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AGRICULTURAL TRANSFORMATION IN VIETNAM
Dr. Nguyen Do Anh Tuan - Director General
Institute of Policy and Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development
2
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
China
Malaysia
Philippines
Thailand
Vietnam
Indonesia
Rate of agricultural producer
support 2011-2013
Agricultural GDP growth rates
National and agricultural trade balance 2001-2016Bil USD
%
Source: GSO and MARD 2017
Source: ADB, TCTK 2016
Source: OECD 2015
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
Cả nước Ngành nông nghiệp
Vietnam’s Agriculture on the typical
patterns of transformation
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
AgriculturalValueAdded(%ofTotal)
Agricultural Employment (% of Total)
Agri-Based
Pre-Transition
Urbanizing Transition
Developed
Agricultural supply growth –
Basic rural infrastructure and
agricultural services, uptake
of improved inputs; market
linkages
AgBiz Growth –
increased scale,
knowledge-based
farming;
mechanization;
contract farming,
sustainable
commodities
Expanding Export
Markets – food
safety, international
standards, processed
foods
Agricultural
diversification—Core SPS
services; meeting changing
urban consumption
patterns; attracting private
investment
VN 1986
VN 1996
VN 2005
VN 2016
Source: WB và IPSARD, VDR 2016
4
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
2001 2006 2011
Total aquaculture area
Total forestry area
Total agricultural area
Source: IPSARD, based on
AgroCensus data
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
2010
2015
Rice
Coffee
Rubber
Tea
Cashew nut
Pepper
Fruit and vegetable
Cassava
Other agricultural products
Aquaculture products
Forestry products
Structure of agricultural land use
Share of commodities in agricultural export value
Source: MARD 2017
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
2006 2011 2016
Cultivation Livestock
Agricultural service Forestry
Aquaculture Fishing
Source: GSO and MARD
Structure of agricultural gross output
5Source: IPSARD, labour survey at Thai Binh 2015
1
4% 2
7%
3
11%
4
14%
5
18%
6
21%
7
25%
Rural households by number of income
sources (%)
Source: WB, based on VHLSS 2014
Share of time allocated to agricultural production (%)
25
19
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Farm labour Farm and non-farm
rural labour
Income structure of rural households (%)
Source: IPSARD, based on VHLSS
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014
Wage Self-employed farm Self-employed non-farm Others
6
Productivity: mixed record
Land productivity growth, selected Asian
economies, 1990-2010
Ratio of value-added per worker
to per capita income
Productivity of Vietnamese fisheries
(versus rising horsepower), 1990-2008
Years Vietnam China India Indonesia Malaysia
Philippin
es
Thailand
1991-
2000 2.86 4.13 1.12 1.23 1.87 0.46 3.27
2001-
2005 2.52 2.39 1.11 3.36 3.73 2.64 2.18
2006-
2010 2.18 3.25 2.36 2.62 2.94 1.68 1.60
Source: IPSARD and WB, Vietnam Development Report 2016
Agricultural total factor productivity,
average annual growth (%), 1991-2010
Underdevelopment of agribusiness
0.64
0.85
1.186
1.38 1.56 1.62
1.87 1.87
2.71
3.13
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5 Agribusiness GDP/Primary Agriculture GDP, 2011
Source: WB
2016
Export growth based on low price
Ranked by
export volume
Ranked by
export value
Ranked by
export price
Cashew-nut 1 1 6
Black pepper 1 1 8
Coffee bean 2 2 10
Cassava 2 2 6
Rice 3 4 10
Rubber 4 4 10
Tea 5 7 10
Source: IPSARD,
based on FAOSTAT
2016
Main Policy Problems and Solutions
• Fragmented and small agricultural land use  to develop at least rental
markets; liberalize the use purpose, holder eligibility; expand ceilings and
duration; improve land profiles; policy supports (credit and infrastructure)
• Underdeveloped rural financial market  reform of credit support policies,
develop legal framework for new financial instruments, whole chain
financing linking with insurance, develop agriculture and rural insurance
fund
• Stagnation in rural labor transformation  specialized farmers, rural
industry and service development, vocational training reform, support of
migrants (information, connections, association, supporting services)
• Limitation of agricultural innovation system  increase investment through
funds, involve enterprises, associations, incubators, stronger protection of
intellectual property right, research – training - extension package
8
Main Policy Problems and Solutions
• Underdevelopment of cooperative, agricultural enterprises and agricultural
value chains  credit guarantee for cooperatives, cooperative management
capacity building, favourable conditions for enterprises investing in
agriculture (infrastructure, credit, transparent and accountable regulation)
• Rural-urban connection  development of secondary urban centers and
agro-industry clusters, agro processing and logistics, connective infrastructure
• Food safety and quality  supply chain traceability, database of at least
significant processing and trading units, advancement of good practices, risk
management, brand names (quality, processing, geographic, cultural, etc.),
trademark protection, involvement of associations.
• Environment: resource depletion, pollution, response to climate change 
green trademark, public-private partnership at levels (farm, community,
regional landscape, value chain, national), no regret climate adaptation
(timely information, R&D, diversification, ecological services, water saving
practices/ infrastructure, mangrove reforestation, comprehensive management
of coastal areas, coordination institutions, etc.)
9
Một khu liên hợp nông nghiệp
Nhà kho và khu
chế biến
Nhà kính trồng
cây
Ruộng ngòai trờiKhu chăn nuôi
Thank you!
ndatuan@ipsard.gov.vn

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Agricultural Transformation in Vietnam

  • 1. 1 AGRICULTURAL TRANSFORMATION IN VIETNAM Dr. Nguyen Do Anh Tuan - Director General Institute of Policy and Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development
  • 2. 2 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 China Malaysia Philippines Thailand Vietnam Indonesia Rate of agricultural producer support 2011-2013 Agricultural GDP growth rates National and agricultural trade balance 2001-2016Bil USD % Source: GSO and MARD 2017 Source: ADB, TCTK 2016 Source: OECD 2015 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 Cả nước Ngành nông nghiệp
  • 3. Vietnam’s Agriculture on the typical patterns of transformation 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% AgriculturalValueAdded(%ofTotal) Agricultural Employment (% of Total) Agri-Based Pre-Transition Urbanizing Transition Developed Agricultural supply growth – Basic rural infrastructure and agricultural services, uptake of improved inputs; market linkages AgBiz Growth – increased scale, knowledge-based farming; mechanization; contract farming, sustainable commodities Expanding Export Markets – food safety, international standards, processed foods Agricultural diversification—Core SPS services; meeting changing urban consumption patterns; attracting private investment VN 1986 VN 1996 VN 2005 VN 2016 Source: WB và IPSARD, VDR 2016
  • 4. 4 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 2001 2006 2011 Total aquaculture area Total forestry area Total agricultural area Source: IPSARD, based on AgroCensus data 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 2010 2015 Rice Coffee Rubber Tea Cashew nut Pepper Fruit and vegetable Cassava Other agricultural products Aquaculture products Forestry products Structure of agricultural land use Share of commodities in agricultural export value Source: MARD 2017 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 2006 2011 2016 Cultivation Livestock Agricultural service Forestry Aquaculture Fishing Source: GSO and MARD Structure of agricultural gross output
  • 5. 5Source: IPSARD, labour survey at Thai Binh 2015 1 4% 2 7% 3 11% 4 14% 5 18% 6 21% 7 25% Rural households by number of income sources (%) Source: WB, based on VHLSS 2014 Share of time allocated to agricultural production (%) 25 19 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Farm labour Farm and non-farm rural labour Income structure of rural households (%) Source: IPSARD, based on VHLSS 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 Wage Self-employed farm Self-employed non-farm Others
  • 6. 6 Productivity: mixed record Land productivity growth, selected Asian economies, 1990-2010 Ratio of value-added per worker to per capita income Productivity of Vietnamese fisheries (versus rising horsepower), 1990-2008 Years Vietnam China India Indonesia Malaysia Philippin es Thailand 1991- 2000 2.86 4.13 1.12 1.23 1.87 0.46 3.27 2001- 2005 2.52 2.39 1.11 3.36 3.73 2.64 2.18 2006- 2010 2.18 3.25 2.36 2.62 2.94 1.68 1.60 Source: IPSARD and WB, Vietnam Development Report 2016 Agricultural total factor productivity, average annual growth (%), 1991-2010
  • 7. Underdevelopment of agribusiness 0.64 0.85 1.186 1.38 1.56 1.62 1.87 1.87 2.71 3.13 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Agribusiness GDP/Primary Agriculture GDP, 2011 Source: WB 2016 Export growth based on low price Ranked by export volume Ranked by export value Ranked by export price Cashew-nut 1 1 6 Black pepper 1 1 8 Coffee bean 2 2 10 Cassava 2 2 6 Rice 3 4 10 Rubber 4 4 10 Tea 5 7 10 Source: IPSARD, based on FAOSTAT 2016
  • 8. Main Policy Problems and Solutions • Fragmented and small agricultural land use  to develop at least rental markets; liberalize the use purpose, holder eligibility; expand ceilings and duration; improve land profiles; policy supports (credit and infrastructure) • Underdeveloped rural financial market  reform of credit support policies, develop legal framework for new financial instruments, whole chain financing linking with insurance, develop agriculture and rural insurance fund • Stagnation in rural labor transformation  specialized farmers, rural industry and service development, vocational training reform, support of migrants (information, connections, association, supporting services) • Limitation of agricultural innovation system  increase investment through funds, involve enterprises, associations, incubators, stronger protection of intellectual property right, research – training - extension package 8
  • 9. Main Policy Problems and Solutions • Underdevelopment of cooperative, agricultural enterprises and agricultural value chains  credit guarantee for cooperatives, cooperative management capacity building, favourable conditions for enterprises investing in agriculture (infrastructure, credit, transparent and accountable regulation) • Rural-urban connection  development of secondary urban centers and agro-industry clusters, agro processing and logistics, connective infrastructure • Food safety and quality  supply chain traceability, database of at least significant processing and trading units, advancement of good practices, risk management, brand names (quality, processing, geographic, cultural, etc.), trademark protection, involvement of associations. • Environment: resource depletion, pollution, response to climate change  green trademark, public-private partnership at levels (farm, community, regional landscape, value chain, national), no regret climate adaptation (timely information, R&D, diversification, ecological services, water saving practices/ infrastructure, mangrove reforestation, comprehensive management of coastal areas, coordination institutions, etc.) 9
  • 10. Một khu liên hợp nông nghiệp Nhà kho và khu chế biến Nhà kính trồng cây Ruộng ngòai trờiKhu chăn nuôi Thank you! ndatuan@ipsard.gov.vn

Editor's Notes

  1. Land High yields in rice, coffee, cashew; middle of the pack for others Labor Low absolute and relative output per farm worker Exceptions: aquaculture, horticulture, Mekong rice , Fisheries Declining Total factor productivity Declining rate of growth