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Presented by:- 
Reema Tariq 
Artificial Intelligence
What is Intelligence??? 
Intelligence is the ability to learn 
about, to learn from, to understand 
about, and interact with one’s 
environment. 
Intelligence is the faculty of 
understanding 
Intelligence is not to make no 
mistakes but quickly to understand 
how to make them good 
(German Poet)
What Is Artificial Intelligence??? 
 Artificial Intelligence (AI) is 
usually defined as the science 
of making computers do 
things that require 
intelligence when done by 
humans. 
 A.I is the study of ideas that 
enable computers to be 
intelligent
How Does AI Works?? 
Artificial intelligence works 
with the help of 
• Artificial Neurons 
(Artificial Neural 
Network) 
And 
• Scientific theorems(If- 
Then Statements, Logics)
What is Neural Networking?? 
 Artificial neural networks are 
composed of interconnecting 
artificial neurons (programming 
constructs that mimic the 
properties of biological neurons).
Dendrites: Accepts Inputs 
Soma: Processes the Inputs 
Axon: Turns the processed inputs into 
outputs 
Synapses: The electrochemical contact 
between neurons 
Sec 2: ANN 6
An Artificial Neuron 
Axons Synapses Dendrites Body 
W 
1W 
2W 
3 
Wn 
å 
(Soma) 
W0 
f 
X1 
X2 
X3 
Xn 
Axon 
Bias 
Output (y) 
Sec 2: ANN 7
Turing Test 
Imitation Game Test!!!! 
The Turing test is a test of a machine's 
ability to demonstrate intelligence
Chinese Room Test 
A Counter Argument to Turing Test
Intelligent agents 
Percepts 
Actions 
Agent 
Sensors 
? 
Actuators 
Environment 
11/05/14 10
Examples Of Artificial Intelligence 
Expert Systems!! 
An expert system is a computer program that is designed to 
hold the accumulated knowledge of one or more domain 
experts 
It reasons with knowledge of some specialist subject with a 
view to solving problems or giving advice 
They are tested by being placed in the same real world 
problem solving situation
Applications of Expert Systems 
PROSPECTOR: 
Used by geologists to identify 
sites for drilling or mining 
PUFF: 
Medical system 
for diagnosis of respiratory 
conditions
Applications of Expert Systems 
LITHIAN: Gives advice to 
archaeologists examining stone 
tools 
DENDRAL: Used to identify the 
structure of chemical 
compounds. First used in 1965
Machine Learning! 
Machine learning is a scientific discipline concerned with 
the design and development of algorithms that allow 
machines to mimic human intelligence.
There are Three ways that A.I learns 
Failure Driven Learning 
Learning by being Told 
Learning by Exploration
Resemblance To Human Mind.... 
The special ability of artificial intelligence is to reach a 
solution based on facts rather than on a preset series of steps 
—is what most closely resembles the thinking function of 
the human brain
Human Intelligence VS Artificial Intelligence
Human Intelligence VS Artificial Intelligence 
Human Intelligence 
• Intuition, Common sense, 
Judgement, Creativity, 
Beliefs etc 
• The ability to demonstrate 
their intelligence by 
communicating effectively 
• Plausible Reasoning and 
Critical thinking 
Artificial Intelligence 
• Ability to simulate human 
behavior and cognitive 
processes 
• Capture and preserve human 
expertise 
• Fast Response. The ability 
to comprehend large 
amounts of data quickly. 
Pros
Human Intelligence VS Artificial Intelligence 
Human Intelligence Artificial Intelligence 
• Humans are fallible 
• They have limited 
knowledge bases 
• Information processing of 
serial nature proceed very 
slowly in the brain as 
compared to computers 
• Humans are unable to retain 
large amounts of data in 
memory. 
• No “common sense” 
• Cannot readily deal with 
“mixed” knowledge 
• May have high development 
costs 
• Raise legal and ethical 
concerns 
Cons
Human Intelligence VS Artificial Intelligence 
We achieve more than we know. We know more than we understand. 
We understand more than we can explain (Claude Bernard, 19th C 
French scientific philosopher)
Artificial Intelligence VS Conventional Computing 
Artificial Intelligence 
• AI software uses the 
techniques of search and 
pattern matching 
• Programmers design AI 
software to give the 
computer only the problem, 
not the steps necessary to 
solve it 
Conventional Computing 
• Conventional computer 
software follow a logical 
series of steps to reach a 
conclusion 
• Computer programmers 
originally designed software 
that accomplished tasks by 
completing algorithms
Psychology And Artificial intelligence 
The functionalist approach of AI views the mind as a representational 
system and psychology as the study of the various computational 
processes whereby mental representations are constructed, organized, 
and interpreted. 
(Margaret Boden's essays written between 1982 and 1988)
Artificial intelligence & Our society 
Why we need AI?? 
To supplement natural intelligence for e.g we are building 
intelligence in an object so that it can do what we want it to do, as for 
example-- robots, thus reducing human labour and reducing human 
mistakes
•My Perspective 
For Humans Intelligence is no more than 
TAKING a right decision at right time 
And 
For Machines Artificial Intelligence is no 
more than CHOOSING a right decision at 
right time 
I think Artificial intelligence is the Second 
intelligence ever to exist
Go Ahead 
With Question 
Be Not Afraid Of Falling Be Afraid Of Not Trying
Artificial Intelligence 
Our Attempt To Build Models Of 
Ourselves 
Thank You 
Elaine Rich

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Artificial intelligence

  • 1. Presented by:- Reema Tariq Artificial Intelligence
  • 2. What is Intelligence??? Intelligence is the ability to learn about, to learn from, to understand about, and interact with one’s environment. Intelligence is the faculty of understanding Intelligence is not to make no mistakes but quickly to understand how to make them good (German Poet)
  • 3. What Is Artificial Intelligence???  Artificial Intelligence (AI) is usually defined as the science of making computers do things that require intelligence when done by humans.  A.I is the study of ideas that enable computers to be intelligent
  • 4. How Does AI Works?? Artificial intelligence works with the help of • Artificial Neurons (Artificial Neural Network) And • Scientific theorems(If- Then Statements, Logics)
  • 5. What is Neural Networking??  Artificial neural networks are composed of interconnecting artificial neurons (programming constructs that mimic the properties of biological neurons).
  • 6. Dendrites: Accepts Inputs Soma: Processes the Inputs Axon: Turns the processed inputs into outputs Synapses: The electrochemical contact between neurons Sec 2: ANN 6
  • 7. An Artificial Neuron Axons Synapses Dendrites Body W 1W 2W 3 Wn å (Soma) W0 f X1 X2 X3 Xn Axon Bias Output (y) Sec 2: ANN 7
  • 8. Turing Test Imitation Game Test!!!! The Turing test is a test of a machine's ability to demonstrate intelligence
  • 9. Chinese Room Test A Counter Argument to Turing Test
  • 10. Intelligent agents Percepts Actions Agent Sensors ? Actuators Environment 11/05/14 10
  • 11. Examples Of Artificial Intelligence Expert Systems!! An expert system is a computer program that is designed to hold the accumulated knowledge of one or more domain experts It reasons with knowledge of some specialist subject with a view to solving problems or giving advice They are tested by being placed in the same real world problem solving situation
  • 12. Applications of Expert Systems PROSPECTOR: Used by geologists to identify sites for drilling or mining PUFF: Medical system for diagnosis of respiratory conditions
  • 13. Applications of Expert Systems LITHIAN: Gives advice to archaeologists examining stone tools DENDRAL: Used to identify the structure of chemical compounds. First used in 1965
  • 14. Machine Learning! Machine learning is a scientific discipline concerned with the design and development of algorithms that allow machines to mimic human intelligence.
  • 15. There are Three ways that A.I learns Failure Driven Learning Learning by being Told Learning by Exploration
  • 16. Resemblance To Human Mind.... The special ability of artificial intelligence is to reach a solution based on facts rather than on a preset series of steps —is what most closely resembles the thinking function of the human brain
  • 17. Human Intelligence VS Artificial Intelligence
  • 18. Human Intelligence VS Artificial Intelligence Human Intelligence • Intuition, Common sense, Judgement, Creativity, Beliefs etc • The ability to demonstrate their intelligence by communicating effectively • Plausible Reasoning and Critical thinking Artificial Intelligence • Ability to simulate human behavior and cognitive processes • Capture and preserve human expertise • Fast Response. The ability to comprehend large amounts of data quickly. Pros
  • 19. Human Intelligence VS Artificial Intelligence Human Intelligence Artificial Intelligence • Humans are fallible • They have limited knowledge bases • Information processing of serial nature proceed very slowly in the brain as compared to computers • Humans are unable to retain large amounts of data in memory. • No “common sense” • Cannot readily deal with “mixed” knowledge • May have high development costs • Raise legal and ethical concerns Cons
  • 20. Human Intelligence VS Artificial Intelligence We achieve more than we know. We know more than we understand. We understand more than we can explain (Claude Bernard, 19th C French scientific philosopher)
  • 21. Artificial Intelligence VS Conventional Computing Artificial Intelligence • AI software uses the techniques of search and pattern matching • Programmers design AI software to give the computer only the problem, not the steps necessary to solve it Conventional Computing • Conventional computer software follow a logical series of steps to reach a conclusion • Computer programmers originally designed software that accomplished tasks by completing algorithms
  • 22. Psychology And Artificial intelligence The functionalist approach of AI views the mind as a representational system and psychology as the study of the various computational processes whereby mental representations are constructed, organized, and interpreted. (Margaret Boden's essays written between 1982 and 1988)
  • 23. Artificial intelligence & Our society Why we need AI?? To supplement natural intelligence for e.g we are building intelligence in an object so that it can do what we want it to do, as for example-- robots, thus reducing human labour and reducing human mistakes
  • 24. •My Perspective For Humans Intelligence is no more than TAKING a right decision at right time And For Machines Artificial Intelligence is no more than CHOOSING a right decision at right time I think Artificial intelligence is the Second intelligence ever to exist
  • 25. Go Ahead With Question Be Not Afraid Of Falling Be Afraid Of Not Trying
  • 26. Artificial Intelligence Our Attempt To Build Models Of Ourselves Thank You Elaine Rich

Editor's Notes

  1. In this test Searle says to imagine a Man no knowledge of chinese is trapped in a room. He is passed a paper with some chinese writing. He finds a large batch of “Chinese writing” plus “a second batch of Chinese script" and "a set of rules" in English "for correlating the second batch with the first batch. The man follows the instructions and produces a result in chiese language. He himself has no knowledge of the language but gets so good in following instructions that the person standing outside starts to believe that this man is fluent in chinese What Searle describes is a system that produces intelligent, meaningful output, in the absence of true understanding. If you accept this counter-example, then the Turing Test is doomed. The Chinese Room would pass the Turing test, even though it lacks understanding and intelligence.
  2. The important aspects of human intelligence seem to following the use of intuition, common sense, judgment, creativity, goal directedness, plausible reasoning, knowledge and beliefs. Meaning of intelligence is not human brain’s information processing ability but the ability of humans to demonstrate their intelligence by communicating effectively.