the agriculture
and farming methods.
 Eventually directly or indirectly increases the yield of plants.
 Some methods directly increase the plant yield by improving the yield related
characters of plants(more number of tillers and long spikes)
 Some methods indirectly increase the plant yield by developing abiotic or biotic
stress resistance.
Why we need to increase yield
Nano technology
RNA interference
Mutagenesis
Molecular breeding
Genetic engineering
TECHNIQUES FOR YIELD
ENHANCEMENT
Tissue culture
GENETIC ENGINEERING
 Genetic engineering is a DNA recombination technique that has made
possible gene transfer between dissimilar genera or species.
 Genetic engineering is an exceptional way of breeding as compared to
conventional breeding.
 It avoids the problem of linkage drag associated with the conventional breeding
it is more effective and it is less time consuming.
Currently there are different approaches that are used to transform different crops.
 It is Methods to prepare large number of single plant cells without their cell walls
(protoplast).
 It was developed in 1960s.
 Fusion could be induced among protoplasts of various plant cells by using
electroporation technique and certain chemicals and liposomes.
 Sexually incompatible species could have their chromosomes combined by the
use of cell fusion method.
Electroporation of protoplast:
 Biolistic transformation is the process of
delivery of micro projectiles that are of
tungsten or gold coated with DNA and
push into the target cells by acceleration
and by gases and DNA can introduced
into and tissue.
 Acceleration provided by electric charge,
CO2, gun powder
Biolistic transformation
 The microinjection technique is a direct
physical approach, for introducing
substances under microscopic control
into defined cells without damaging
them
 Microinjection can be used with crop
species from which whole plant can be
obtained from single transformed cells
Microinjection
Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer
 Agrobacterium tumefaciensisis a plant-pathogenic bacterium that holds ability to
transfer some part of its own genetic material into other plant species by a
simple process called transformation.
 The genes encoded in a region of Ti plasmid called T-DNA.
 This causes tumorous growth called “crown gall” disease in plants.
 This bacterium is modified in lab and it transfers gene of interest into plants
without causing symptoms of disease.
 Isolation of the genes of interest from the source
organism
 Insertion of the transgene into the Ti-plasmid.
 Introduction of the T-DNA-containing-plasmid into
Agrobacterium
 Mixture of the transformed Agrobacterium with
plant cells to allow transfer of T-DNA into plant
chromosome
 Regeneration of the transformed cells into
genetically modified (GM) plants.
Steps for gene transfer:
 Plant tissue culture is an in vitro
technology from which many novel
techniques have been developed to
assist plant breeders.
 Changes induced by plant tissue
culture are known as somaclonal
variations.
 Pieces of plant tissues will slowly divide
and develop into colorless mass of the
cells called Callus.
 Callus is the first step in the formation
of new plant from the plant tissues
Tissue culture
 Crops used to produce from this technology facilitate the interspecific and
intergeneric crosses to overcome physiological based self-incompatibility .
 In Agricultural crops like tobacco, corn, ,canola, and cotton etc. the use of
delayed pollination, distant hybridization, pollination with abortive and
irradiated pollen and physical and chemical treatment of host ovary have
been used to implied haploidy.
 Embryo culture is another kind used to make crops valuable. Orchids,
roses, bananas are being formed by embryo culture.
 Drought and heat tolerant varieties are also successfully formed.
 The method of plant tissue culture plays a dominant role in the second
green revolution in which plant biotechnology is considered to make
desirable crops.
MUTAGENESIS
 Mutational breeding is powerful tool for raising plant varieties with desired traits.
 About 2,000 plant varieties with induced mutation have been cultivated commercially.
 Mutations are the source of changes in the genome either permanent or temporary.
 Spontaneous mutation is occurring naturally with very low frequencies of 10-6 due to
transposable elements which move into genome and cause alteration in DNA sequence .
 Induced mutation are caused by either chemical mutagens or other agents like UV
radiation, X rays α- particles and β particles
 The main purpose of mutation breeding technology is the development of new
and desired variation(s) through breeding program for crop improvement.
According to the FAO there are 1,357crop species which are officially released
mutant cultivars. Among the cereals there are 869 mutant varieties.
 Rice (333)
 Barley (261)
 Bread wheat (147)
 Maize (49)
 Durum wheat (25)
 In this approach, mutants with desired traits
were selected in the M1 or M2 generation
after treatment with mutagens.
 Released as new variety for cultivation after
evaluation and trials.
MOLECULAR BREEDING
There are many molecules which act as marker and hep in traditional breeding
methods for identification and than yield improvement:
 Marker assisted back cross
 Marker assisted recurrent selection
 Genome wide selection
 Next generation sequencing
RNA INTERFERENCE
 RNAi includes the sequence specific gene
silencing at post transcription level.
 Two major player of RNA interference are
 (Endogenous) microRNA
 (Exogenous) small interfering RNA (SiRNA).
 RISC contains protein which has ribonuclease activity to degrade the mRNA
 RNA induced silencing complex (RISC) is activated by the incorporation of
these single stranded RNAs.
 RISC contains another important protein, argonaut that has been reported
In Arabidopsis thaliana, makes the catalytic core of RISC and involved in
slicing.
 Activated RISC-RNA (antisense strand) than bind to target sequence
specifically by complementary base pairing and degrade the mRNA.
 The process of RNAi can triggered by the entry Small siRNA into a cell by
several different ways (such as by Agrobacterium mediated transfer, viral
mediated dsRNA transfer bombardment or by infiltration)
NANO TECHNOLOGY
 Nanotechnology is a novel, vast scientific
technology that involves designing,
development and application of materials at
molecular level in nanometer scale.
In Crop improvement:
 There are many involvement of Nano-particles in crop improvement.
 Mostly used Nano-particles are carbon and metal-oxide based particles.
 The positive effects observed by using these Nano-particles are:
1. Enhanced germination
2. Enhanced length of roots and shoots
3. Increased vegetative biomass of seedlings in many crops.
 In many crops including soybean, spinach and peanut enhancement in many
physiological parameters have been observed such as photosynthetic activity
and nitrogen metabolism.
CNTS:
 The germination of seed of tomato
plant was enhanced by penetrance
of carbon nanotubes (CNTs).
 This is due to water uptake ability
of CNTs.
 It is reported in 2009
Ti02
 Ti02 Nano-particles enhance the growth of Spanish.
 These Nano-particles have enhanced the Rubisco activase activity and have improved
light absorbance.
ZnO
 ZnO Nano-particles had retarded germination of seed in corn and rye grass.
 It was reported in 2010.
SNP
 It was also reported that silicon Nano-particles when used in some plants have
increased disease and stress resistance.
FNP:
 The genetic implications of Nano-particles-induced positive changes have been
observed in rice by transmission of (FNP) fullerol (C60(OH)24) through seeds for
generations
Modern Techniques For Yield Enhancement

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Modern Techniques For Yield Enhancement

  • 1. MODERN TECHNIQUES FOR YIELD ENHANCEMENT PRESENTEDBY : RANAASIFABBAS PRESENTEDTO: DR.MUNIRAHMAD
  • 2. What is yield Why increase in yield Techniques for yield enhancement Conclusion PRESENTATION CONTENT
  • 3. Crop yield is a measurement of the amount of agricultural production harvested per unit of land area. What is Yield ?
  • 4.  With the increasing world population there is relative increased demand of food.  Conventional breeding methods no more remain viable to overcome this situation.  The field of biotechnology and molecular biology revolutionize the agriculture and farming methods.  Eventually directly or indirectly increases the yield of plants.  Some methods directly increase the plant yield by improving the yield related characters of plants(more number of tillers and long spikes)  Some methods indirectly increase the plant yield by developing abiotic or biotic stress resistance. Why we need to increase yield
  • 5. Nano technology RNA interference Mutagenesis Molecular breeding Genetic engineering TECHNIQUES FOR YIELD ENHANCEMENT Tissue culture
  • 6. GENETIC ENGINEERING  Genetic engineering is a DNA recombination technique that has made possible gene transfer between dissimilar genera or species.  Genetic engineering is an exceptional way of breeding as compared to conventional breeding.  It avoids the problem of linkage drag associated with the conventional breeding it is more effective and it is less time consuming. Currently there are different approaches that are used to transform different crops.
  • 7.  It is Methods to prepare large number of single plant cells without their cell walls (protoplast).  It was developed in 1960s.  Fusion could be induced among protoplasts of various plant cells by using electroporation technique and certain chemicals and liposomes.  Sexually incompatible species could have their chromosomes combined by the use of cell fusion method. Electroporation of protoplast:
  • 8.  Biolistic transformation is the process of delivery of micro projectiles that are of tungsten or gold coated with DNA and push into the target cells by acceleration and by gases and DNA can introduced into and tissue.  Acceleration provided by electric charge, CO2, gun powder Biolistic transformation
  • 9.  The microinjection technique is a direct physical approach, for introducing substances under microscopic control into defined cells without damaging them  Microinjection can be used with crop species from which whole plant can be obtained from single transformed cells Microinjection
  • 10. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer  Agrobacterium tumefaciensisis a plant-pathogenic bacterium that holds ability to transfer some part of its own genetic material into other plant species by a simple process called transformation.  The genes encoded in a region of Ti plasmid called T-DNA.  This causes tumorous growth called “crown gall” disease in plants.  This bacterium is modified in lab and it transfers gene of interest into plants without causing symptoms of disease.
  • 11.  Isolation of the genes of interest from the source organism  Insertion of the transgene into the Ti-plasmid.  Introduction of the T-DNA-containing-plasmid into Agrobacterium  Mixture of the transformed Agrobacterium with plant cells to allow transfer of T-DNA into plant chromosome  Regeneration of the transformed cells into genetically modified (GM) plants. Steps for gene transfer:
  • 12.  Plant tissue culture is an in vitro technology from which many novel techniques have been developed to assist plant breeders.  Changes induced by plant tissue culture are known as somaclonal variations.  Pieces of plant tissues will slowly divide and develop into colorless mass of the cells called Callus.  Callus is the first step in the formation of new plant from the plant tissues Tissue culture
  • 13.  Crops used to produce from this technology facilitate the interspecific and intergeneric crosses to overcome physiological based self-incompatibility .  In Agricultural crops like tobacco, corn, ,canola, and cotton etc. the use of delayed pollination, distant hybridization, pollination with abortive and irradiated pollen and physical and chemical treatment of host ovary have been used to implied haploidy.  Embryo culture is another kind used to make crops valuable. Orchids, roses, bananas are being formed by embryo culture.  Drought and heat tolerant varieties are also successfully formed.  The method of plant tissue culture plays a dominant role in the second green revolution in which plant biotechnology is considered to make desirable crops.
  • 14. MUTAGENESIS  Mutational breeding is powerful tool for raising plant varieties with desired traits.  About 2,000 plant varieties with induced mutation have been cultivated commercially.  Mutations are the source of changes in the genome either permanent or temporary.  Spontaneous mutation is occurring naturally with very low frequencies of 10-6 due to transposable elements which move into genome and cause alteration in DNA sequence .  Induced mutation are caused by either chemical mutagens or other agents like UV radiation, X rays α- particles and β particles
  • 15.  The main purpose of mutation breeding technology is the development of new and desired variation(s) through breeding program for crop improvement. According to the FAO there are 1,357crop species which are officially released mutant cultivars. Among the cereals there are 869 mutant varieties.  Rice (333)  Barley (261)  Bread wheat (147)  Maize (49)  Durum wheat (25)
  • 16.  In this approach, mutants with desired traits were selected in the M1 or M2 generation after treatment with mutagens.  Released as new variety for cultivation after evaluation and trials.
  • 17. MOLECULAR BREEDING There are many molecules which act as marker and hep in traditional breeding methods for identification and than yield improvement:  Marker assisted back cross  Marker assisted recurrent selection  Genome wide selection  Next generation sequencing
  • 18. RNA INTERFERENCE  RNAi includes the sequence specific gene silencing at post transcription level.  Two major player of RNA interference are  (Endogenous) microRNA  (Exogenous) small interfering RNA (SiRNA).
  • 19.  RISC contains protein which has ribonuclease activity to degrade the mRNA  RNA induced silencing complex (RISC) is activated by the incorporation of these single stranded RNAs.  RISC contains another important protein, argonaut that has been reported In Arabidopsis thaliana, makes the catalytic core of RISC and involved in slicing.  Activated RISC-RNA (antisense strand) than bind to target sequence specifically by complementary base pairing and degrade the mRNA.  The process of RNAi can triggered by the entry Small siRNA into a cell by several different ways (such as by Agrobacterium mediated transfer, viral mediated dsRNA transfer bombardment or by infiltration)
  • 20. NANO TECHNOLOGY  Nanotechnology is a novel, vast scientific technology that involves designing, development and application of materials at molecular level in nanometer scale.
  • 21. In Crop improvement:  There are many involvement of Nano-particles in crop improvement.  Mostly used Nano-particles are carbon and metal-oxide based particles.  The positive effects observed by using these Nano-particles are: 1. Enhanced germination 2. Enhanced length of roots and shoots 3. Increased vegetative biomass of seedlings in many crops.  In many crops including soybean, spinach and peanut enhancement in many physiological parameters have been observed such as photosynthetic activity and nitrogen metabolism.
  • 22. CNTS:  The germination of seed of tomato plant was enhanced by penetrance of carbon nanotubes (CNTs).  This is due to water uptake ability of CNTs.  It is reported in 2009
  • 23. Ti02  Ti02 Nano-particles enhance the growth of Spanish.  These Nano-particles have enhanced the Rubisco activase activity and have improved light absorbance. ZnO  ZnO Nano-particles had retarded germination of seed in corn and rye grass.  It was reported in 2010. SNP  It was also reported that silicon Nano-particles when used in some plants have increased disease and stress resistance. FNP:  The genetic implications of Nano-particles-induced positive changes have been observed in rice by transmission of (FNP) fullerol (C60(OH)24) through seeds for generations