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Artificial
intelligence
Prepared by
Gayathry Satheesan
Artificial intelligence
 Artificial intelligence (AI), the ability of a digital computer or
computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly
associated with intelligent beings.
 The term is frequently applied to the project of developing
systems endowed with the intellectual processes
characteristic of humans, such as the ability to reason,
discover meaning, generalize, or learn from past experience.
 Since the development of the digital computer in the 1940s,
it has been demonstrated that computers can be
programmed to carry out very complex tasks—as, for
example, discovering proofs for mathematical theorems or
playing chess—with great proficiency.
 Still, despite continuing advances in computer processing
speed and memory capacity, there are as yet no programs
that can match human flexibility over wider domains or in
tasks requiring much everyday knowledge.
 On the other hand, some programs have attained the
performance levels of human experts and professionals in
performing certain specific tasks, so that artificial
intelligence in this limited sense is found in applications
as diverse as medical diagnosis, computer search engines,
and voice or handwriting recognition
Artificial intelligence
What Is Intelligence?
 All but the simplest human behavior is ascribed to intelligence,
while even the most complicated insect behavior is never
taken as an indication of intelligence.
 The real nature of the wasp’s instinctual behavior is revealed if
the food is moved a few inches away from the entrance to her
burrow while she is inside: on emerging, she will repeat the
whole procedure as often as the food is displaced.
 Intelligence—conspicuously absent in the case of Sphex—must
include the ability to adapt to new circumstances.
 Psychologists generally do not characterize human
intelligence by just one trait but by the combination of many
diverse abilities.
 Research in AI has focused chiefly on the following components
of intelligence: learning, reasoning, problem solving, perception,
and using language.
Learning
 There are a number of different forms of learning as applied to
artificial intelligence.
 The simplest is learning by trial and error. For example, a
simple computer program for solving mate-in-
one chess problems might try moves at random until mate is
found.
 The program might then store the solution with the position so
that the next time the computer encountered the same
position it would recall the solution.
 This simple memorizing of individual items and procedures—
known as rote learning—is relatively easy to implement on a
computer.
 More challenging is the problem of implementing what is
called generalization.
 Generalization involves applying past experience
to analogous new situations.
WHY RESEARCH AI SAFETY?
 In the near term, the goal of keeping AI’s impact on society
beneficial motivates research in many areas, from
economics and law to technical topics such
as verification, validity, security and control.
 Whereas it may be little more than a minor nuisance if your
laptop crashes or gets hacked, it becomes all the more
important that an AI system does what you want it to do if it
controls your car, your airplane, your pacemaker, your
automated trading system or your power grid.
 Another short-term challenge is preventing a devastating arms
race in lethal autonomous weapons.
 In the long term, an important question is what will happen if the
quest for strong AI succeeds and an AI system becomes better
than humans at all cognitive tasks.
 As pointed out by I.J. Good in 1965, designing smarter AI
systems is itself a cognitive task.
 Such a system could potentially undergo recursive self-
improvement, triggering an intelligence explosion leaving human
intellect far behind.
 By inventing revolutionary new technologies, such a super
intelligence might help us eradicate war, disease, and poverty,
and so the creation of strong AI might be the biggest event in
human history.
 Some experts have expressed concern, though, that it might
also be the last, unless we learn to align the goals of the AI with
ours before it becomes super intelligent.
 There are some who question whether strong AI will ever be
achieved, and others who insist that the creation of super
intelligent AI is guaranteed to be beneficial.
 At FLI we recognize both of these possibilities, but also
recognize the potential for an artificial intelligence system
to intentionally or unintentionally cause great harm.
 We believe research today will help us better prepare for and
prevent such potentially negative consequences in the future,
thus enjoying the benefits of AI while avoiding pitfalls.
HOW CAN AI BE DANGEROUS?
 Most researchers agree that a super intelligent AI is unlikely
to exhibit human emotions like love or hate, and that there is
no reason to expect AI to become intentionally benevolent
or malevolent.
 Instead, when considering how AI might become a risk,
experts think two scenarios most likely:
 The AI is programmed to do something
devastating: Autonomous weapons are artificial intelligence
systems that are programmed to kill.
 In the hands of the wrong person, these weapons could easily
cause mass casualties.
 Moreover, an AI arms race could inadvertently lead to an AI war
that also results in mass casualties.
 To avoid being thwarted by the enemy, these weapons would
be designed to be extremely difficult to simply “turn off,” so
humans could plausibly lose control of such a situation.
 This risk is one that’s present even with narrow AI, but grows as
levels of AI intelligence and autonomy increase.
 The AI is programmed to do something beneficial, but it develops a
destructive method for achieving its goal: This can happen
whenever we fail to fully align the AI’s goals with ours, which is
strikingly difficult.
 If you ask an obedient intelligent car to take you to the airport as
fast as possible, it might get you there chased by helicopters and
covered in vomit, doing not what you wanted but literally what you
asked for.
 If a super intelligent system is tasked with a ambitious
reengineering project, it might wreak havoc with our ecosystem as
a side effect, and view human attempts to stop it as a threat to be
met.
 As these examples illustrate, the concern about advanced AI
isn’t malevolence but competence.
 A super-intelligent AI will be extremely good at accomplishing its
goals, and if those goals aren’t aligned with ours, we have a
problem.
 You’re probably not an evil ant-hater who steps on ants out of
malice, but if you’re in charge of a hydroelectric green energy
project and there’s an anthill in the region to be flooded, too
bad for the ants.
 A key goal of AI safety research is to never place humanity in
the position of those ants.
WHY THE RECENT INTEREST IN AI SAFETY
 Stephen Hawking, Elon Musk, Steve Wozniak, Bill Gates, and many
other big names in science and technology have recently expressed
concern in the media and via open letters about the risks posed by AI,
joined by many leading AI researchers.
 The idea that the quest for strong AI would ultimately succeed was
long thought of as science fiction, centuries or more away.
 However, thanks to recent breakthroughs, many AI milestones, which
experts viewed as decades away merely five years ago, have now
been reached, making many experts take seriously the possibility of
super intelligence in our lifetime.
 While some experts still guess that human-level AI is centuries
away, most AI researches at the 2015 Puerto Rico
Conference guessed that it would happen before 2060.
 Since it may take decades to complete the required safety
research, it is prudent to start it now.
 Because AI has the potential to become more intelligent than
any human, we have no surefire way of predicting how it will
behave.
 We can’t use past technological developments as much of a
basis because we’ve never created anything that has the ability
to, wittingly or unwittingly, outsmart us.
 The best example of what we could face may be our own
evolution.
 People now control the planet, not because we’re the strongest,
fastest or biggest, but because we’re the smartest. If we’re no
longer the smartest, are we assured to remain in control?
 FLI’s position is that our civilization will flourish as long as we
win the race between the growing power of technology and the
wisdom with which we manage it.
 In the case of AI technology, FLI’s position is that the best way
to win that race is not to impede the former, but to accelerate
the latter, by supporting AI safety research.
THE TOP MYTHS ABOUT ADVANCED AI
 A captivating conversation is taking place about the future of
artificial intelligence and what it will/should mean for
humanity.
 There are fascinating controversies where the world’s leading
experts disagree, such as: AI’s future impact on the job
market; if/when human-level AI will be developed; whether
this will lead to an intelligence explosion; and whether this
is something we should welcome or fear.
•But there are also many examples of boring pseudo-
controversies caused by people misunderstanding and
talking past each other.
• To help ourselves focus on the interesting controversies
and open questions — and not on the misunderstandings
— let’s clear up some of the most common myths.
Artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence

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Artificial intelligence

  • 2. Artificial intelligence  Artificial intelligence (AI), the ability of a digital computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with intelligent beings.  The term is frequently applied to the project of developing systems endowed with the intellectual processes characteristic of humans, such as the ability to reason, discover meaning, generalize, or learn from past experience.
  • 3.  Since the development of the digital computer in the 1940s, it has been demonstrated that computers can be programmed to carry out very complex tasks—as, for example, discovering proofs for mathematical theorems or playing chess—with great proficiency.  Still, despite continuing advances in computer processing speed and memory capacity, there are as yet no programs that can match human flexibility over wider domains or in tasks requiring much everyday knowledge.
  • 4.  On the other hand, some programs have attained the performance levels of human experts and professionals in performing certain specific tasks, so that artificial intelligence in this limited sense is found in applications as diverse as medical diagnosis, computer search engines, and voice or handwriting recognition
  • 6. What Is Intelligence?  All but the simplest human behavior is ascribed to intelligence, while even the most complicated insect behavior is never taken as an indication of intelligence.  The real nature of the wasp’s instinctual behavior is revealed if the food is moved a few inches away from the entrance to her burrow while she is inside: on emerging, she will repeat the whole procedure as often as the food is displaced.  Intelligence—conspicuously absent in the case of Sphex—must include the ability to adapt to new circumstances.
  • 7.  Psychologists generally do not characterize human intelligence by just one trait but by the combination of many diverse abilities.  Research in AI has focused chiefly on the following components of intelligence: learning, reasoning, problem solving, perception, and using language.
  • 8. Learning  There are a number of different forms of learning as applied to artificial intelligence.  The simplest is learning by trial and error. For example, a simple computer program for solving mate-in- one chess problems might try moves at random until mate is found.  The program might then store the solution with the position so that the next time the computer encountered the same position it would recall the solution.
  • 9.  This simple memorizing of individual items and procedures— known as rote learning—is relatively easy to implement on a computer.  More challenging is the problem of implementing what is called generalization.  Generalization involves applying past experience to analogous new situations.
  • 10. WHY RESEARCH AI SAFETY?  In the near term, the goal of keeping AI’s impact on society beneficial motivates research in many areas, from economics and law to technical topics such as verification, validity, security and control.  Whereas it may be little more than a minor nuisance if your laptop crashes or gets hacked, it becomes all the more important that an AI system does what you want it to do if it controls your car, your airplane, your pacemaker, your automated trading system or your power grid.
  • 11.  Another short-term challenge is preventing a devastating arms race in lethal autonomous weapons.  In the long term, an important question is what will happen if the quest for strong AI succeeds and an AI system becomes better than humans at all cognitive tasks.  As pointed out by I.J. Good in 1965, designing smarter AI systems is itself a cognitive task.  Such a system could potentially undergo recursive self- improvement, triggering an intelligence explosion leaving human intellect far behind.
  • 12.  By inventing revolutionary new technologies, such a super intelligence might help us eradicate war, disease, and poverty, and so the creation of strong AI might be the biggest event in human history.  Some experts have expressed concern, though, that it might also be the last, unless we learn to align the goals of the AI with ours before it becomes super intelligent.  There are some who question whether strong AI will ever be achieved, and others who insist that the creation of super intelligent AI is guaranteed to be beneficial.
  • 13.  At FLI we recognize both of these possibilities, but also recognize the potential for an artificial intelligence system to intentionally or unintentionally cause great harm.  We believe research today will help us better prepare for and prevent such potentially negative consequences in the future, thus enjoying the benefits of AI while avoiding pitfalls.
  • 14. HOW CAN AI BE DANGEROUS?  Most researchers agree that a super intelligent AI is unlikely to exhibit human emotions like love or hate, and that there is no reason to expect AI to become intentionally benevolent or malevolent.  Instead, when considering how AI might become a risk, experts think two scenarios most likely:  The AI is programmed to do something devastating: Autonomous weapons are artificial intelligence systems that are programmed to kill.
  • 15.  In the hands of the wrong person, these weapons could easily cause mass casualties.  Moreover, an AI arms race could inadvertently lead to an AI war that also results in mass casualties.  To avoid being thwarted by the enemy, these weapons would be designed to be extremely difficult to simply “turn off,” so humans could plausibly lose control of such a situation.  This risk is one that’s present even with narrow AI, but grows as levels of AI intelligence and autonomy increase.
  • 16.  The AI is programmed to do something beneficial, but it develops a destructive method for achieving its goal: This can happen whenever we fail to fully align the AI’s goals with ours, which is strikingly difficult.  If you ask an obedient intelligent car to take you to the airport as fast as possible, it might get you there chased by helicopters and covered in vomit, doing not what you wanted but literally what you asked for.  If a super intelligent system is tasked with a ambitious reengineering project, it might wreak havoc with our ecosystem as a side effect, and view human attempts to stop it as a threat to be met.
  • 17.  As these examples illustrate, the concern about advanced AI isn’t malevolence but competence.  A super-intelligent AI will be extremely good at accomplishing its goals, and if those goals aren’t aligned with ours, we have a problem.  You’re probably not an evil ant-hater who steps on ants out of malice, but if you’re in charge of a hydroelectric green energy project and there’s an anthill in the region to be flooded, too bad for the ants.  A key goal of AI safety research is to never place humanity in the position of those ants.
  • 18. WHY THE RECENT INTEREST IN AI SAFETY  Stephen Hawking, Elon Musk, Steve Wozniak, Bill Gates, and many other big names in science and technology have recently expressed concern in the media and via open letters about the risks posed by AI, joined by many leading AI researchers.  The idea that the quest for strong AI would ultimately succeed was long thought of as science fiction, centuries or more away.  However, thanks to recent breakthroughs, many AI milestones, which experts viewed as decades away merely five years ago, have now been reached, making many experts take seriously the possibility of super intelligence in our lifetime.
  • 19.  While some experts still guess that human-level AI is centuries away, most AI researches at the 2015 Puerto Rico Conference guessed that it would happen before 2060.  Since it may take decades to complete the required safety research, it is prudent to start it now.  Because AI has the potential to become more intelligent than any human, we have no surefire way of predicting how it will behave.  We can’t use past technological developments as much of a basis because we’ve never created anything that has the ability to, wittingly or unwittingly, outsmart us.
  • 20.  The best example of what we could face may be our own evolution.  People now control the planet, not because we’re the strongest, fastest or biggest, but because we’re the smartest. If we’re no longer the smartest, are we assured to remain in control?  FLI’s position is that our civilization will flourish as long as we win the race between the growing power of technology and the wisdom with which we manage it.  In the case of AI technology, FLI’s position is that the best way to win that race is not to impede the former, but to accelerate the latter, by supporting AI safety research.
  • 21. THE TOP MYTHS ABOUT ADVANCED AI  A captivating conversation is taking place about the future of artificial intelligence and what it will/should mean for humanity.  There are fascinating controversies where the world’s leading experts disagree, such as: AI’s future impact on the job market; if/when human-level AI will be developed; whether this will lead to an intelligence explosion; and whether this is something we should welcome or fear.
  • 22. •But there are also many examples of boring pseudo- controversies caused by people misunderstanding and talking past each other. • To help ourselves focus on the interesting controversies and open questions — and not on the misunderstandings — let’s clear up some of the most common myths.