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Avenues for

                   & Updates in
                    Ayurveda

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

                     “Develop something what people want
                       and NOT What you can do.”




      Abhijna 2012 . . .
        A journey towards Anweshana
              on 8th March 2012
at Govt. Ayurvedic Medical College, Bangalore

  Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
   Dedicated to the Ayurveda Scientist –
Who followed “Doing Nothing” in his Life time




  Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
May be the distance obstruct my vision
May be the scene is limited to my Mind
May be it is realized or not to my Heart
What I see is the only Ayurveda . . .. . . . . through my window




                                          An Ayurvedist perception

    Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

               • Ayurveda Research Updates
                 are many – but to narrate
                 them becomes difficult -
               • As many of them are not
                 published in any media or
                 known to any body
               • Today we (try to) deal with
                 Research - Researcher –
                 Research Typology –
                 Avenues – Updates Examples
                 – Future Research proposals
Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
• India has a vast history of Human, Animal &
  Plants healing techniques as – Ayurveda,
  Vrukshayurveda, Pashu Ayurveda,
  Hastyayurveda, etc.
• The healing techniques are based on
  fundamentals and principles - that are derived
  after a long term research and observation.
• Basement and Roots are neglected and the
  Beauty of Tree or Building is prized
• In Ayurveda Siddhanta, Dravyaguna,
  Rasashastra, etc. are Basement departments
• We try to open “Nut principles” and “Products”
  that are kept for the validation with the present
  day philosophy

       Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

Research . . .
• The research is defined as - systematic
  investigation and study of materials,
  sources, etc., in order to establish facts
  and reach conclusions or a search for
  knowledge.
• Research is not just a method, it is a
  system of organised knowledge
• Research is a social activity carried out
  by groups of competing / co-operating /
  communicating scientists (persons)

      Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

Research:
Increasing Options in Ayurveda
• Dissolving Boundaries between Sciences !
   – ‘Interdisciplinary / Trans-disciplinary’ approach
• Dept of AYUSH / CCRAS
   – Require Research Officers / Project staff
• ICMR institutes
   – Requires trained in clinical research
• CSIR: Council for Scientific and Industrial
  Research: www.csir.res.in
   – JRF / SRF program, Project staff

    Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
Research Related Courses available for Ayur-Graduate

• MD./MS
• Ph.D.
• M.Sc.
  –   Health Sciences
  –   Dietetics
  –   Bioinformatics
  –   Clinical Research (www.icriindia.com)
• Clinical Toxicology
  – Directorate of Forensic Laboratory, Mumbai
• Short Courses in various institutes
• M.Tech (Bio-geosciences) atTamilnadu

   Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda


Teaching levels for PGs
UG level 1. Concept & principles
            2.   Clinical uses
            3.   Research insights
PG level    4.   Innovative ideas, Newer applications
            5.   Development of technologies, products
            6.   Value addition to scientific knowledge


     Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

A Post-graduate is . . .
                       • In-depth knowledge of subject
                       • Good clinical experience & application
                       • Research Methodology & Biostatistics

               +
                       • Update information
A Graduate             • Soft skills
                       • Innovative approach


                                        =     A Post-graduate




    Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda


 Research : Key issues
• Methodology is important
• Standard Design developed as per research
  question raised
  – Each situation demand different methodology
• Availability of Opportunities in Ayur-research

  Eye can see when brain knows ! - Dr Abhay Bang

      Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
          Lacunae at Ayurveda Research
• Choosing a topic and a             •   Research protocol
  supervisor                         •   Ethical approval
• Reviewing the literature           •   Funding
• Stating the hypothesis             •   Data collection
• Project outline                    •   Interpretation of data
• Record keeping and note            •   Writing the report
  making                             •   Presenting a paper
• Registering your research          •   Writing a paper for
  project                                publication

     Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

Checklist for Success (Do I Have?)
• Impressive Background
• Sound Language (Sanskrit, Hindi,
  English)
• Communication skills
• Attitude & Experience
• Passion / Strong desire
• Knowledge of Current Medical /
  Scientific Affairs
• Knowledge of Computers
   Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda




Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
      What counts as research?
• Analysis of data from a patient’s medical notes
  (includes use of medical notes to identify
  potential participants re eligibility criteria)
• Observations
• Conducting surveys/ interviews
• Using non-invasive imaging
• Using blood or tissue samples
• Trials of “interventions” (drugs, devices,
  surgical procedures or any other treatments /
  therapies)

   Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

  Safeguards & Vetting
• Scientific value
   – Proper research question, methodology, sample
     size                                                          Vetting

• Ethical aspects
   – Recruitment
   – Sample size
   – Informed consent
• Monitoring of research:
   – Quality control Maintenance
   – Adherence to protocol
   – Avoiding Misconduct in Research
                                                       Monitoring

     Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
Research is a process made up of many small steps.

                     Steps in the
                     Research Process
                  1. Define your research needs
                  2. Develop a research strategy
                  3. Conduct searches for information
                  4. Evaluate the resources that you
                    find
                  5. Incorporate and cite the
                    information you use

   Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
         Defining Your Research Needs
                     • Make sure that you
                       understand your
                       assignment.
                     • The next step in the process
                       is defining what you need.
                     • Then distinguish between
                       different types of resources
                       to decide which to use.

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

1.Definition          Protocol of           a clinical trial
2.Importance
3.Format
   (a) Title page
   (b) background and hypothesis
   (c) Study design
   (d) Materials and methodology
   (e) Data collection and handling
   (f) Statistical analysis
   (g) References
   (h) Summary

   Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

Researcher Responsibilities
The researchers have day-to-day
 responsibility for research conduct
• Need to ensure:
       • Adherence to agreed protocols
       • Appropriate care of research participants
         (working with health care professionals)
       • Protection of the integrity and
         confidentiality of data
       • Reporting of adverse events or suspected
         misconduct


Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

    Researcher Misconduct
            • Falsification, fabrication, Plagiarism
              (theft of data or samples)
            • Unauthorized use of privileged
              information
            • Abuse of authorship
            • Significant failure to comply with
              federal, state, or University rules
              regarding research


Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

                 Data Items in Clinical Trials
                       Prone to Fraud
   • Eligibility criteria, Repeated measurements,
     Adverse events, Compliance & Subject diaries

Care these sentences
          1. Never discard original research data.
          2. Missing data and outliers are very real
             phenomena in contemporary medical research.
          3. Have faith in the wondrously stochastic (Being or
             having a random variable) and random nature of real
             human data, features most difficult to capture
             with fraud.
    Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda




Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda




Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda




Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda




Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

Research Misconduct- FFP
  • As defined by Office of Research Integrity
  • Fabrication, Falsification, Plagiarism,
    or other practices that seriously
    deviate from those that are commonly
    accepted in the scientific community
    for proposing, conducting, or
    reporting research
  • Not honest error or differences in
    opinion

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.webs.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

Fabrication
•   Intentionally creating records that do not exist and for
    which there is no truth with the intent to mislead or
    deceive
     – Interviewer completing a questionnaire for a fictitious
        subject that was never interviewed
     – Preparing records for follow-up calls or contacts to
        subjects who were really lost to follow-up
     – Creating notes for a subject visit that never took place
•   Eric Poehlman, PhD - UVM College of Medicine –
    fabricated data in 17 grant applications for
    federal funding as well as in journal articles -
    Barred for life from receiving any federal funds
    for research – plead guilty to fraud –sentenced
    in 6/06 to a year and one day in prison (NY
    Times article “An Unwelcome Discovery” -
    10/22/06)
      Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

                                           Falsification
• Alteration of data collected in the conduct of
  scientific investigation
• Omission/deletion/suppression of conflicting
  data without scientific justification
   – Back-dating interviews to fit within the timeline
     provided in protocol
   – Changing a subject’s age in data records by an
     unimportant amount to fit enrollment criteria
• Joy Bryant and Diana Layman - Falsified
  research in study by substituting their own
  blood for the 10-15 blood samples of child
  study participants as required by the protocol -
  Entered into Voluntary Exclusion Agreement
  for 3 years

      Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

Plagiarism – “Self-plagiarism”
             • Intentional use of someone else’s words,
               thoughts, or ideas, as though they are your
               own
             • Also includes “self-plagiarism” – author using
               his/her own published material in another work
               without citation
             • Ali Sultan, MD, PhD -From Harvard School of
               Public Health - - Plagiarized text and figures from
               emails from his post-doctoral student - - Also
               falsified results of research, and fabricated parts of
               emails from the student to falsely implicate the
               student
             • For 3 years – debarred from contracting or
               subcontracting w/ any US Gov’t agency


Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda



Consider…

               •   Who developed the concept of the paper?
               •   Who conducted the actual research?
               •   Who wrote and/or edited the draft?
               •   Who calculated the statistics?

               Should these people be listed as authors?

 Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

           Research Validation
• Validation / Understanding of Ayurveda Principles
• Inventing / Discovery Newer techniques
  – Computers in research
  – Pharmaceutical sciences
  – Biotechnology, Bioinformatics, Molecular Biology
• Types & Designs
  – Traditional and modern aspects
  – Relevance, utility and feasibility for Unani / Siddha /
    Homeopathy / Nature cure /Yoga research

  Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

           Concerns for All Designs
    –   Choosing Subjects                  • Ethical Principles
    –   Target population                      – Measurements
    –   Study sample                           – Continuous/Discrete/Categ
    –   Generalizing                             orical/Ordinal
    –   Inclusion/Exclusion                    – Precision/Reproducible/Rel
•   Recruitment                                  iable
                                               – Accuracy
•   Effect size                                – Sensitivity/Specificity
•   Formulas                                   – Objectivity
•   Software                                   – Sample size/Power
•   Data collection                            – Hypothesis
•   Data cleaning                              – Errors (Type I, Type II)

•   Data analysis
     Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

                     Error Types
• Type I error                           •   Causes of measurement error
   – Occurs if the null hypothesis       1. Observer error
     is rejected.                          (a) Inter-observer inaccuracies
   – False positive                        (b) Digit preference
   – The probability of making a           (c) Question variation
     type I error is denoted as         2. Subject inaccuracies
• Type II error                            (a) Natural variation
   – A type II error occurs if the         (b) Unconscious bias
     null hypothesis is accepted, i.e.     (c) Recall and motivation
     an insignificant result is            (d) Compliance
     obtained, when the null             3.Equipment inaccuracies
     hypothesis is in fact not true.
                                           (a) Zero errors
   – The probability of making a
     type II error is denoted as β.        (b) Gain errors
                                           (c) Precision


  Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

     Possible Ayurvedic Researches
-The Ayurvedic field has a vast scope for research
in variety of ways.
- Inviting the Ethnic Knowledge or/and principle
synchronizing knowledge in to Ayurveda
- All what is needed that, it should benefit Ayurveda
and the society at large.
        A) Literary Research
        B) Fundamental Research
        C) Clinical Research
        D) Drug Research
        E) Inter Disciplinary Research


   Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

    Discuss your research with a
            statistician
  – BEFORE you begin your research
  – WHILE you are collecting data
  – WHEN you are ready to analyze
  – WHEN you are writing your manuscript
• Stratified randomization should be used
  for factors that are believed to
  significantly influence the outcome.
 Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

     Types of Research Designs
• Descriptive research
• Correlational research - Involves measuring
  whether there is a relationship between two
  or more variables
• Experimental research - Generally
  considered the most powerful tool for
  determining cause-and-effect relationships
  between variables
  – Independent variable (IV)
  – Dependent variable (DV)


    Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

Compare the method




Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
    LITERARY RESEARCH RESOURCES
                                                      Vedas
                                                      Upanishads
AYURVEDIC                NON-AYURVEDIC                Puranas
LITERATURE                 LITERATURE                 Arthashastra
 Published
 Unpublished
   Catalogues
      Non catalogues




Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
Three dimensions of academic research
                        community

                           ‘meeting’

                 ‘authority’       ‘controversy’


                          ‘publication’

         ‘sincerity’                        ‘theory’
                          ‘experiment’

               person                knowledge

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

                        Observational


      Longitudinal
                                             Cross-sectional
Prospective            Retrospective
                                                         Survey

Cohort studies Case control studies
 Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

                  Clinical research
•     Research involving human
•     Many types
    1. Preventive (Pollution and traffic police)
    2. Diagnostic (AIDS, Ca on Unani parameters)
    3. Treatment intervention (Sports and regimental therapies)
    4. Safety and efficacy (Kushta)
    5. Newer applications (Massage for chronic
       fatigue syndrome)
    6. New scales, measurements, techniques
    Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
             PHASES OF CLINICAL TRIAL
TRIAL        PHASE            NO. OF           LENGTH     PURPOSE
                              SUBJECTS

Phase I      Clinical         20 – 50          Several    Mainly safety in
             Pharmacology                      months     volunteers (healthy
                                                          volunteers/ volunteer
                                                          patients)
Phase II     Clinical         50 – 300         Months     Short term safety, mainly
             Investigation                     to years   effectiveness in patients

Phase III    Formal           250 – 1000+      1 –4       Safety, effectiveness in
             Therapeutic                       years      large no. of patient
             Trials                                       population, multi-centric
                                                          study
Phase IV     Post-licensing   2000 – 10 000+              Post marketing
             studies                                      surveillance to detect
                                                          ADR etc.

          Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
             Experimental Research
•   Experimental group
     – Group that is subjected to the independent variable
         • Cognitive-behavioral treatment group or new anti-depressant group
•   Control group
     – Group that is similar in every way to the experimental group except for
       the manipulation of the independent variable
         • Random assignment makes control group to be similar in every way
         • Untreated wait-list control group
•   Placebo group
     – Group that does NOT receive treatment including active ingredient
       (special type of control group)
     – Double-blind design is often used ( sugar pill )
         • Or supportive group therapy


        Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda




Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
  Basic skills for a laboratory scientist
• Basic Computer skill, Paper reading & writing,
  Understanding and use of the literature, Productivity
• Scientific attitude: Desire to get the bottom of things
   – NO premature conclusion
   – Spending time & effort to make things better and /or
     more efficient
   – Not afraid of learning new things
   – Full understanding of instruments in the experiment
   – Not willing to leave any “mysteries” or poorly
     understood phenomenon behind in Research
   – Low tolerance for “black box”
• Good citizenship in a laboratory
   – Willingness to help and collaborate with colleagues
   – Being a considerate colleague
    Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
                   Animals in Medicine started long back …



           150 AD. Galen
             begins
             systematic study
             of animal
             physiology,
             vivisection
             begins. What he
             learns is used in
             the practice of
             human medicine
             for the next
             1000+ years.

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda




                                     1982
1726                                 Treatment for leprosy
Stephen Hales                        developed using
first measures                       Armadillos        1982
blood pressure   1901-1939                             Prions are discovered in
in a horse       Animal research                       hamsters. Subsequent
                 advances our                          studies in mice have shown
                 understanding of                      that these misshaped,
                 blood, making                         disease-causing proteins can
                 transfusions                          be inherited
                                  2012                 Prions are an infectious
                 possible
                                  ???                  protein particle similar to a
                                                       virus but lacking
                                                       nucleic acid;
       Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
         Number and kinds of animals used
• The Office of Technology Assessment estimates that 17-23
  million animals are used in the United States for research every
  year.
• The vast majority of these – about 95% – are rats and mice
  specifically bred for research.
• In 2000, there were 69,516 dogs and 25,560 cats used in
  research.
• By comparison, wildlife biologists estimate that over one million
  animals are killed every day by automobiles – over 365 million
  per year.
• Dogs, cats, and non-human primates combined account for
  less than 3/4 of a percent of the total and their numbers has
  been declining for nearly 30 years.
• The number of dogs used in biomedical research has declined
  67% since 1973, and the number of cats used in biomedical
  research has declined 63% since 1973.
     Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
TYPES OF ANIMALS USED IN ANIMAL RESEARCH

                                   1.   84% Rats, mice and other
                                        rodents

                                   2.   12% Fish, amphibians,
                                        reptiles and birds

                                   3.   1.5% Small mammals,mostly
                                        rabbits

                                   4.   2.1% Sheep, cows, pigs and
                                        other large mammals

                                   5.   0.3% Dogs and cats.
                                   6.   0.15% Monkeys, such as
                                        marmosets and macaques

 Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
    How can research results derived from animal
           testing be extrapolated to humans?
• There are striking similarities between the physiological
  systems of humans and various species of animals.
• Much of what we know about the immune system has
  come from studies with mice,
• Much of what we know about the cardiovascular system
  has come from studies with dogs.
• Research results from animals also provide the information
  necessary to design human trials that must be completed
  for legal approval of new devices, drugs or procedures.
• It is important to be able to gauge how a new drug or
  procedure will affect a whole biological system before
  using it on humans.
      Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
Why is it important to conduct product safety tests on animals
        when "cruelty-free" products are available?

         • As recently as several decades ago, consumers
           were subjected to products that were not
           adequately tested prior to use, resulting in
           reports of permanent harm, including blindness.
         • Product safety testing ensures that products are
           safe when used as directed.
         • Testing provides scientific data for poison
           control centers and emergency room physicians
           in the event a product is misused.
         • Adequate testing of products is a legal
           obligation to the public.
         • It is important to remember the circumstances
           that led to safety testing of all new consumer
           ingredients and products, particularly cosmetics.
Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

                  •The use of animals in product safety
                  testing provides a whole, living system
                  that can reflect how certain substances
                  will react in or on the body.

                  •The term "cruelty-free" is often misused
                  and misunderstood.

                  •Companies that claim they conduct no
                  animal testing either contract testing to an
                  outside laboratory or use compounds
                  known to be safe through previous animal
                  testing.



Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
                        – A cohort study or panel study is a
                          form of longitudinal study (a type
Cohort Study              of observational study) used
                          in medicine Eg: Birth cohort
                        – It is an analysis of risk factors and
                          follows a group of people who do not
                          have the disease, and uses
                          correlations to determine the absolute
                          risk of subject contraction.
                        – It is one type of clinical study
                          design and should be compared with
                          a cross-sectional study.
                        – In medicine, a cohort study is often
                          undertaken to obtain evidence to try
                          to refute the existence of a suspected
                          association between cause and
                          effect; failure to refute a hypothesis
                          strengthens confidence in it.
 Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
                               – Nested case-control
                                 study – eg:
Cohort Study                     Inflammatory markers
                                 and the risk of coronary
                                 heart disease in men and
                                 women,
                               – Household panel
                                 survey – eg: These
                                 draw representative
                                 samples of households
                                 and survey them,
                                 following all individuals
                                 through time on a usually
                                 annual basis.


Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
          Who gets sick and who stays Healthy?

                                           Observed
                                           Healthy
                                           and sick
                                           people



                                Time Passes




 Healthy people with                                     Study Question:
 different experiences       Time Passes                 What happened in
                                                         the past to give
                                                         such different
Start with two similar groups of people. One             result.
Group has a disease and the other is healthy

    Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

 Survey Study
• Researchers ask people
  about their habits –
   – Do you have sweet tooth?
   – Do you use condoms?
   – Do you eat 5 vegetables a
     day?
• Surveys give a snapshot of
  the present / past and tell
  us what people say they do
  / did
   – Response bias?
   – Cause vs. effect?

    Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

  Ayurveda told in New Language –
       To look new Avenues
• “Ayur-Veda” = “Life-knowledge”, evolved in
  India long back focuses more on life style
  than symptoms, where the background is -
  Three Doshas viz. Vata, Pitta & Kapha
• Are we able to tell all the words of
  Ayurveda conveniently in another
  language?

   Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

                                           Vata
                          • “Vaa” is Gati and Gandhana = to
                            move things & Perceive
                          • Most influential Dosha
                          • Cell membrane transport,
                            electrolyte balance, waste
                            elimination, and cell division, etc
                            are examples of its activity
                          • Aggravated by dryness
                          • Reduced by foods with building
                            blocks
Thought of Amit Pahwa, MS-4, Tinsley Harrison Society, University of Alabama School of Medicine
     Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

                           Pitta
                        • Tap = to shine
                        • Metabolism and molecules
                          of energy are equated
                        • Body temperature
                          maintenance, optic nerve
                          impulses, feelings of
                          hunger and thirst are
                          functions
                        • Aggravated by heat
                        • Reduced by “cooling it”

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

                           Kapha
• “Shlish” = that which
  holds things together &
  derived from “Klid” – the
  water
• Provides structure and
  lubrication
• Carbohydrates and
  polysaccharides, mucous,
  spinal fluid, and synovial
  fluid
• Aggravated by sweet and
  fatty foods
• Reduced by hot, dry, and
  light things

  Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
      Understanding Avenues at Basic Level
• The Siddhanta, Kriya, Rachana departments
  are running around either Clinical
  experiments or the preventive models
• They have to pay attention on -
• Many concepts are duplicated or
  controversial at Ayurveda.- they need cross
  examination
• The Language used in many texts are
  critical and require explanation
• Many manuscripts are in cold storage –
  require to focus and bring them in to lime
  light
• The shift from “Principles” to “Prabhava” is
  reduced with their guidelines

   Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
      Understanding Avenues at Dravyaguna

• Undergraduate syllabus has 240 drugs for
  study out of Plant Kingdom
• We are loosing many out of them even –
  either with negligence or by Govt. order
• As the “Ayurveda Acharyas” say – all
  herbs are of medicinal importance -
• Why the Dravyaguna department is not
  including the new herbs isolated,
  experimented in to the Ayurveda Glossary?
• We require to add as many as Herbs
  possible in to Ayurveda Literature

   Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
       Understanding Avenues at RT/BK
          • The Pharmacy in Ayurveda require us to give
            many answers
          • We often confused or unable to answer at
            scientific community about the Ayurveda Drug
            absorption – Target – action – adversity –
            reaction – toxicity - excretion – etc.
          • Step by step individual researches should
            guide us for these answers and included in the
            curriculum instead of lingering around
            established validations
          • Today we have new routes of administration of
            Drug – eg: Inhalers, Patches, Injections, etc.


Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
                 Injections in Ayurveda

• In 1982 when I started my GP in Ayurveda
  there were around 5000 generic Ayurveda
  Medicines available in the Market
• Along with Ayurveda Injections
  manufactured by Aravind Pharma of North
  India and Imis Pharma of South India
• We fight for the introduction of Injections in
  to GAD for 116 days and included them in
  to AP-GADs
• Now – the scene is reversed and not even
  500 generics are available in the market
  and no medicines in GADs
  Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
      Understanding Avenues at Clinical Areas
      • In these areas the public faith at Ayurveda is
        necessary to develop along with confidence
        in drug action
      • Adaptations of new technology is admissible
        but not to change the entire principle
        migration on which we are prescribing the
        medicine
      • A thorough adopted intervening investigation
        Interpretation required to clinical
        experiments to boost diagnostic techniques
      • Methodical but not Result oriented Research
        in need

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
 Understanding Avenues at Swasthavritta
           • Swastavritta is meant for prevention
             and Life style development.
           • Today we face lots of Lifestyle
             disorders and Occupational difficulties
           • The focus of Swastavritta department
             should be on validating the Foods,
             Occupation, Lifestyle in respect with
             psychological and physical problems
             faced by either a child or an Adult


Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
      Understanding Avenues at Panchakarma
           • The Panchakarma even though a
             part of Chikitsa – is specialized with
             its procedural method
           • It require instrumentation
             development along with
             observational study of validating the
             principles and establishing new
             schedules in “Running World”.
           • Adaptations of Manipulation
             Medicine, Sowa-Rigpa (Tibetan
             Medicine), “Stone Massage”,
             “Kalupadaghat Massage”, etc. in to
             Panchakarma is required.

Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
       Understanding Avenues at Surgical areas
• An Engineer is the best who runs the
  machine without few of its parts – A Surgeon
  is also like an Engineer – who runs the Body
  without few parts
• Ayurveda Surgery imitating the Allopathic
  surgery
• We have the Knowledge of Marma,
  Siravyadha, etc. in addition – requires to
  adopt the Marma Anastasia & Pinhole
  Surgery on Ayurveda Measures


    Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
New Design Structure for Ayurveda Research
                                 Design


                                  Need

                Evaluation                       Brief




                Realization                   Investigation

                                Proposition



                                 Designing




Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
             Steps to Good Design
• 1. Identify and understand the problem - “What
  does this product need to do?”
• 2. Conceptual Design - “How will this product do
  this?”
• 3. Design Optimization -“ Is this the best way to do
  this?”
• 4. Detail Design - “How will the product work?”
• 5. Build - “Build the product.”
• 6. Test and Evaluation - “Does the product do what
  we want?”
• 7. Return to step 1 if evaluation is not positive - “If
  not, start over.”

     Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

•   Do not only see Observe
•   Do not hear  Listen
•   Do not just prescribe  Document
•   Do not just treat Follow them




    Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
                         ASU Drugs to be used in
                             RCH Program
                    • AYUSH developed 17 drugs for
                      Anti-natal, Post-natal, Infant and
                      Female Health management.
                    • No drug is available in the CCIM
                      curriculum of BAMS or market
                    • Rasayana, Astikshaya, Sleepada,
                      Manoroga (Mental Retardation),
                      Sickle Cell Anemia, Improvement of
                      quality of Life in Cancer patients –
                      projects are under process
http://ccras.nic.in/Research_Actvities/20081103_NewDrug_Development.htm
  Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

     New dimensions of Market
             • Many Ayurveda companies started
               launching their products as –
                 – OTC Commodity products like
                   Toothpaste, Talks, Balms, etc.
                 – Cosmeceuticals – to improve beauty like
                   Facial Creams, scrubs, etc.
                 – Neutriceuticals – Nutrition
                   supplementations like Tonics, Paste, etc.
                 – pharmaceuticals – new drug
                   combinations or patent medicines by
                   combining two or more traditional drugs
Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

 Updates in Research
• Ayurveda is dependent on the
  Pharmacy Department for updates
  rather than Ayurveda Research
• Long ago Kirthikar Basu,
  Nadkarni, etc. added few additions
  in to the Herbal science – but
  none of those materials are added
  for the curriculum
• Real Update in Ayurveda is seen
  as shift from “Tridosha” to
  “Prabhava”

    Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
     Namburi Spot Test
 - To evolve suitable methods to
 lay standards relevant to concept
 of Rasashastra.
 - To help ultimately in
 implementing the drug act in its
 full sense of utility.
• To identify & differentiate various Bhasma and Sindhoora
  which are chemically identical but therapeutically different by their
  specific names known in Ayurveda i.e.
• To find out whether the contents of a given container are the same
  qualitatively and quantitatively as claimed on its labels i.e. to
  find out whether the product is a standard, sub-standard or
  spurious one.

    Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
                         Few updates on Pumsavana
                   • Ayurvedic technique of genetic
                     engineering to ensure healthy progeny
                     and to determine the sex of the child is
                     Pumsavana.
                   • Pumsavana is one of the 16 Karmas
                     (Sixteen rituals) practiced in various
                     stages of life in ancient India.
                   • Ayurveda uses many Gender selection
                     drugs such as – Putramjeevi, Vatankura
                     (Ficus Benghalensis),Apamarga”
                     (Achyranthus aspara), “Shahachara”
                     (Berleria prionitis), Shivalingi (Bryonia
                     Laciniosa) and Majuphal (Gtuercus
                     infectoria) etc.
                   • This should be done only during
                     astrological constellation of “Pushya
                     nakshatram”
Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
                                 • A total of 22 key informants were
Pumsavana                          interviewed during the Shivalingi
                                   (Bryonia Laciniosa) and
                                   Majuphal (Gtuercus infectoria)
                                   study period. Out of 50 subjects,
                                   48 (96%) reported giving birth to
                                   male babies after taking SSDs.
                                   Failure in two cases was
                                   attributed to consumption
Shivalingi (Bryonia Laciniosa)
                                   of SSD after 3rd month of
                                   gestation. All the male children
                                   were reportedly normal.

                                 •   [S Bandyopadhyay, AJ Singh, Sex Selection Through
                 Majuphal            Traditional Drugs in Rural North India, Indian Journal of
                 (Gtuercus           Community Medicine, Vol. 32, No. 1 (2007-01 - 2007-
                 infectoria)         03) ]


     Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
Updates on • and lactation - safe for long term use, even during pregnancy
               Toxic effects

  Herb - • Gastrointestinal effects - Decreased volume and reduced
               pH of the secretions in drug treated rats suggest a
                                                                   increased

Asparagus responsiveness agents.gastric parietal cells to secretogogues
               and narcotizing
                                of the

racemosus • Cytoprotective effect has been suggested to be due to
               increased output of mucus.
                   •   Galactogogue effect - A significant increase in milk yield has
                       also been observed in guinea pigs and goats after feeding
                       lactare which also increased growth of the mammary glands,
                       alveolar tissues and acini in guinea pigs [23].
                   •   Effects on uterus - uterine sedative
                   •   Immunomodulatory activities - reported to produce
                       leucocytosis and predominant neutrophilia along with
                       enhanced phagocytic activity of the macrophages and
                       polymorphs.
                   •   Respiratory system - reported to cause dilatory effect on
                       bronchial musculature of guinea pigs but failed to antagonise
                       the histamine induced broncho-constriction.
                   •   CNS - Neither stimulant nor depressant action of lactare on
                       central nervous system has been reported in albino mice
                       [Amit Chawla*, Payal Chawla, Mangalesh, R C Roy, Asparagus racemosus (Willd): Biological Activities & its
                       Active Principles, Indo-Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2011, Vol 1., Issue 2: Page No. 113-120]



     Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

                                                                   Updates on Herb -
                                                                 Asparagus racemosus
•     Antibacterial Activities - showed maximum inhibition against A. hydrophila,
      P. fluorescencs and K. pneumoniae. Chloroform extract of A.racemosus
      showed higher inhibition (1.9cm/200 μl) against. K.pneumoniae Methanol
      extract of A. racemosus showed considerable invitro antibacterial efficacy
      against E.coli, V. cholerae,B.subtilis and S.aureus, and it increases phagocytic
      activity of macrophages (Mandal, 2000). [1]
•     Anti-diarrhoeal activity - The ethanol and aqueous extract of A. racemosus
      exhibited significant anti-diarrhoeal activity against castor oil induced
      diarrhoea in rats. [2]
•     Phytoestrogen effect - A. racemosus root extract exerted a mammotropic
      and/or lactogenic influence on normal as well as on oestrogen primed animals
      thereby rendering the mammary epithelium refractory to the carcinogen. [3]

.[1] M.Sithi Jameela et.al, Antibacterial Activities of three medicinal plant extract against Fish Pathogens, International Journal of Biological Technology (2011)
2(2):57-60.] [2] N. Venkatesan et.al. Anti-diarrhoeal potential of asparagus racemosus wild root extracts in laboratory animals. J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci
(www.cspscanada.org) 8(1):39-45, 2005 [3] V. Ashajyothi et.al. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS – A PHYTOESTROGEN, Int.Journal Of Pharmacy&Technology


               Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

  Herb             • Sadapushpa / Sadabahar / Vinca
                     rosea (Periwinkle) is an evergreen
 Update -            common shrub seen all around us
                     blooming in every season. Usually
Periwinkle           the plant is of 1 meter tall with oval
                     to oblong leaves.
                   • A clinical trial was conducted in
                     1998 with Vinca rosea on diabetes
                     as a part of M.D. Ayurveda Thesis
                     under my supervision. The results
                     were excellent. Each one ml of the
                     oil prepared has a power of
                     regulating the 125-250 mg of
                     Blood Glucose.

   Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

  Herb           •   A study was carried on alloxan induced diabetic rats
                     for 14 days. The methanolic extracts showed
                     improvement in parameters like body weight and
 Update -            lipid profile as well as regeneration of beta-cells of
                     pancreas in diabetic rats. Histopathological studies
Periwinkle           reinforce the healing of pancreas, by
                     methanolic Vinca rosea extracts, as a possible
                     mechanism of their antidiabetic activity [1]

                 •   Aqueous extract of Piper nigrum seeds and Vinca
                     rosea flowers were administered orally to alloxan
                     induced diabetic rats once a day for 4 weeks. They
                     are useful in controlling not only the glucose and
                     lipid levels but these components may also be
                     helpful in strengthening the antioxidants potential [2].
                      [1] Mohammed Fazil Ahmed et. al., Antidiabetic Activity of Vinca rosea Extracts in
                      Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats, International Journal of Endocrinology, Volume
                      2010, Article ID 841090, 6 pages
                      [2] M. KALEEM, SHEEMA, H. SARMAD AND B. BANO, “PROTECTIVE EFFECTS
                      OF PIPER NIGRUM AND VINCA ROSEA IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC
                      RATS, Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2005; 49 (1) : 65–71


  Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

Instrument Update –
Januvasti Yantra
• Januvasti is done either on the knee joint or at
  the back with a brim filled with oil
• The drawback is – entire knee joint is not
  exposed to treatment especially the ligaments
• To cover the entire knee surface – a tube is
  inserted with both ends closed tightly with
  Masha paste cloth where on top opening for oil
  management added with a Thermometer to
  standardize the procedure

  Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
    Tridax               • Extracted - Isolation and identification of
                           steroidal saponin, characterized as b-sitosterol 3-
 procumbens                O-b-D-xylopyranoside, which has been isolated
                           from the flowers of Tridax procumbens Linn. [1]
 where do you see?
                         • Bioactivity studies –
                         • The n-hexane extract of the flowers showed
                           activity against Escherichia coli.
                         • A whole aerial part was active against
                           Mycobacterium smegmatis, Escherichia coli,
                           Salmonella group C and Salmonella paratyphi.
                         • None of the tested extracts was active against the
                           yeasts, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and
                           Rhodotorula rubra; or the fungi: Aspergillus
Vishalya Karani            flavus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp. and
Family: Asteraceae         Trichophyton rubrum.[2]
Tribe: Heliantheae         [1] V K SAXENA and SOSANNA ALBERT, J. Chem. Sci., Vol. 117, No. 3, May 2005, pp. 263–266. ©
Genus: Tridax              Indian Academy of Sciences.
                           [2] Taddei A, Rosas-Romero AJ. Bioactivity studies of extracts from Tridax procumbens. Departamento
Species: T. procumbens     de Química, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas, Venezuela. ataddei@usb.ve


     Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
    Tridax         • Anti-Diabetic activity –
                   • T.procumbens leaves (200 mg/kg) orally
 procumbens administered for 7 days produced a significant
                     decrease in the blood glucose level in the model
 where do you see?   of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Petroleum
                     extract exhibits a very weak anti-diabetic
                     activity[3]
                   • Antioxidants –
                   • T. procumbens plants are rich sources of natural
                     antioxidant. T. procumbens has a percentage
                     antioxidant activity (AA %) of 96.70 which was
                     observed to be higher than those of gallic
                     (92.92%) and ascorbic acids (94.81%) used as
Vishalya Karani      standards.
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Heliantheae       [3] Bhagwat DA, Killedar SG, Adnaik RS. Anti-diabetic activity of leaf extract of Tridax
                         procumbens. Int J Green Pharm 2008;2:126-8
Genus: Tridax            [4] J. D. Habila, et.al. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of Tridax procumbens Linn.
Species: T. procumbens   African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 4(3), pp. 123-126, March 2010



     Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

                      Nadi Impulse Simulogram
                 • Nadi Impulse Simulogram is a unique
                   advanced Ayurvedic pulse diagnosis
                   software, that monitors impulses of
                   molecules and cells in pulse developed
                   by Dr. N.D. Raju of Hyderbad.
                 • This program works on the basis of Nadi
                   input values decoded in to Kurma Nadi
                   and Vasuli Nadi outputs. It develops
                   various graphs of Dosha Gati index,
                   Sroto pravrutti, krama and dusti, Chakra
                   activity, Dhatuparinama Index, etc. in
                   graphical manner, where
                   the interpretation is made simple.
                 • Contact Dr. N. Dharmanandan Raju at
                   idid_raju@yahoo.com or +9885040369.
Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda




             Nadi Impulse
       Simulogram Output
Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

General          • The general practitioner in Ayurveda
practitioner       Provides personal, primary and continuing
in Ayurveda        medical care to individuals and families and
                   Specific responsibility for the health of the
                   community
                 • He Makes an initial decision on every
                   problem presented by patient and Consults
                   specialists when ever is appropriate
                 • Intervenes to promote health and takes
                   Clinical decisions influenced by prior
                   probability of disease
                 • Has an advocacy role for the patient
                 • Apart from all above – is there any
                   responsibility of making RESEARCH at
                   him?

    Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
• Generalists and specialists require
  different knowledge, skills and attitudes            General
  but are complementary in their roles.
• The GP is committed to the person rather             Practice
  than to a particular body of knowledge, a
  group of diseases or special techniques
  (McWhinney 1997)
• A GP provides personal, primary and
  continuing care to individuals, families
  and a practice population.
• The spectrum of problems presenting in
  general practice is very different from that
  seen in hospital.
• The GP must combine the scientific and
  humanitarian approach to medical
  practice, providing holistic care to
  patients.
     Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda




Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
   Characteristics of GP & PHC
• General practice               • Primary health care
Focus is illness:                Focus is local communities:
  Individuals and families       1. Local communities using
                                    local knowledge
  - First contact
                                 2. Concerned about
Local and accessible                determinants of health
Small scale efficiency              - Socio-economic
Tolerates uncertainty               - Environmental
The three Cs:                    3. Empowers communities to
                                    control/influence
Continuity,
                                    - determinants of health
Coordination,
                                 4. Education and prevention are
Continuing care                     key pieces
  Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda

                    Clinical Care
Good clinical care                 Models of health care
• Maintaining good medical         • Biomedical
  practice                           (biomechanical) and bio-
• Relationships with                 psychosocial
  patients                         • Reductionist and holistic
• Working with colleagues            (integrative)
• Teaching and training            • Disease-based and
• Probity                            illness-based
• Health                           • Patient-centered and
                                     population-centered
                                   • Reactive and anticipatory
                                   • doctor-centered &
                                   • Patient-centered

  Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
1. Exploring both the disease and the illness     The six
    experience – understanding Differential     interactive
    diagnosis and Dimensions of illness
                                             components of
2. Understanding the whole person
3. Finding common ground regarding             the patient-
    management Problems and priorities           centered
    along with Goals of treatments
4. Incorporating prevention and health
                                                 process:
    promotion in Health enhancement and
    Risk reduction
5. Enhancing the patient-doctor relationship
    by sharing and maintain the relation
6. Being realistic about Time and Resources


    Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
• Known is Scarce and the ignored
  are abundant                                   Conclusion
• Knowledge is becoming capital for
  the Earning
• Research of course a part of the
  Game always
• Every time I see – a Book or Net –
  I am getting a new Idea or thought
  – I don’t understand why the
  others are not initiated
• If this narration offers any insight
  – My effort is exercised
• Thank You – One and All who get
  Awareness


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Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda




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Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda
                              •   Ted Colton, ScD, Professor & Chair Emeritus,
Special Thanks to:                Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics
                              •   Amit Pahwa, MS-4, Tinsley Harrison Society,
                                  University of Alabama School of Medicine
                              •   Dr Girish Shrikrishna Tillu, Project Leader,
                                  Centre for Development of Advanced
                                  Computing (C-DAC), Pune, Consultant, Centre
                                  for Rheumatic Diseases, Pune, Consultant,
                                  Vishwanand Ayurveda Centre, Pune, Advisor,
                                  Global Herbs Pharmaceuticals, Pune -
                                  gtillu@rediffmail.com
                              •   Lauren Solberg, CRC Research Skills
                                  Workshop, January 18, 2008,
                                  lauren.b.solberg@vanderbilt.edu
                              •   Dr. Gareth M. Forde, Bio Engineering Lab
                                  (BEL), Chemical Engineering
                              •   Dr. Jayashree B. Keshav, Technical Officer,
                                  Atrimed Herbals, Pvt. Ltd.
                              •   All the Images / Information collected from net
                                  for knowledge sharing – If any copyright exists –
                                  It goes to the respective individuals




   Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda




       technoayurveda@gmail.com
                       THANK YOU
                                                 It’s
                        Technoayurveda International
                                       Presentation
     By Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad
     Of . . . http://www.technoayurveda.com


Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/

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Ayur-research avenues

  • 1. Avenues for & Updates in Ayurveda Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 2. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda “Develop something what people want and NOT What you can do.” Abhijna 2012 . . . A journey towards Anweshana on 8th March 2012 at Govt. Ayurvedic Medical College, Bangalore Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 3. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Dedicated to the Ayurveda Scientist – Who followed “Doing Nothing” in his Life time Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 4. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda May be the distance obstruct my vision May be the scene is limited to my Mind May be it is realized or not to my Heart What I see is the only Ayurveda . . .. . . . . through my window An Ayurvedist perception Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 5. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda • Ayurveda Research Updates are many – but to narrate them becomes difficult - • As many of them are not published in any media or known to any body • Today we (try to) deal with Research - Researcher – Research Typology – Avenues – Updates Examples – Future Research proposals Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 6. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda • India has a vast history of Human, Animal & Plants healing techniques as – Ayurveda, Vrukshayurveda, Pashu Ayurveda, Hastyayurveda, etc. • The healing techniques are based on fundamentals and principles - that are derived after a long term research and observation. • Basement and Roots are neglected and the Beauty of Tree or Building is prized • In Ayurveda Siddhanta, Dravyaguna, Rasashastra, etc. are Basement departments • We try to open “Nut principles” and “Products” that are kept for the validation with the present day philosophy Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 7. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Research . . . • The research is defined as - systematic investigation and study of materials, sources, etc., in order to establish facts and reach conclusions or a search for knowledge. • Research is not just a method, it is a system of organised knowledge • Research is a social activity carried out by groups of competing / co-operating / communicating scientists (persons) Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 8. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Research: Increasing Options in Ayurveda • Dissolving Boundaries between Sciences ! – ‘Interdisciplinary / Trans-disciplinary’ approach • Dept of AYUSH / CCRAS – Require Research Officers / Project staff • ICMR institutes – Requires trained in clinical research • CSIR: Council for Scientific and Industrial Research: www.csir.res.in – JRF / SRF program, Project staff Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 9. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Research Related Courses available for Ayur-Graduate • MD./MS • Ph.D. • M.Sc. – Health Sciences – Dietetics – Bioinformatics – Clinical Research (www.icriindia.com) • Clinical Toxicology – Directorate of Forensic Laboratory, Mumbai • Short Courses in various institutes • M.Tech (Bio-geosciences) atTamilnadu Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 10. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Teaching levels for PGs UG level 1. Concept & principles 2. Clinical uses 3. Research insights PG level 4. Innovative ideas, Newer applications 5. Development of technologies, products 6. Value addition to scientific knowledge Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 11. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda A Post-graduate is . . . • In-depth knowledge of subject • Good clinical experience & application • Research Methodology & Biostatistics + • Update information A Graduate • Soft skills • Innovative approach = A Post-graduate Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 12. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Research : Key issues • Methodology is important • Standard Design developed as per research question raised – Each situation demand different methodology • Availability of Opportunities in Ayur-research Eye can see when brain knows ! - Dr Abhay Bang Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 13. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Lacunae at Ayurveda Research • Choosing a topic and a • Research protocol supervisor • Ethical approval • Reviewing the literature • Funding • Stating the hypothesis • Data collection • Project outline • Interpretation of data • Record keeping and note • Writing the report making • Presenting a paper • Registering your research • Writing a paper for project publication Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 14. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Checklist for Success (Do I Have?) • Impressive Background • Sound Language (Sanskrit, Hindi, English) • Communication skills • Attitude & Experience • Passion / Strong desire • Knowledge of Current Medical / Scientific Affairs • Knowledge of Computers Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 15. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 16. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda What counts as research? • Analysis of data from a patient’s medical notes (includes use of medical notes to identify potential participants re eligibility criteria) • Observations • Conducting surveys/ interviews • Using non-invasive imaging • Using blood or tissue samples • Trials of “interventions” (drugs, devices, surgical procedures or any other treatments / therapies) Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 17. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Safeguards & Vetting • Scientific value – Proper research question, methodology, sample size Vetting • Ethical aspects – Recruitment – Sample size – Informed consent • Monitoring of research: – Quality control Maintenance – Adherence to protocol – Avoiding Misconduct in Research Monitoring Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 18. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Research is a process made up of many small steps. Steps in the Research Process 1. Define your research needs 2. Develop a research strategy 3. Conduct searches for information 4. Evaluate the resources that you find 5. Incorporate and cite the information you use Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 19. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Defining Your Research Needs • Make sure that you understand your assignment. • The next step in the process is defining what you need. • Then distinguish between different types of resources to decide which to use. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 20. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda 1.Definition Protocol of a clinical trial 2.Importance 3.Format (a) Title page (b) background and hypothesis (c) Study design (d) Materials and methodology (e) Data collection and handling (f) Statistical analysis (g) References (h) Summary Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 21. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Researcher Responsibilities The researchers have day-to-day responsibility for research conduct • Need to ensure: • Adherence to agreed protocols • Appropriate care of research participants (working with health care professionals) • Protection of the integrity and confidentiality of data • Reporting of adverse events or suspected misconduct Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 22. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Researcher Misconduct • Falsification, fabrication, Plagiarism (theft of data or samples) • Unauthorized use of privileged information • Abuse of authorship • Significant failure to comply with federal, state, or University rules regarding research Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 23. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Data Items in Clinical Trials Prone to Fraud • Eligibility criteria, Repeated measurements, Adverse events, Compliance & Subject diaries Care these sentences 1. Never discard original research data. 2. Missing data and outliers are very real phenomena in contemporary medical research. 3. Have faith in the wondrously stochastic (Being or having a random variable) and random nature of real human data, features most difficult to capture with fraud. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 24. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 25. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 26. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 27. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 28. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Research Misconduct- FFP • As defined by Office of Research Integrity • Fabrication, Falsification, Plagiarism, or other practices that seriously deviate from those that are commonly accepted in the scientific community for proposing, conducting, or reporting research • Not honest error or differences in opinion Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.webs.com/
  • 29. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Fabrication • Intentionally creating records that do not exist and for which there is no truth with the intent to mislead or deceive – Interviewer completing a questionnaire for a fictitious subject that was never interviewed – Preparing records for follow-up calls or contacts to subjects who were really lost to follow-up – Creating notes for a subject visit that never took place • Eric Poehlman, PhD - UVM College of Medicine – fabricated data in 17 grant applications for federal funding as well as in journal articles - Barred for life from receiving any federal funds for research – plead guilty to fraud –sentenced in 6/06 to a year and one day in prison (NY Times article “An Unwelcome Discovery” - 10/22/06) Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 30. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Falsification • Alteration of data collected in the conduct of scientific investigation • Omission/deletion/suppression of conflicting data without scientific justification – Back-dating interviews to fit within the timeline provided in protocol – Changing a subject’s age in data records by an unimportant amount to fit enrollment criteria • Joy Bryant and Diana Layman - Falsified research in study by substituting their own blood for the 10-15 blood samples of child study participants as required by the protocol - Entered into Voluntary Exclusion Agreement for 3 years Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 31. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Plagiarism – “Self-plagiarism” • Intentional use of someone else’s words, thoughts, or ideas, as though they are your own • Also includes “self-plagiarism” – author using his/her own published material in another work without citation • Ali Sultan, MD, PhD -From Harvard School of Public Health - - Plagiarized text and figures from emails from his post-doctoral student - - Also falsified results of research, and fabricated parts of emails from the student to falsely implicate the student • For 3 years – debarred from contracting or subcontracting w/ any US Gov’t agency Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 32. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Consider… • Who developed the concept of the paper? • Who conducted the actual research? • Who wrote and/or edited the draft? • Who calculated the statistics? Should these people be listed as authors? Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 33. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Research Validation • Validation / Understanding of Ayurveda Principles • Inventing / Discovery Newer techniques – Computers in research – Pharmaceutical sciences – Biotechnology, Bioinformatics, Molecular Biology • Types & Designs – Traditional and modern aspects – Relevance, utility and feasibility for Unani / Siddha / Homeopathy / Nature cure /Yoga research Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 34. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Concerns for All Designs – Choosing Subjects • Ethical Principles – Target population – Measurements – Study sample – Continuous/Discrete/Categ – Generalizing orical/Ordinal – Inclusion/Exclusion – Precision/Reproducible/Rel • Recruitment iable – Accuracy • Effect size – Sensitivity/Specificity • Formulas – Objectivity • Software – Sample size/Power • Data collection – Hypothesis • Data cleaning – Errors (Type I, Type II) • Data analysis Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 35. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Error Types • Type I error • Causes of measurement error – Occurs if the null hypothesis 1. Observer error is rejected. (a) Inter-observer inaccuracies – False positive (b) Digit preference – The probability of making a (c) Question variation type I error is denoted as  2. Subject inaccuracies • Type II error (a) Natural variation – A type II error occurs if the (b) Unconscious bias null hypothesis is accepted, i.e. (c) Recall and motivation an insignificant result is (d) Compliance obtained, when the null 3.Equipment inaccuracies hypothesis is in fact not true. (a) Zero errors – The probability of making a type II error is denoted as β. (b) Gain errors (c) Precision Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 36. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Possible Ayurvedic Researches -The Ayurvedic field has a vast scope for research in variety of ways. - Inviting the Ethnic Knowledge or/and principle synchronizing knowledge in to Ayurveda - All what is needed that, it should benefit Ayurveda and the society at large. A) Literary Research B) Fundamental Research C) Clinical Research D) Drug Research E) Inter Disciplinary Research Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 37. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Discuss your research with a statistician – BEFORE you begin your research – WHILE you are collecting data – WHEN you are ready to analyze – WHEN you are writing your manuscript • Stratified randomization should be used for factors that are believed to significantly influence the outcome. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 38. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Types of Research Designs • Descriptive research • Correlational research - Involves measuring whether there is a relationship between two or more variables • Experimental research - Generally considered the most powerful tool for determining cause-and-effect relationships between variables – Independent variable (IV) – Dependent variable (DV) Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 39. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Compare the method Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 40. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda LITERARY RESEARCH RESOURCES Vedas Upanishads AYURVEDIC NON-AYURVEDIC Puranas LITERATURE LITERATURE Arthashastra Published Unpublished Catalogues Non catalogues Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 41. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Three dimensions of academic research community ‘meeting’ ‘authority’ ‘controversy’ ‘publication’ ‘sincerity’ ‘theory’ ‘experiment’ person knowledge Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 42. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Observational Longitudinal Cross-sectional Prospective Retrospective Survey Cohort studies Case control studies Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 43. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Clinical research • Research involving human • Many types 1. Preventive (Pollution and traffic police) 2. Diagnostic (AIDS, Ca on Unani parameters) 3. Treatment intervention (Sports and regimental therapies) 4. Safety and efficacy (Kushta) 5. Newer applications (Massage for chronic fatigue syndrome) 6. New scales, measurements, techniques Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 44. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda PHASES OF CLINICAL TRIAL TRIAL PHASE NO. OF LENGTH PURPOSE SUBJECTS Phase I Clinical 20 – 50 Several Mainly safety in Pharmacology months volunteers (healthy volunteers/ volunteer patients) Phase II Clinical 50 – 300 Months Short term safety, mainly Investigation to years effectiveness in patients Phase III Formal 250 – 1000+ 1 –4 Safety, effectiveness in Therapeutic years large no. of patient Trials population, multi-centric study Phase IV Post-licensing 2000 – 10 000+ Post marketing studies surveillance to detect ADR etc. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 45. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Experimental Research • Experimental group – Group that is subjected to the independent variable • Cognitive-behavioral treatment group or new anti-depressant group • Control group – Group that is similar in every way to the experimental group except for the manipulation of the independent variable • Random assignment makes control group to be similar in every way • Untreated wait-list control group • Placebo group – Group that does NOT receive treatment including active ingredient (special type of control group) – Double-blind design is often used ( sugar pill ) • Or supportive group therapy Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 46. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 47. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Basic skills for a laboratory scientist • Basic Computer skill, Paper reading & writing, Understanding and use of the literature, Productivity • Scientific attitude: Desire to get the bottom of things – NO premature conclusion – Spending time & effort to make things better and /or more efficient – Not afraid of learning new things – Full understanding of instruments in the experiment – Not willing to leave any “mysteries” or poorly understood phenomenon behind in Research – Low tolerance for “black box” • Good citizenship in a laboratory – Willingness to help and collaborate with colleagues – Being a considerate colleague Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 48. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Animals in Medicine started long back … 150 AD. Galen begins systematic study of animal physiology, vivisection begins. What he learns is used in the practice of human medicine for the next 1000+ years. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 49. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda 1982 1726 Treatment for leprosy Stephen Hales developed using first measures Armadillos 1982 blood pressure 1901-1939 Prions are discovered in in a horse Animal research hamsters. Subsequent advances our studies in mice have shown understanding of that these misshaped, blood, making disease-causing proteins can transfusions be inherited 2012 Prions are an infectious possible ??? protein particle similar to a virus but lacking nucleic acid; Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 50. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Number and kinds of animals used • The Office of Technology Assessment estimates that 17-23 million animals are used in the United States for research every year. • The vast majority of these – about 95% – are rats and mice specifically bred for research. • In 2000, there were 69,516 dogs and 25,560 cats used in research. • By comparison, wildlife biologists estimate that over one million animals are killed every day by automobiles – over 365 million per year. • Dogs, cats, and non-human primates combined account for less than 3/4 of a percent of the total and their numbers has been declining for nearly 30 years. • The number of dogs used in biomedical research has declined 67% since 1973, and the number of cats used in biomedical research has declined 63% since 1973. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 51. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda TYPES OF ANIMALS USED IN ANIMAL RESEARCH 1. 84% Rats, mice and other rodents 2. 12% Fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds 3. 1.5% Small mammals,mostly rabbits 4. 2.1% Sheep, cows, pigs and other large mammals 5. 0.3% Dogs and cats. 6. 0.15% Monkeys, such as marmosets and macaques Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 52. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda How can research results derived from animal testing be extrapolated to humans? • There are striking similarities between the physiological systems of humans and various species of animals. • Much of what we know about the immune system has come from studies with mice, • Much of what we know about the cardiovascular system has come from studies with dogs. • Research results from animals also provide the information necessary to design human trials that must be completed for legal approval of new devices, drugs or procedures. • It is important to be able to gauge how a new drug or procedure will affect a whole biological system before using it on humans. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 53. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Why is it important to conduct product safety tests on animals when "cruelty-free" products are available? • As recently as several decades ago, consumers were subjected to products that were not adequately tested prior to use, resulting in reports of permanent harm, including blindness. • Product safety testing ensures that products are safe when used as directed. • Testing provides scientific data for poison control centers and emergency room physicians in the event a product is misused. • Adequate testing of products is a legal obligation to the public. • It is important to remember the circumstances that led to safety testing of all new consumer ingredients and products, particularly cosmetics. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 54. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda •The use of animals in product safety testing provides a whole, living system that can reflect how certain substances will react in or on the body. •The term "cruelty-free" is often misused and misunderstood. •Companies that claim they conduct no animal testing either contract testing to an outside laboratory or use compounds known to be safe through previous animal testing. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 55. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda – A cohort study or panel study is a form of longitudinal study (a type Cohort Study of observational study) used in medicine Eg: Birth cohort – It is an analysis of risk factors and follows a group of people who do not have the disease, and uses correlations to determine the absolute risk of subject contraction. – It is one type of clinical study design and should be compared with a cross-sectional study. – In medicine, a cohort study is often undertaken to obtain evidence to try to refute the existence of a suspected association between cause and effect; failure to refute a hypothesis strengthens confidence in it. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 56. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda – Nested case-control study – eg: Cohort Study Inflammatory markers and the risk of coronary heart disease in men and women, – Household panel survey – eg: These draw representative samples of households and survey them, following all individuals through time on a usually annual basis. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 57. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Who gets sick and who stays Healthy? Observed Healthy and sick people Time Passes Healthy people with Study Question: different experiences Time Passes What happened in the past to give such different Start with two similar groups of people. One result. Group has a disease and the other is healthy Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 58. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Survey Study • Researchers ask people about their habits – – Do you have sweet tooth? – Do you use condoms? – Do you eat 5 vegetables a day? • Surveys give a snapshot of the present / past and tell us what people say they do / did – Response bias? – Cause vs. effect? Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 59. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Ayurveda told in New Language – To look new Avenues • “Ayur-Veda” = “Life-knowledge”, evolved in India long back focuses more on life style than symptoms, where the background is - Three Doshas viz. Vata, Pitta & Kapha • Are we able to tell all the words of Ayurveda conveniently in another language? Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 60. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Vata • “Vaa” is Gati and Gandhana = to move things & Perceive • Most influential Dosha • Cell membrane transport, electrolyte balance, waste elimination, and cell division, etc are examples of its activity • Aggravated by dryness • Reduced by foods with building blocks Thought of Amit Pahwa, MS-4, Tinsley Harrison Society, University of Alabama School of Medicine Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 61. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Pitta • Tap = to shine • Metabolism and molecules of energy are equated • Body temperature maintenance, optic nerve impulses, feelings of hunger and thirst are functions • Aggravated by heat • Reduced by “cooling it” Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 62. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Kapha • “Shlish” = that which holds things together & derived from “Klid” – the water • Provides structure and lubrication • Carbohydrates and polysaccharides, mucous, spinal fluid, and synovial fluid • Aggravated by sweet and fatty foods • Reduced by hot, dry, and light things Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 63. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Understanding Avenues at Basic Level • The Siddhanta, Kriya, Rachana departments are running around either Clinical experiments or the preventive models • They have to pay attention on - • Many concepts are duplicated or controversial at Ayurveda.- they need cross examination • The Language used in many texts are critical and require explanation • Many manuscripts are in cold storage – require to focus and bring them in to lime light • The shift from “Principles” to “Prabhava” is reduced with their guidelines Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 64. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Understanding Avenues at Dravyaguna • Undergraduate syllabus has 240 drugs for study out of Plant Kingdom • We are loosing many out of them even – either with negligence or by Govt. order • As the “Ayurveda Acharyas” say – all herbs are of medicinal importance - • Why the Dravyaguna department is not including the new herbs isolated, experimented in to the Ayurveda Glossary? • We require to add as many as Herbs possible in to Ayurveda Literature Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 65. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Understanding Avenues at RT/BK • The Pharmacy in Ayurveda require us to give many answers • We often confused or unable to answer at scientific community about the Ayurveda Drug absorption – Target – action – adversity – reaction – toxicity - excretion – etc. • Step by step individual researches should guide us for these answers and included in the curriculum instead of lingering around established validations • Today we have new routes of administration of Drug – eg: Inhalers, Patches, Injections, etc. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 66. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Injections in Ayurveda • In 1982 when I started my GP in Ayurveda there were around 5000 generic Ayurveda Medicines available in the Market • Along with Ayurveda Injections manufactured by Aravind Pharma of North India and Imis Pharma of South India • We fight for the introduction of Injections in to GAD for 116 days and included them in to AP-GADs • Now – the scene is reversed and not even 500 generics are available in the market and no medicines in GADs Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 67. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Understanding Avenues at Clinical Areas • In these areas the public faith at Ayurveda is necessary to develop along with confidence in drug action • Adaptations of new technology is admissible but not to change the entire principle migration on which we are prescribing the medicine • A thorough adopted intervening investigation Interpretation required to clinical experiments to boost diagnostic techniques • Methodical but not Result oriented Research in need Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 68. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Understanding Avenues at Swasthavritta • Swastavritta is meant for prevention and Life style development. • Today we face lots of Lifestyle disorders and Occupational difficulties • The focus of Swastavritta department should be on validating the Foods, Occupation, Lifestyle in respect with psychological and physical problems faced by either a child or an Adult Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 69. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Understanding Avenues at Panchakarma • The Panchakarma even though a part of Chikitsa – is specialized with its procedural method • It require instrumentation development along with observational study of validating the principles and establishing new schedules in “Running World”. • Adaptations of Manipulation Medicine, Sowa-Rigpa (Tibetan Medicine), “Stone Massage”, “Kalupadaghat Massage”, etc. in to Panchakarma is required. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 70. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Understanding Avenues at Surgical areas • An Engineer is the best who runs the machine without few of its parts – A Surgeon is also like an Engineer – who runs the Body without few parts • Ayurveda Surgery imitating the Allopathic surgery • We have the Knowledge of Marma, Siravyadha, etc. in addition – requires to adopt the Marma Anastasia & Pinhole Surgery on Ayurveda Measures Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 71. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda New Design Structure for Ayurveda Research Design Need Evaluation Brief Realization Investigation Proposition Designing Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 72. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Steps to Good Design • 1. Identify and understand the problem - “What does this product need to do?” • 2. Conceptual Design - “How will this product do this?” • 3. Design Optimization -“ Is this the best way to do this?” • 4. Detail Design - “How will the product work?” • 5. Build - “Build the product.” • 6. Test and Evaluation - “Does the product do what we want?” • 7. Return to step 1 if evaluation is not positive - “If not, start over.” Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 73. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda • Do not only see Observe • Do not hear  Listen • Do not just prescribe  Document • Do not just treat Follow them Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 74. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda ASU Drugs to be used in RCH Program • AYUSH developed 17 drugs for Anti-natal, Post-natal, Infant and Female Health management. • No drug is available in the CCIM curriculum of BAMS or market • Rasayana, Astikshaya, Sleepada, Manoroga (Mental Retardation), Sickle Cell Anemia, Improvement of quality of Life in Cancer patients – projects are under process http://ccras.nic.in/Research_Actvities/20081103_NewDrug_Development.htm Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 75. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda New dimensions of Market • Many Ayurveda companies started launching their products as – – OTC Commodity products like Toothpaste, Talks, Balms, etc. – Cosmeceuticals – to improve beauty like Facial Creams, scrubs, etc. – Neutriceuticals – Nutrition supplementations like Tonics, Paste, etc. – pharmaceuticals – new drug combinations or patent medicines by combining two or more traditional drugs Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 76. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Updates in Research • Ayurveda is dependent on the Pharmacy Department for updates rather than Ayurveda Research • Long ago Kirthikar Basu, Nadkarni, etc. added few additions in to the Herbal science – but none of those materials are added for the curriculum • Real Update in Ayurveda is seen as shift from “Tridosha” to “Prabhava” Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 77. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Namburi Spot Test - To evolve suitable methods to lay standards relevant to concept of Rasashastra. - To help ultimately in implementing the drug act in its full sense of utility. • To identify & differentiate various Bhasma and Sindhoora which are chemically identical but therapeutically different by their specific names known in Ayurveda i.e. • To find out whether the contents of a given container are the same qualitatively and quantitatively as claimed on its labels i.e. to find out whether the product is a standard, sub-standard or spurious one. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 78. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Few updates on Pumsavana • Ayurvedic technique of genetic engineering to ensure healthy progeny and to determine the sex of the child is Pumsavana. • Pumsavana is one of the 16 Karmas (Sixteen rituals) practiced in various stages of life in ancient India. • Ayurveda uses many Gender selection drugs such as – Putramjeevi, Vatankura (Ficus Benghalensis),Apamarga” (Achyranthus aspara), “Shahachara” (Berleria prionitis), Shivalingi (Bryonia Laciniosa) and Majuphal (Gtuercus infectoria) etc. • This should be done only during astrological constellation of “Pushya nakshatram” Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 79. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda • A total of 22 key informants were Pumsavana interviewed during the Shivalingi (Bryonia Laciniosa) and Majuphal (Gtuercus infectoria) study period. Out of 50 subjects, 48 (96%) reported giving birth to male babies after taking SSDs. Failure in two cases was attributed to consumption Shivalingi (Bryonia Laciniosa) of SSD after 3rd month of gestation. All the male children were reportedly normal. • [S Bandyopadhyay, AJ Singh, Sex Selection Through Majuphal Traditional Drugs in Rural North India, Indian Journal of (Gtuercus Community Medicine, Vol. 32, No. 1 (2007-01 - 2007- infectoria) 03) ] Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 80. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Updates on • and lactation - safe for long term use, even during pregnancy Toxic effects Herb - • Gastrointestinal effects - Decreased volume and reduced pH of the secretions in drug treated rats suggest a increased Asparagus responsiveness agents.gastric parietal cells to secretogogues and narcotizing of the racemosus • Cytoprotective effect has been suggested to be due to increased output of mucus. • Galactogogue effect - A significant increase in milk yield has also been observed in guinea pigs and goats after feeding lactare which also increased growth of the mammary glands, alveolar tissues and acini in guinea pigs [23]. • Effects on uterus - uterine sedative • Immunomodulatory activities - reported to produce leucocytosis and predominant neutrophilia along with enhanced phagocytic activity of the macrophages and polymorphs. • Respiratory system - reported to cause dilatory effect on bronchial musculature of guinea pigs but failed to antagonise the histamine induced broncho-constriction. • CNS - Neither stimulant nor depressant action of lactare on central nervous system has been reported in albino mice [Amit Chawla*, Payal Chawla, Mangalesh, R C Roy, Asparagus racemosus (Willd): Biological Activities & its Active Principles, Indo-Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2011, Vol 1., Issue 2: Page No. 113-120] Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 81. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Updates on Herb - Asparagus racemosus • Antibacterial Activities - showed maximum inhibition against A. hydrophila, P. fluorescencs and K. pneumoniae. Chloroform extract of A.racemosus showed higher inhibition (1.9cm/200 μl) against. K.pneumoniae Methanol extract of A. racemosus showed considerable invitro antibacterial efficacy against E.coli, V. cholerae,B.subtilis and S.aureus, and it increases phagocytic activity of macrophages (Mandal, 2000). [1] • Anti-diarrhoeal activity - The ethanol and aqueous extract of A. racemosus exhibited significant anti-diarrhoeal activity against castor oil induced diarrhoea in rats. [2] • Phytoestrogen effect - A. racemosus root extract exerted a mammotropic and/or lactogenic influence on normal as well as on oestrogen primed animals thereby rendering the mammary epithelium refractory to the carcinogen. [3] .[1] M.Sithi Jameela et.al, Antibacterial Activities of three medicinal plant extract against Fish Pathogens, International Journal of Biological Technology (2011) 2(2):57-60.] [2] N. Venkatesan et.al. Anti-diarrhoeal potential of asparagus racemosus wild root extracts in laboratory animals. J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci (www.cspscanada.org) 8(1):39-45, 2005 [3] V. Ashajyothi et.al. ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS – A PHYTOESTROGEN, Int.Journal Of Pharmacy&Technology Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 82. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Herb • Sadapushpa / Sadabahar / Vinca rosea (Periwinkle) is an evergreen Update - common shrub seen all around us blooming in every season. Usually Periwinkle the plant is of 1 meter tall with oval to oblong leaves. • A clinical trial was conducted in 1998 with Vinca rosea on diabetes as a part of M.D. Ayurveda Thesis under my supervision. The results were excellent. Each one ml of the oil prepared has a power of regulating the 125-250 mg of Blood Glucose. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 83. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Herb • A study was carried on alloxan induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The methanolic extracts showed improvement in parameters like body weight and Update - lipid profile as well as regeneration of beta-cells of pancreas in diabetic rats. Histopathological studies Periwinkle reinforce the healing of pancreas, by methanolic Vinca rosea extracts, as a possible mechanism of their antidiabetic activity [1] • Aqueous extract of Piper nigrum seeds and Vinca rosea flowers were administered orally to alloxan induced diabetic rats once a day for 4 weeks. They are useful in controlling not only the glucose and lipid levels but these components may also be helpful in strengthening the antioxidants potential [2]. [1] Mohammed Fazil Ahmed et. al., Antidiabetic Activity of Vinca rosea Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats, International Journal of Endocrinology, Volume 2010, Article ID 841090, 6 pages [2] M. KALEEM, SHEEMA, H. SARMAD AND B. BANO, “PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF PIPER NIGRUM AND VINCA ROSEA IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS, Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2005; 49 (1) : 65–71 Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 84. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Instrument Update – Januvasti Yantra • Januvasti is done either on the knee joint or at the back with a brim filled with oil • The drawback is – entire knee joint is not exposed to treatment especially the ligaments • To cover the entire knee surface – a tube is inserted with both ends closed tightly with Masha paste cloth where on top opening for oil management added with a Thermometer to standardize the procedure Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 85. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Tridax • Extracted - Isolation and identification of steroidal saponin, characterized as b-sitosterol 3- procumbens O-b-D-xylopyranoside, which has been isolated from the flowers of Tridax procumbens Linn. [1] where do you see? • Bioactivity studies – • The n-hexane extract of the flowers showed activity against Escherichia coli. • A whole aerial part was active against Mycobacterium smegmatis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella group C and Salmonella paratyphi. • None of the tested extracts was active against the yeasts, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula rubra; or the fungi: Aspergillus Vishalya Karani flavus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp. and Family: Asteraceae Trichophyton rubrum.[2] Tribe: Heliantheae [1] V K SAXENA and SOSANNA ALBERT, J. Chem. Sci., Vol. 117, No. 3, May 2005, pp. 263–266. © Genus: Tridax Indian Academy of Sciences. [2] Taddei A, Rosas-Romero AJ. Bioactivity studies of extracts from Tridax procumbens. Departamento Species: T. procumbens de Química, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas, Venezuela. ataddei@usb.ve Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 86. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Tridax • Anti-Diabetic activity – • T.procumbens leaves (200 mg/kg) orally procumbens administered for 7 days produced a significant decrease in the blood glucose level in the model where do you see? of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Petroleum extract exhibits a very weak anti-diabetic activity[3] • Antioxidants – • T. procumbens plants are rich sources of natural antioxidant. T. procumbens has a percentage antioxidant activity (AA %) of 96.70 which was observed to be higher than those of gallic (92.92%) and ascorbic acids (94.81%) used as Vishalya Karani standards. Family: Asteraceae Tribe: Heliantheae [3] Bhagwat DA, Killedar SG, Adnaik RS. Anti-diabetic activity of leaf extract of Tridax procumbens. Int J Green Pharm 2008;2:126-8 Genus: Tridax [4] J. D. Habila, et.al. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of Tridax procumbens Linn. Species: T. procumbens African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 4(3), pp. 123-126, March 2010 Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 87. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Nadi Impulse Simulogram • Nadi Impulse Simulogram is a unique advanced Ayurvedic pulse diagnosis software, that monitors impulses of molecules and cells in pulse developed by Dr. N.D. Raju of Hyderbad. • This program works on the basis of Nadi input values decoded in to Kurma Nadi and Vasuli Nadi outputs. It develops various graphs of Dosha Gati index, Sroto pravrutti, krama and dusti, Chakra activity, Dhatuparinama Index, etc. in graphical manner, where the interpretation is made simple. • Contact Dr. N. Dharmanandan Raju at idid_raju@yahoo.com or +9885040369. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 88. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Nadi Impulse Simulogram Output Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 89. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda General • The general practitioner in Ayurveda practitioner Provides personal, primary and continuing in Ayurveda medical care to individuals and families and Specific responsibility for the health of the community • He Makes an initial decision on every problem presented by patient and Consults specialists when ever is appropriate • Intervenes to promote health and takes Clinical decisions influenced by prior probability of disease • Has an advocacy role for the patient • Apart from all above – is there any responsibility of making RESEARCH at him? Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 90. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda • Generalists and specialists require different knowledge, skills and attitudes General but are complementary in their roles. • The GP is committed to the person rather Practice than to a particular body of knowledge, a group of diseases or special techniques (McWhinney 1997) • A GP provides personal, primary and continuing care to individuals, families and a practice population. • The spectrum of problems presenting in general practice is very different from that seen in hospital. • The GP must combine the scientific and humanitarian approach to medical practice, providing holistic care to patients. Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 91. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 92. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Characteristics of GP & PHC • General practice • Primary health care Focus is illness: Focus is local communities: Individuals and families 1. Local communities using local knowledge - First contact 2. Concerned about Local and accessible determinants of health Small scale efficiency - Socio-economic Tolerates uncertainty - Environmental The three Cs: 3. Empowers communities to control/influence Continuity, - determinants of health Coordination, 4. Education and prevention are Continuing care key pieces Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 93. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Clinical Care Good clinical care Models of health care • Maintaining good medical • Biomedical practice (biomechanical) and bio- • Relationships with psychosocial patients • Reductionist and holistic • Working with colleagues (integrative) • Teaching and training • Disease-based and • Probity illness-based • Health • Patient-centered and population-centered • Reactive and anticipatory • doctor-centered & • Patient-centered Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 94. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda 1. Exploring both the disease and the illness The six experience – understanding Differential interactive diagnosis and Dimensions of illness components of 2. Understanding the whole person 3. Finding common ground regarding the patient- management Problems and priorities centered along with Goals of treatments 4. Incorporating prevention and health process: promotion in Health enhancement and Risk reduction 5. Enhancing the patient-doctor relationship by sharing and maintain the relation 6. Being realistic about Time and Resources Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 95. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda • Known is Scarce and the ignored are abundant Conclusion • Knowledge is becoming capital for the Earning • Research of course a part of the Game always • Every time I see – a Book or Net – I am getting a new Idea or thought – I don’t understand why the others are not initiated • If this narration offers any insight – My effort is exercised • Thank You – One and All who get Awareness Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 96. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/
  • 97. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 98. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.webs.com/apps/members/
  • 99. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://ayurmitra.wordpress.com/ /
  • 100. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.blogspot.in/
  • 101. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda • Ted Colton, ScD, Professor & Chair Emeritus, Special Thanks to: Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics • Amit Pahwa, MS-4, Tinsley Harrison Society, University of Alabama School of Medicine • Dr Girish Shrikrishna Tillu, Project Leader, Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Pune, Consultant, Centre for Rheumatic Diseases, Pune, Consultant, Vishwanand Ayurveda Centre, Pune, Advisor, Global Herbs Pharmaceuticals, Pune - gtillu@rediffmail.com • Lauren Solberg, CRC Research Skills Workshop, January 18, 2008, lauren.b.solberg@vanderbilt.edu • Dr. Gareth M. Forde, Bio Engineering Lab (BEL), Chemical Engineering • Dr. Jayashree B. Keshav, Technical Officer, Atrimed Herbals, Pvt. Ltd. • All the Images / Information collected from net for knowledge sharing – If any copyright exists – It goes to the respective individuals Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://technoayurveda.wordpress.com/
  • 102. Avenues for research & Updates in Ayurveda technoayurveda@gmail.com THANK YOU It’s Technoayurveda International Presentation By Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad Of . . . http://www.technoayurveda.com Dr. K. Shiva Rama Prasad, at http://www.technoayurveda.com/