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SEMINAR REPORT
On
AUGMENTED REALITY
Submitted by
Siddhartha Chauhan
158429070
Submitted to
Dr. Pooja Pathak
Department of Computer Engineering & Applications
Institute of Engineering & Technology
GLA University
Mathura- 281406, INDIA Dec, 2016
CONTENT
 Introduction
 History
 Goals
 Augmented reality vs Virtual reality
 How it works
 Applications
 Limitations
 Conclusion
1. INTRODUCTION
A combination of a real scene viewed by a user and a virtual scene generated by a
computer that augments the scene with additional information. It adds virtual
computer-generated objects, audio and other sense enhancements to a real-world
environment in real time. AR is a live direct or indirect view of a physical, real-
world environment whose elements are augmented by computer- generated sensory
inputs. It is related to a more general concept called mediated reality, in which a
view of reality is modified by a computer. As a result, the technology functions by
enhancing one’s current perception of reality. By contrast, virtual reality replaces
the real world with a simulated one. Augmentation is conventionally in real time
and in semantic context with environmental elements, such as sports scores on TV
during a match. With the help of advanced AR technology (eg: adding computer
vision and object recognition) the information about the surrounding real world of
the user becomes interactive and digitally manipulable. Information about the
environment and its objects is overlaid on the real world. This information can be
virtual or real, eg seeing other real sensed or measure information such as
electromagnetic radio waves overlaid in exact alignment with where they actually
are in space. Augmented reality brings out the components of the digital world into
a person’s perceived real world. Augmented reality (AR) is a live direct or indirect
view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented (or
supplemented) by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics
or GPS data. It is related to a more general concept called mediated reality, in
which a view of reality is modified (possibly even diminished rather than
augmented) by a computer. As a result, the technology functions by enhancing
one’s current perception of reality. By contrast virtual reality replaces the real
world with a simulated one. Augmentation is conventionally in real time and in
semantic context with environmental elements, such as sports scores on TV during
a match. With the help of advanced AR technology (e.g. adding computer vision
and object recognition) the information about the surrounding real world of the
user becomes interactive and digitally manipulable. Information about the
environment and its objects is overlaid on the real world. This information can be
virtual or real, e.g. seeing other real sensed or measured information such as
electromagnetic radio waves overlaid in exact alignment with where they actually
are in space. Augmented reality brings out the components of the digital world into
a person's perceived real world. One example is an AR Helmet for construction
workers which displays information about the construction sites.
2. History:
 1901: L. Frank Baum, an author, first mentions the idea of an electronic
display/spectacles that overlays data onto real life (in this case 'people'), it is
named a 'character marker'.
 1957–62: Morton Heilig, a cinematographer, creates and patents a simulator
called Sensorama with visuals, sound, vibration, and smell.
 1968: Ivan Sutherland invents the head-mounted display and positions it as a
window into a virtual world.
 1975: Myron Krueger creates Videoplace to allow users to interact with
virtual objects for the first time.
 1980: Steve Mann creates the first wearable computer, a computer vision
system with text and graphical overlays on a photographically mediated
reality, or Augmediated Reality.
 1981: Dan Reitan geospatially maps multiple weather radar images and
space-based and studio cameras to virtual reality Earth maps and abstract
symbols for television weather broadcasts, bringing Augmented Reality to
TV.
 1989: Jaron Lanier coins the phrase Virtual Reality and creates the first
commercial business around virtual worlds.
 1990: The term 'Augmented Reality' is attributed to Thomas P. Caudell, a
former Boeing researcher.
 1992: Louis Rosenberg develops one of the first functioning AR systems,
called Virtual Fixtures, at the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory—
Armstrong, and demonstrates benefits to human performance.
 1992: Steven Feiner, Blair MacIntyre and Doree Seligmann present the first
major paper on an AR system prototype, KARMA, at the Graphics Interface
conference.
 1993: Mike Abernathy, et al., report the first use of augmented reality in
identifying space debris using Rockwell WorldView by overlaying
geographic trajectories on live telescope video.
 1993 A widely cited version of the paper above is published in
Communications of the ACM – Special issue on computer augmented
environments, edited by Pierre Wellner, Wendy Mackay, and Rich Gold.
 1993: Loral WDL, with sponsorship from STRICOM, performed the first
demonstration combining live AR-equipped vehicles and manned
simulators. Unpublished paper, J. Barrilleaux, "Experiences and
Observations in Applying Augmented Reality to Live Training", 1999.
 1994: Julie Martin creates first 'Augmented Reality Theater production',
Dancing In Cyberspace, funded by the Australia Council for the Arts,
features dancers and acrobats manipulating body–sized virtual object in real
time, projected into the same physical space and performance plane. The
acrobats appeared immersed within the virtual object and environments. The
installation used Silicon Graphics computers and Polhemus sensing system.
 1995: S. Ravela et al. at University of Massachusetts introduce a vision-
based system using monocular cameras to track objects (engine blocks)
across views for augmented reality.
 1998: Spatial Augmented Reality introduced at University of North Carolina
at Chapel Hill by Ramesh Raskar, Welch, Henry Fuchs.
 1999: Frank Delgado, Mike Abernathy et al. report successful flight test of
LandForm software video map overlay from a helicopter at Army Yuma
Proving Ground overlaying video with runways, taxiways, roads and road
names.
 1999: The US Naval Research Laboratory engage on a decade long research
program called the Battlefield Augmented Reality System (BARS) to
prototype some of the early wearable systems for dismounted soldier
operating in urban environment for situation awareness and training NRL
BARS Web page
 1999: Hirokazu Kato created ARToolKit at HITLab, where AR later was
further developed by other HITLab scientists, demonstrating it at
SIGGRAPH.
 2000: Bruce H. Thomas develops ARQuake, the first outdoor mobile AR
game, demonstrating it in the International Symposium on Wearable
Computers.
 2001: NASA X-38 flown using LandForm software video map overlays at
Dryden Flight Research Center.
 2004: Outdoor helmet-mounted AR system demonstrated by Trimble
Navigation and the Human Interface Technology Laboratory.
 2008: Wikitude AR Travel Guide launches on 20 Oct 2008 with the G1
Android phone.
 2009: ARToolkit was ported to Adobe Flash (FLARToolkit) by Saqoosha,
bringing augmented reality to the web browser.
 2012: Launch of Lyteshot, an interactive AR gaming platform that utilizes
smartglasses for game data
 2013: Meta announces the Meta 1 developer kit, the first to market AR see-
through display[citation needed]
 2013: Google announces an open beta test of its Google Glass augmented
reality glasses. The glasses reach the Internet through Bluetooth, which
connects to the wireless service on a user’s cellphone. The glasses respond
when a user speaks, touches the frame or moves the head.
 2014: Mahei creates the first generation of augmented reality enhanced
educational toys.
 2015: Microsoft announces Windows Holographic and the HoloLens
augmented reality headset. The headset utilizes various sensors and a
processing unit to blend high definition "holograms" with the real world.
 2016: Niantic released Pokémon Go for iOS and Android in July 2016. The
game quickly became one of the most used applications and has brought
augmented reality to the mainstream.
3. GOALS
 Primary goal of AR is to create a system in which the user cannot tell the
difference between the real world and the virtual augmentation of it.
 To enhance a person’s performance and perception of the world.
 Create a system such that a user CANNOT tell the difference and the virtual
augmentation of it.
4. AUGMENTED REALITY VS VIRTUAL REALITY
It often happens that when some media reports news about augmented
reality’s sector, finishes talking about virtual reality, and vice-versa,
sometimes without indicating which are on different technologies. It seems
like these new virtual progresses are not as clears as they should yet! So we
try to explain the differences and similarities of presenting these digital
contents:
 The differences are more abundant than the similarities by definition of
each. Virtual reality shows an alternative world, a completely built and
virtual one which replaces our environment for a fictitious world;
nevertheless, augmented reality overprints computer data to the real world,
this means, we can see our environment with extra elements which has been
built digitally. Till here the basics but, what differences does these
definitions involve?
 Augmented reality needs the environment so just use a camera integrated in
our devices (smartphones, tablets, PCs), it isn’t needs any other, although
each time it appears more wearable devices like Google Glass. Virtual
reality needs the opposite, a device which can fully isolate us in virtual
world, this is, specific devices. This way, when we use the AR we can, at the
same time, paying attention to the virtual content and then to the
environment or we control both at the same time; but using the VR there is
no other alternative but paying attention to the virtual content as we have no
control over the real world (except by touch, still does not seem to be part of
this situation). For these differences we can see that AR and VR has huge
segmentation possibilities. AR is having more acceptance in formation and
marketing, meanwhile VR is better for videogames and other leisure options.
But they have something in common which is the key for the success of both
technologies: the development of their graphic elements walks hand by
hand, it is a progress at the same time that we can notice more and more.
How do they work together?
 It is not always virtual reality vs. augmented reality– they do not always
operate independently of one another, and in fact are often blended together
to generate an even more immersing experience. For example, haptic
feedback-which is the vibration and sensation added to interaction with
graphics-is considered an augmentation. However, it is commonly used
within a virtual reality setting in order to make the experience more lifelike
though touch.
 Virtual reality and augmented reality are great examples of experiences and
interactions fueled by the desire to become immersed in a simulated land for
entertainment and play, or to add a new dimension of interaction between
digital devices and the real world. Alone or blended together, they are
undoubtedly opening up worlds-both real and virtual alike.
5. HOW IT WORKS
Augmented Reality turns the environment around you into a digital interface by
placing virtual objects in the real world, in real-time. Augmented Reality can be
seen through a wide variety of experiences. We distinguish 3 main categories of
Augmented Reality tools.
 Augmented Reality 3D viewers, like Augment, allow users to place life-
size 3D models in your environment with or without the use of trackers.
Trackers are simple images that 3D models can be attached to in Augmented
Reality.
 Augmented Reality browsers enrich your camera display with contextual
information. For example, you can point your smartphone at a building to
display its history or estimated value.
 The main h/w components for augmented reality are: display, tracking, input
devices, sensors and processor.
 The last way that Augmented Reality is generally experienced is through
gaming, creating immersive gaming experiences that utilize your actual
surroundings. Imagine shooting games with zombies walking in your own
bedroom! The biggest use of Augmented Reality gaming to-date is Pokémon
Go, allowing users to catch virtual Pokémon who are hidden throughout a
map of the real world.
6. APPLICATIONS
 Education: Augmented reality applications can complement a standard
curriculum. Text, graphics, video and audio can be superimposed into a
student’s real time environment. Text books, flashcards and other
educational reading material can contain embedded “markers” that, when
scanned by an AR device, produce supplementary information to the student
rendered in multimedia format. Students can participate interactively with
computer generated simulations of historical events, exploring and learning.
 Military: In combat, AR can serve as a networked communication system
that renders useful battlefield data onto a soldier's goggles in real time. From
the soldier's viewpoint, people and various objects can be marked with
special indicators to warn of potential dangers. Virtual maps and 360° view
camera imaging can also be rendered to aid a soldier's navigation and
battlefield perspective, and this can be transmitted to military leaders at a
remote command center.
An interesting application of AR occurred when Rockwell International
created video map overlays of satellite and orbital debris tracks to aid in
space observations at Air Force Maui Optical System. In their 1993 paper
"Debris Correlation Using the Rockwell WorldView System" the authors
describe the use of map overlays applied to video from space surveillance
telescopes. The map overlays indicated the trajectories of various objects in
geographic coordinates. This allowed telescope operators to identify
satellites, and also to identify – and catalog – potentially dangerous space
debris.
Starting in 2003 the US Army integrated the SmartCam3D augmented
reality system into the Shadow Unmanned Aerial System to aid sensor
operators using telescopic cameras to locate people or points of interest. The
system combined both fixed geographic information including street names,
points of interest, airports and railroads with live video from the camera
system. The system offered "picture in picture" mode that allows the system
to show a synthetic view of the area surrounding the camera's field of view.
This helps solve a problem in which the field of view is so narrow that it
excludes important context, as if "looking through a soda straw". The system
displays real-time friend/foe/neutral location markers blended with live
video, providing the operator with improved situation awareness.
Researchers at USAF Research Lab (Calhoun, Draper et al.) found an two-
fold increase in the speed at which UAV sensor operators found points of
interest using this technology. This ability to maintain geographic awareness
quantitatively enhances mission efficiency. The system is in use on the US
Army RQ-7 Shadow and the MQ-1C Gray Eagle Unmanned Aerial Systems.
 Video Games: Augmented reality allows video game players to experience
digital game play in a real world environment. Companies and platforms like
Niantic and LyteShot emerged as augmented reality gaming crators.
However, though the popular press overwhelming calls Pokemon Go an
augmented reality game, most experts in AR and experts in game
development agree that it is best described as a location-based game.
 Military: In combat, AR can serve as networked communication system that
renders useful battlefield data onto a soldier’s goggles in real time. From the
soldier’s viewpoint, people and various objects can be marked with special
indicators to warn of potential dangers. Virtual maps and 360º view camera
imaging can also be rendered to aid a soldier’s navigation and battlefield
perspective, and this can be transmitted to military leaders at a remote
command center.
 Visual art: AR technology has helped disabled individuals create visual art
by using eye tracking to translate a user's eye movements into drawings on a
screen. An item such as a commemorative coin can be designed so that when
scanned by an AR-enabled device it displays additional objects and layers of
information that were not visible in a real world view of it. In 2013, L'Oreal
used CrowdOptic technology to create an augmented reality at the seventh
annual Luminato Festival in Toronto, Canada.
AR in visual art opens the possibility of multidimensional experiences and
interpretations of reality. Augmenting people, objects, and landscapes is
becoming an art form in itself. In 2011, artist Amir Bardaran's the Mona
Lisa infiltrates Da Vinci's painting using an AR mobile application called
Junaio. Aim a Junaio loaded smartphone camera at any image of the Mona
Lisa and watch as Leonardo's subject places a scarf made of a French flag
around her head. The AR app allows the user to train his or her smartphone
on Da Vinci's Mona Lisa and watch the mysterious Italian lady loosen her
hair and wrap a French flag around her in the form a (currently banned)
Islamic hijab.
 Sports and entertainment: AR has become common in sports telecasting.
Sports and entertainment venues are provided with see-through and overlay
augmentation through tracked camera feeds for enhanced viewing by the
audience. Examples include the yellow “first down” line seen in television
broadcasts of American football games showing the line the offensive team
must cross to receive a first down. AR is also used in association with
football and other sporting events to show commercial advertisements
overlaid onto the view of the playing area.
7. LIMITATIONS
 AR still has some challenges to overcome. eg: GPS is only accurate to
within 30 feet and doesn’t work as well indoors.
 Improved image recognition technology is a must for more fluid AR
experience.
 Data should be rendered across the wearer’s full scope of vision, not
partially. The technology should also be equipped with a better
understanding of natural body movements, ensuring that the displays get
lighter and thinner. Internet connectivity is still a problem since there are so
many places where no connection is available.
 Battery life of such a device, which should be extended to allow users make
the most from the technology in daily use.
 A serious concern about the technology is related to the issue of privacy.
Image-recognition s/w together with AR will allow users to access
information about strangers imported from their online profiles.
 Finally, there’s the argument of information overload which is often applied
to technology in general. Many people argue that we live in a constantly
switched on society and such 24/7 technology on demand will radically
change the way we see and think about reality. They often cite the danger of
spending too much time in the virtual world and missing out on moments
that are happening in the real world.
8. ETHICAL ISSUES
 Controlled matter: Arguably the most technically challenging approach
would be to manipulate or reconfigure atoms in order to change the physical
environment. Think Star Trek Holodeck. While this may seem outlandish
today, there is research in this direction. The researchers point to “displays
that use magnetic fields to rapidly create shapes out of ferromagnetic fluid,”
and another class of displays that “levitate solid objects in a field of overlaid
ultrasonic or magnetic waves.” The challenges to realizing this approach
include safety and energy requirements.
 Surround AR: The “next best thing to manipulating atoms is manipulating
photons,” in order to make objects in the environment visually
indistinguishable from physical reality. The researchers imagine
environments replete with light-field displays that create very realistic visual
effects. Haptics might be achieved by “stimulating the user’s skin through
ultrasound waves.” The challenges to this approach include the immensity of
the data processing required and the ability to achieve high resolution. Thus,
technology for plenoptic displays remains “in its infancy,” even while light-
field sensors have advanced.
 Personalized AR: This approach revolves around displaying information
only in the subset of the environment that a particular user is experiencing.
Examples of this approach include some the most commonly known devices
today, i.e. Google Glass and Microsoft’s HoloLens. Challenges approach
include tracking at “sufficiently high update rates and low latency.”
9. COMPANIES IN INDIA
 Hyperlink Infosystem: This company is excellent into mobile app & web
development. They have done tremendous work on AR & VR both. Their
work speaks more than the words. In very few years they have captured the
whole app market with their developer’s high proficiency of skills & talent.
 SDM Digital: One of the very good mobile app development companies
which is working on AR technology. There are not so many companies who
are working on AR but yes number is increasing day by day so competition
is going to be very high and Small Planet digital has worked on some
successful projects on AR platform.
 PC App: PC App is one really creative company which is known as it’s
innovation & unique creation. Here we are talking about AR so it has very
good expertise to create something out of the box on AR. They have 3
simple steps in their process: Design, Develop, & Distribute.
 Zynga: Zynga is one of the famous game developer company in USA. It has
created some of the very popular games and now they are into AR too. Price
wise yes it is quite high our Zynga has those experience and expertise which
is unbeatable.
 KetchieApp: KethieApp is one of the best companies as far as game
development is concerned. They are famous in making complex games.
10. CONCLUSION
 Augmented reality is the next “BIG THING” it will absolutely revolutionize
almost every aspect of life we have.
 Everything from medicine to education to construction to entertainment.
 AR application is already starting to appear on the world’s laptops, tablets
and smart phones.
 Augmented reality is likely to worm its way into our daily lives more and
more in the 21st century. Once wearable computers become more common it
won’t be strange to see people interacting with and reacting to things that
aren’t there from your perspective. Thanks to technology such as AR the
way we work with computing devices and think about the divide between
digital and analogue reality is likely to change fundamentally. Nothing is
stopping you from experiencing augmented reality for yourself today
though. Just hop onto smartphone’s app store and search for “AR” apps.
There are plenty to try, many of them free.
REFERENCES
 www.slideshare.com
 www.seminarsonly.com
 www.wikipedia.com
 www.google.com

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Augmented reality report

  • 1. SEMINAR REPORT On AUGMENTED REALITY Submitted by Siddhartha Chauhan 158429070 Submitted to Dr. Pooja Pathak Department of Computer Engineering & Applications Institute of Engineering & Technology GLA University Mathura- 281406, INDIA Dec, 2016
  • 2. CONTENT  Introduction  History  Goals  Augmented reality vs Virtual reality  How it works  Applications  Limitations  Conclusion
  • 3. 1. INTRODUCTION A combination of a real scene viewed by a user and a virtual scene generated by a computer that augments the scene with additional information. It adds virtual computer-generated objects, audio and other sense enhancements to a real-world environment in real time. AR is a live direct or indirect view of a physical, real- world environment whose elements are augmented by computer- generated sensory inputs. It is related to a more general concept called mediated reality, in which a view of reality is modified by a computer. As a result, the technology functions by enhancing one’s current perception of reality. By contrast, virtual reality replaces the real world with a simulated one. Augmentation is conventionally in real time and in semantic context with environmental elements, such as sports scores on TV during a match. With the help of advanced AR technology (eg: adding computer vision and object recognition) the information about the surrounding real world of the user becomes interactive and digitally manipulable. Information about the environment and its objects is overlaid on the real world. This information can be virtual or real, eg seeing other real sensed or measure information such as electromagnetic radio waves overlaid in exact alignment with where they actually are in space. Augmented reality brings out the components of the digital world into a person’s perceived real world. Augmented reality (AR) is a live direct or indirect view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented (or supplemented) by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. It is related to a more general concept called mediated reality, in which a view of reality is modified (possibly even diminished rather than augmented) by a computer. As a result, the technology functions by enhancing one’s current perception of reality. By contrast virtual reality replaces the real
  • 4. world with a simulated one. Augmentation is conventionally in real time and in semantic context with environmental elements, such as sports scores on TV during a match. With the help of advanced AR technology (e.g. adding computer vision and object recognition) the information about the surrounding real world of the user becomes interactive and digitally manipulable. Information about the environment and its objects is overlaid on the real world. This information can be virtual or real, e.g. seeing other real sensed or measured information such as electromagnetic radio waves overlaid in exact alignment with where they actually are in space. Augmented reality brings out the components of the digital world into a person's perceived real world. One example is an AR Helmet for construction workers which displays information about the construction sites.
  • 5. 2. History:  1901: L. Frank Baum, an author, first mentions the idea of an electronic display/spectacles that overlays data onto real life (in this case 'people'), it is named a 'character marker'.  1957–62: Morton Heilig, a cinematographer, creates and patents a simulator called Sensorama with visuals, sound, vibration, and smell.  1968: Ivan Sutherland invents the head-mounted display and positions it as a window into a virtual world.  1975: Myron Krueger creates Videoplace to allow users to interact with virtual objects for the first time.  1980: Steve Mann creates the first wearable computer, a computer vision system with text and graphical overlays on a photographically mediated reality, or Augmediated Reality.  1981: Dan Reitan geospatially maps multiple weather radar images and space-based and studio cameras to virtual reality Earth maps and abstract symbols for television weather broadcasts, bringing Augmented Reality to TV.  1989: Jaron Lanier coins the phrase Virtual Reality and creates the first commercial business around virtual worlds.
  • 6.  1990: The term 'Augmented Reality' is attributed to Thomas P. Caudell, a former Boeing researcher.  1992: Louis Rosenberg develops one of the first functioning AR systems, called Virtual Fixtures, at the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory— Armstrong, and demonstrates benefits to human performance.  1992: Steven Feiner, Blair MacIntyre and Doree Seligmann present the first major paper on an AR system prototype, KARMA, at the Graphics Interface conference.  1993: Mike Abernathy, et al., report the first use of augmented reality in identifying space debris using Rockwell WorldView by overlaying geographic trajectories on live telescope video.  1993 A widely cited version of the paper above is published in Communications of the ACM – Special issue on computer augmented environments, edited by Pierre Wellner, Wendy Mackay, and Rich Gold.  1993: Loral WDL, with sponsorship from STRICOM, performed the first demonstration combining live AR-equipped vehicles and manned simulators. Unpublished paper, J. Barrilleaux, "Experiences and Observations in Applying Augmented Reality to Live Training", 1999.  1994: Julie Martin creates first 'Augmented Reality Theater production', Dancing In Cyberspace, funded by the Australia Council for the Arts,
  • 7. features dancers and acrobats manipulating body–sized virtual object in real time, projected into the same physical space and performance plane. The acrobats appeared immersed within the virtual object and environments. The installation used Silicon Graphics computers and Polhemus sensing system.  1995: S. Ravela et al. at University of Massachusetts introduce a vision- based system using monocular cameras to track objects (engine blocks) across views for augmented reality.  1998: Spatial Augmented Reality introduced at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill by Ramesh Raskar, Welch, Henry Fuchs.  1999: Frank Delgado, Mike Abernathy et al. report successful flight test of LandForm software video map overlay from a helicopter at Army Yuma Proving Ground overlaying video with runways, taxiways, roads and road names.  1999: The US Naval Research Laboratory engage on a decade long research program called the Battlefield Augmented Reality System (BARS) to prototype some of the early wearable systems for dismounted soldier operating in urban environment for situation awareness and training NRL BARS Web page  1999: Hirokazu Kato created ARToolKit at HITLab, where AR later was further developed by other HITLab scientists, demonstrating it at SIGGRAPH.
  • 8.  2000: Bruce H. Thomas develops ARQuake, the first outdoor mobile AR game, demonstrating it in the International Symposium on Wearable Computers.  2001: NASA X-38 flown using LandForm software video map overlays at Dryden Flight Research Center.  2004: Outdoor helmet-mounted AR system demonstrated by Trimble Navigation and the Human Interface Technology Laboratory.  2008: Wikitude AR Travel Guide launches on 20 Oct 2008 with the G1 Android phone.  2009: ARToolkit was ported to Adobe Flash (FLARToolkit) by Saqoosha, bringing augmented reality to the web browser.  2012: Launch of Lyteshot, an interactive AR gaming platform that utilizes smartglasses for game data  2013: Meta announces the Meta 1 developer kit, the first to market AR see- through display[citation needed]  2013: Google announces an open beta test of its Google Glass augmented reality glasses. The glasses reach the Internet through Bluetooth, which connects to the wireless service on a user’s cellphone. The glasses respond when a user speaks, touches the frame or moves the head.
  • 9.  2014: Mahei creates the first generation of augmented reality enhanced educational toys.  2015: Microsoft announces Windows Holographic and the HoloLens augmented reality headset. The headset utilizes various sensors and a processing unit to blend high definition "holograms" with the real world.  2016: Niantic released Pokémon Go for iOS and Android in July 2016. The game quickly became one of the most used applications and has brought augmented reality to the mainstream. 3. GOALS  Primary goal of AR is to create a system in which the user cannot tell the difference between the real world and the virtual augmentation of it.  To enhance a person’s performance and perception of the world.  Create a system such that a user CANNOT tell the difference and the virtual augmentation of it.
  • 10. 4. AUGMENTED REALITY VS VIRTUAL REALITY It often happens that when some media reports news about augmented reality’s sector, finishes talking about virtual reality, and vice-versa, sometimes without indicating which are on different technologies. It seems like these new virtual progresses are not as clears as they should yet! So we try to explain the differences and similarities of presenting these digital contents:  The differences are more abundant than the similarities by definition of each. Virtual reality shows an alternative world, a completely built and virtual one which replaces our environment for a fictitious world; nevertheless, augmented reality overprints computer data to the real world, this means, we can see our environment with extra elements which has been built digitally. Till here the basics but, what differences does these definitions involve?  Augmented reality needs the environment so just use a camera integrated in our devices (smartphones, tablets, PCs), it isn’t needs any other, although each time it appears more wearable devices like Google Glass. Virtual reality needs the opposite, a device which can fully isolate us in virtual world, this is, specific devices. This way, when we use the AR we can, at the same time, paying attention to the virtual content and then to the environment or we control both at the same time; but using the VR there is no other alternative but paying attention to the virtual content as we have no control over the real world (except by touch, still does not seem to be part of
  • 11. this situation). For these differences we can see that AR and VR has huge segmentation possibilities. AR is having more acceptance in formation and marketing, meanwhile VR is better for videogames and other leisure options. But they have something in common which is the key for the success of both technologies: the development of their graphic elements walks hand by hand, it is a progress at the same time that we can notice more and more. How do they work together?  It is not always virtual reality vs. augmented reality– they do not always operate independently of one another, and in fact are often blended together to generate an even more immersing experience. For example, haptic feedback-which is the vibration and sensation added to interaction with graphics-is considered an augmentation. However, it is commonly used within a virtual reality setting in order to make the experience more lifelike though touch.  Virtual reality and augmented reality are great examples of experiences and interactions fueled by the desire to become immersed in a simulated land for entertainment and play, or to add a new dimension of interaction between digital devices and the real world. Alone or blended together, they are undoubtedly opening up worlds-both real and virtual alike.
  • 12. 5. HOW IT WORKS Augmented Reality turns the environment around you into a digital interface by placing virtual objects in the real world, in real-time. Augmented Reality can be seen through a wide variety of experiences. We distinguish 3 main categories of Augmented Reality tools.  Augmented Reality 3D viewers, like Augment, allow users to place life- size 3D models in your environment with or without the use of trackers. Trackers are simple images that 3D models can be attached to in Augmented Reality.  Augmented Reality browsers enrich your camera display with contextual information. For example, you can point your smartphone at a building to display its history or estimated value.  The main h/w components for augmented reality are: display, tracking, input devices, sensors and processor.  The last way that Augmented Reality is generally experienced is through gaming, creating immersive gaming experiences that utilize your actual surroundings. Imagine shooting games with zombies walking in your own bedroom! The biggest use of Augmented Reality gaming to-date is Pokémon Go, allowing users to catch virtual Pokémon who are hidden throughout a map of the real world.
  • 13. 6. APPLICATIONS  Education: Augmented reality applications can complement a standard curriculum. Text, graphics, video and audio can be superimposed into a student’s real time environment. Text books, flashcards and other educational reading material can contain embedded “markers” that, when scanned by an AR device, produce supplementary information to the student rendered in multimedia format. Students can participate interactively with computer generated simulations of historical events, exploring and learning.  Military: In combat, AR can serve as a networked communication system that renders useful battlefield data onto a soldier's goggles in real time. From the soldier's viewpoint, people and various objects can be marked with special indicators to warn of potential dangers. Virtual maps and 360° view camera imaging can also be rendered to aid a soldier's navigation and battlefield perspective, and this can be transmitted to military leaders at a remote command center. An interesting application of AR occurred when Rockwell International created video map overlays of satellite and orbital debris tracks to aid in space observations at Air Force Maui Optical System. In their 1993 paper "Debris Correlation Using the Rockwell WorldView System" the authors describe the use of map overlays applied to video from space surveillance telescopes. The map overlays indicated the trajectories of various objects in geographic coordinates. This allowed telescope operators to identify satellites, and also to identify – and catalog – potentially dangerous space debris.
  • 14. Starting in 2003 the US Army integrated the SmartCam3D augmented reality system into the Shadow Unmanned Aerial System to aid sensor operators using telescopic cameras to locate people or points of interest. The system combined both fixed geographic information including street names, points of interest, airports and railroads with live video from the camera system. The system offered "picture in picture" mode that allows the system to show a synthetic view of the area surrounding the camera's field of view. This helps solve a problem in which the field of view is so narrow that it excludes important context, as if "looking through a soda straw". The system displays real-time friend/foe/neutral location markers blended with live video, providing the operator with improved situation awareness. Researchers at USAF Research Lab (Calhoun, Draper et al.) found an two- fold increase in the speed at which UAV sensor operators found points of interest using this technology. This ability to maintain geographic awareness quantitatively enhances mission efficiency. The system is in use on the US Army RQ-7 Shadow and the MQ-1C Gray Eagle Unmanned Aerial Systems.  Video Games: Augmented reality allows video game players to experience digital game play in a real world environment. Companies and platforms like Niantic and LyteShot emerged as augmented reality gaming crators. However, though the popular press overwhelming calls Pokemon Go an augmented reality game, most experts in AR and experts in game development agree that it is best described as a location-based game.  Military: In combat, AR can serve as networked communication system that renders useful battlefield data onto a soldier’s goggles in real time. From the
  • 15. soldier’s viewpoint, people and various objects can be marked with special indicators to warn of potential dangers. Virtual maps and 360º view camera imaging can also be rendered to aid a soldier’s navigation and battlefield perspective, and this can be transmitted to military leaders at a remote command center.  Visual art: AR technology has helped disabled individuals create visual art by using eye tracking to translate a user's eye movements into drawings on a screen. An item such as a commemorative coin can be designed so that when scanned by an AR-enabled device it displays additional objects and layers of information that were not visible in a real world view of it. In 2013, L'Oreal used CrowdOptic technology to create an augmented reality at the seventh annual Luminato Festival in Toronto, Canada. AR in visual art opens the possibility of multidimensional experiences and interpretations of reality. Augmenting people, objects, and landscapes is becoming an art form in itself. In 2011, artist Amir Bardaran's the Mona Lisa infiltrates Da Vinci's painting using an AR mobile application called Junaio. Aim a Junaio loaded smartphone camera at any image of the Mona Lisa and watch as Leonardo's subject places a scarf made of a French flag around her head. The AR app allows the user to train his or her smartphone on Da Vinci's Mona Lisa and watch the mysterious Italian lady loosen her hair and wrap a French flag around her in the form a (currently banned) Islamic hijab.
  • 16.  Sports and entertainment: AR has become common in sports telecasting. Sports and entertainment venues are provided with see-through and overlay augmentation through tracked camera feeds for enhanced viewing by the audience. Examples include the yellow “first down” line seen in television broadcasts of American football games showing the line the offensive team must cross to receive a first down. AR is also used in association with football and other sporting events to show commercial advertisements overlaid onto the view of the playing area.
  • 17. 7. LIMITATIONS  AR still has some challenges to overcome. eg: GPS is only accurate to within 30 feet and doesn’t work as well indoors.  Improved image recognition technology is a must for more fluid AR experience.  Data should be rendered across the wearer’s full scope of vision, not partially. The technology should also be equipped with a better understanding of natural body movements, ensuring that the displays get lighter and thinner. Internet connectivity is still a problem since there are so many places where no connection is available.  Battery life of such a device, which should be extended to allow users make the most from the technology in daily use.  A serious concern about the technology is related to the issue of privacy. Image-recognition s/w together with AR will allow users to access information about strangers imported from their online profiles.  Finally, there’s the argument of information overload which is often applied to technology in general. Many people argue that we live in a constantly switched on society and such 24/7 technology on demand will radically change the way we see and think about reality. They often cite the danger of spending too much time in the virtual world and missing out on moments that are happening in the real world.
  • 18. 8. ETHICAL ISSUES  Controlled matter: Arguably the most technically challenging approach would be to manipulate or reconfigure atoms in order to change the physical environment. Think Star Trek Holodeck. While this may seem outlandish today, there is research in this direction. The researchers point to “displays that use magnetic fields to rapidly create shapes out of ferromagnetic fluid,” and another class of displays that “levitate solid objects in a field of overlaid ultrasonic or magnetic waves.” The challenges to realizing this approach include safety and energy requirements.  Surround AR: The “next best thing to manipulating atoms is manipulating photons,” in order to make objects in the environment visually indistinguishable from physical reality. The researchers imagine environments replete with light-field displays that create very realistic visual effects. Haptics might be achieved by “stimulating the user’s skin through ultrasound waves.” The challenges to this approach include the immensity of the data processing required and the ability to achieve high resolution. Thus, technology for plenoptic displays remains “in its infancy,” even while light- field sensors have advanced.  Personalized AR: This approach revolves around displaying information only in the subset of the environment that a particular user is experiencing. Examples of this approach include some the most commonly known devices today, i.e. Google Glass and Microsoft’s HoloLens. Challenges approach include tracking at “sufficiently high update rates and low latency.”
  • 19. 9. COMPANIES IN INDIA  Hyperlink Infosystem: This company is excellent into mobile app & web development. They have done tremendous work on AR & VR both. Their work speaks more than the words. In very few years they have captured the whole app market with their developer’s high proficiency of skills & talent.  SDM Digital: One of the very good mobile app development companies which is working on AR technology. There are not so many companies who are working on AR but yes number is increasing day by day so competition is going to be very high and Small Planet digital has worked on some successful projects on AR platform.  PC App: PC App is one really creative company which is known as it’s innovation & unique creation. Here we are talking about AR so it has very good expertise to create something out of the box on AR. They have 3 simple steps in their process: Design, Develop, & Distribute.  Zynga: Zynga is one of the famous game developer company in USA. It has created some of the very popular games and now they are into AR too. Price wise yes it is quite high our Zynga has those experience and expertise which is unbeatable.  KetchieApp: KethieApp is one of the best companies as far as game development is concerned. They are famous in making complex games.
  • 20. 10. CONCLUSION  Augmented reality is the next “BIG THING” it will absolutely revolutionize almost every aspect of life we have.  Everything from medicine to education to construction to entertainment.  AR application is already starting to appear on the world’s laptops, tablets and smart phones.  Augmented reality is likely to worm its way into our daily lives more and more in the 21st century. Once wearable computers become more common it won’t be strange to see people interacting with and reacting to things that aren’t there from your perspective. Thanks to technology such as AR the way we work with computing devices and think about the divide between digital and analogue reality is likely to change fundamentally. Nothing is stopping you from experiencing augmented reality for yourself today though. Just hop onto smartphone’s app store and search for “AR” apps. There are plenty to try, many of them free. REFERENCES  www.slideshare.com  www.seminarsonly.com  www.wikipedia.com  www.google.com