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ADVOCACY AND
POLICY PROCESS
Training of Trainers Workshop to enhance Pro-poor Policy
Formulation and Implementation at Country Level.
21 – 25 September 2015: Bangkok, Thailand
Lan Huong
What is advocacy?
Process to:
• Influence policy and decision makers, fight for social change,
transform public perceptions and attitudes, modify behaviors,
or mobilize resources. (GAVI)
• Use information strategically to change policies that affect the
lives of disadvantaged people. (BOND)
• Change attitudes, actions, policies and laws by influencing
people and organizations with power. (India HIV/AIDS Alliance,
2002)
• Speak up, draw attention to an issue, win the support of key
constituencies in order to influence policies and spending, and
bring about change. (WHO TB Programme)
• Advocacy is about influencing or changing relationships
of power.
Golden rules
• Get to know the key players
• Get to know the policy-makers
• Get to know the key committees and how they work
• Learn the art of good timing
• Create a political issue
• Prepare properly
• Use the media strategically
• Develop your expertise
• Anticipate what the opposition will do
• Create strategic alliances
Whose voices are heard?
• Representation: speaking on behalf of the
voiceless (for)
• Mobilisation: encouraging others to speak with
you (with)
• Empowerment: supporting the voiceless to speak
for themselves (by)
Advising, advocacy, lobbying and activism
Evidence/
Science based
Interest/
values based
Cooperation/
Inside track
Confrontation/
Outside track
Policy briefings Mobilizing support
Company lobbying Direct action
Advising Advocacy
Lobbying Activism
Based on ODI’s RAPID methodology
Advocacy strategies
Desired
change
Who?
Identify & define
relationships; influencers;
decision makers
How?
Identify opportunities;
Prepare communication tools
& engagement strategies
What?
Identify knowledge gaps:
What research exists?
What needs to be tested?
What new knowledge is
needed?
Planning an advocacy strategy
1. First, consider what evidence you are working with and the
message it communicates. What is the story that you are
trying to tell or communicate? If successful, what are the
implications for policy change? This is the policy objective
and message.
2. Second consider the audience you are targeting. Who, in
government and among opinion leaders, do you need to tell
the message to and whose decisions do you need to
influence. Where are the supporters, entry points and policy
hooks and opportunities you can hang your proposals on in
a timely and focused manner? Where are your detractors?
3. Third, consider how to promote the message to the
audience. How can the information best be delivered? How
should the message be packaged? Who should deliver it
and in what context? What alliances can you develop,
mobilize or organize? When is the best time to promote it?
Identify influencers
• Who makes decisions?
• How are decisions made?
• What is the time-frame?
• What are key moments?
 Preparation is critical
 Understanding the rules of the game enables you to
become a player
Get to know decision makers
• Who are they?
• Are they accessible?
• Do they know you and your purpose?
• Do they hear from you regularly?
• What can you do for them?
 Information
 Access to your group
 Press coverage for positive action
Who’s involved and what needs to
happen with them?
Figure 2: Stakeholder analysis grid
Keep Satisfied
Engage Closely and
Influence Activity
Monitor
(Minimum effort) Keep Informed
High
Power
Low
Low Interest High
Identify allies and helpful experts
• Look at different levels of influence
• Look at those who partially share your
views
• Look at different roles
 the expert witness
 the popular hero
 the powerful voice
Identify and understand your opponents
• Who are they?
• What are their reasons?
• What are their interests?
• What strategy are they likely to adopt?
• Can you dialogue with them?
• Do you have good counter-arguments?
Build a strong case
• Anticipate counter arguments
• Select useful facts and examples
• Formulate goals carefully
• Deal positively with criticism
Context, evidence, links framework
Politics &
Policymaking
Research,
Learning &
Thinking
Media,
Lobbying
Networking
External Influences
Socio-economic &
cultural influences,
donor policies
Political Context
Links
Evidence
Policy brief – an effective tool
• What are policy briefs
• Types of basic policy briefs
• An advocacy brief argues in favour of a particular
• An objective brief – balanced information for policy
markers
• What should a policy brief do:
• Enough background
• Convince the problem must address urgently
• Information about alternatives (objective brief) and
evidence to support one alternative (advocacy
brief)
• Stimulate reader to make a decision
Policy brief – an effective tool
• Structuring a policy brief
• Title
• Summary
• Recommendations
• Introduction
• The body (the main text)
• Policy implications
• Conclusions
• Policy implications
• Suggested revisions in policy. What are the various options?
• Effects of the revised policy or policies. How will the policy changes
improve the situation? Give evidence or examples if possible.
• Advantages and disadvantages of each policy option. What are the
potential benefits? What will it cost? What side-effects might there be?
• If you have not given the recommendations at the beginning of the policy
brief, you can put them here.
Promotion mix for advocacy
1. Public education, awareness raising and mobilization
2. Litigation as a form of rights-based advocacy
3. Persuasion, lobbying often involving high-level
networking for policy influence
4. Action-research and model programmes, often with a
strong evaluation function to learn lessons, demonstrate
how policy change can work
5. Public relations and communication (sometimes
including advertising and marketing) and publications
6. Working with media
7. CSOs and stakeholders engagement, consultation,
participation and consensus in decision-making and
policy delivery
Key differences between scientific and
advocacy communication
Science
• Detailed explanations useful
• Extensive qualifications needed for
scholarly clarity
• Technical language adds clarity &
precision
• Several points made in a single
paper
• Be objective & unbiased
• Builds case gradually towards
conclusions
• Supporting evidence vital
• Hastily prepared research can be
discredited
• Having celebrity support is irrelevant
• Many people believe science is
objective
Advocacy
• Simplification preferable
• Extensive qualifications blur
messages
• Technical jargon confuses people
• Limited number of messages is
essential
• Present a passionate, compelling
argument based on fact
• State conclusions first; then support
• Too many facts and figures
overwhelm the audience
• Quick, accurate preparation & action
are needed to take advantage of
opportunities
• Many believe political truth is
subjective
Multi-stakeholder processes
• Equity – equal right to all to be at the table
• Transparency – openness and honesty in
working relationships (a systematic sharing of
information)
• Mutual benefit – everyone contributes, everyone
benefits (looking for win-win situations)
• Dialogue, not debate – listening, learning,
sharing approaches, experience and ideas
• Agreed action – not on everything, but on what
is possible
Observe the five commandments
• 1. Always tell the truth
• 2. Never promise more than you can deliver
• 3. Listen, so that you can understand what is
going on
• 4. Co-opt, don't bypass staff and advisers
• 5. Do not spring surprises when creating
alliances

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Advocacy and policy process

  • 1. ADVOCACY AND POLICY PROCESS Training of Trainers Workshop to enhance Pro-poor Policy Formulation and Implementation at Country Level. 21 – 25 September 2015: Bangkok, Thailand Lan Huong
  • 2. What is advocacy? Process to: • Influence policy and decision makers, fight for social change, transform public perceptions and attitudes, modify behaviors, or mobilize resources. (GAVI) • Use information strategically to change policies that affect the lives of disadvantaged people. (BOND) • Change attitudes, actions, policies and laws by influencing people and organizations with power. (India HIV/AIDS Alliance, 2002) • Speak up, draw attention to an issue, win the support of key constituencies in order to influence policies and spending, and bring about change. (WHO TB Programme) • Advocacy is about influencing or changing relationships of power.
  • 3. Golden rules • Get to know the key players • Get to know the policy-makers • Get to know the key committees and how they work • Learn the art of good timing • Create a political issue • Prepare properly • Use the media strategically • Develop your expertise • Anticipate what the opposition will do • Create strategic alliances
  • 4. Whose voices are heard? • Representation: speaking on behalf of the voiceless (for) • Mobilisation: encouraging others to speak with you (with) • Empowerment: supporting the voiceless to speak for themselves (by)
  • 5. Advising, advocacy, lobbying and activism Evidence/ Science based Interest/ values based Cooperation/ Inside track Confrontation/ Outside track Policy briefings Mobilizing support Company lobbying Direct action Advising Advocacy Lobbying Activism Based on ODI’s RAPID methodology
  • 6. Advocacy strategies Desired change Who? Identify & define relationships; influencers; decision makers How? Identify opportunities; Prepare communication tools & engagement strategies What? Identify knowledge gaps: What research exists? What needs to be tested? What new knowledge is needed?
  • 7. Planning an advocacy strategy 1. First, consider what evidence you are working with and the message it communicates. What is the story that you are trying to tell or communicate? If successful, what are the implications for policy change? This is the policy objective and message. 2. Second consider the audience you are targeting. Who, in government and among opinion leaders, do you need to tell the message to and whose decisions do you need to influence. Where are the supporters, entry points and policy hooks and opportunities you can hang your proposals on in a timely and focused manner? Where are your detractors? 3. Third, consider how to promote the message to the audience. How can the information best be delivered? How should the message be packaged? Who should deliver it and in what context? What alliances can you develop, mobilize or organize? When is the best time to promote it?
  • 8. Identify influencers • Who makes decisions? • How are decisions made? • What is the time-frame? • What are key moments?  Preparation is critical  Understanding the rules of the game enables you to become a player
  • 9. Get to know decision makers • Who are they? • Are they accessible? • Do they know you and your purpose? • Do they hear from you regularly? • What can you do for them?  Information  Access to your group  Press coverage for positive action
  • 10. Who’s involved and what needs to happen with them? Figure 2: Stakeholder analysis grid Keep Satisfied Engage Closely and Influence Activity Monitor (Minimum effort) Keep Informed High Power Low Low Interest High
  • 11. Identify allies and helpful experts • Look at different levels of influence • Look at those who partially share your views • Look at different roles  the expert witness  the popular hero  the powerful voice
  • 12. Identify and understand your opponents • Who are they? • What are their reasons? • What are their interests? • What strategy are they likely to adopt? • Can you dialogue with them? • Do you have good counter-arguments?
  • 13. Build a strong case • Anticipate counter arguments • Select useful facts and examples • Formulate goals carefully • Deal positively with criticism
  • 14. Context, evidence, links framework Politics & Policymaking Research, Learning & Thinking Media, Lobbying Networking External Influences Socio-economic & cultural influences, donor policies Political Context Links Evidence
  • 15. Policy brief – an effective tool • What are policy briefs • Types of basic policy briefs • An advocacy brief argues in favour of a particular • An objective brief – balanced information for policy markers • What should a policy brief do: • Enough background • Convince the problem must address urgently • Information about alternatives (objective brief) and evidence to support one alternative (advocacy brief) • Stimulate reader to make a decision
  • 16. Policy brief – an effective tool • Structuring a policy brief • Title • Summary • Recommendations • Introduction • The body (the main text) • Policy implications • Conclusions • Policy implications • Suggested revisions in policy. What are the various options? • Effects of the revised policy or policies. How will the policy changes improve the situation? Give evidence or examples if possible. • Advantages and disadvantages of each policy option. What are the potential benefits? What will it cost? What side-effects might there be? • If you have not given the recommendations at the beginning of the policy brief, you can put them here.
  • 17. Promotion mix for advocacy 1. Public education, awareness raising and mobilization 2. Litigation as a form of rights-based advocacy 3. Persuasion, lobbying often involving high-level networking for policy influence 4. Action-research and model programmes, often with a strong evaluation function to learn lessons, demonstrate how policy change can work 5. Public relations and communication (sometimes including advertising and marketing) and publications 6. Working with media 7. CSOs and stakeholders engagement, consultation, participation and consensus in decision-making and policy delivery
  • 18. Key differences between scientific and advocacy communication Science • Detailed explanations useful • Extensive qualifications needed for scholarly clarity • Technical language adds clarity & precision • Several points made in a single paper • Be objective & unbiased • Builds case gradually towards conclusions • Supporting evidence vital • Hastily prepared research can be discredited • Having celebrity support is irrelevant • Many people believe science is objective Advocacy • Simplification preferable • Extensive qualifications blur messages • Technical jargon confuses people • Limited number of messages is essential • Present a passionate, compelling argument based on fact • State conclusions first; then support • Too many facts and figures overwhelm the audience • Quick, accurate preparation & action are needed to take advantage of opportunities • Many believe political truth is subjective
  • 19. Multi-stakeholder processes • Equity – equal right to all to be at the table • Transparency – openness and honesty in working relationships (a systematic sharing of information) • Mutual benefit – everyone contributes, everyone benefits (looking for win-win situations) • Dialogue, not debate – listening, learning, sharing approaches, experience and ideas • Agreed action – not on everything, but on what is possible
  • 20. Observe the five commandments • 1. Always tell the truth • 2. Never promise more than you can deliver • 3. Listen, so that you can understand what is going on • 4. Co-opt, don't bypass staff and advisers • 5. Do not spring surprises when creating alliances