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Advocacy and Policy Process


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Presentation on advocacy and policy process by Andrew Chetley, MeTA secretariat, during the Uganda CSO workshop in April 2009

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Advocacy and Policy Process

  1. 1. Advocacy and policy processes Andrew Chetley Communication Director MeTA Secretariat Civil society workshop Jinja, Uganda April 2009
  2. 2. What is advocacy? <ul><li>Process to: </li></ul><ul><li>influence policy and decision makers, fight for social change, transform public perceptions and attitudes, modify behaviours, or mobilise resources. (GAVI) </li></ul><ul><li>use information strategically to change policies that affect the lives of disadvantaged people. (BOND) </li></ul><ul><li>change attitudes, actions, policies and laws by influencing people and organisations with power . (India HIV/AIDS Alliance, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>change the policies, positions and programmes of any type of institution and plead for, defend or recommend an idea before other people. (SARA Project) </li></ul><ul><li>speak up, draw attention to an issue, win the support of key constituencies in order to influence policies and spending, and bring about change . (WHO TB Programme) </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy is about influencing or changing relationships of power (World Bank) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Whose voices are heard? <ul><li>Representation : speaking on behalf of the voiceless ( for ) </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilisation : encouraging others to speak with you ( with ) </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment : supporting the voiceless to speak for themselves ( by ) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Advising, advocacy, lobbying and activism <ul><li>Based on ODI’s RAPID methodology </li></ul>Evidence/ Science based Confrontation/ Outside track Cooperation/ Inside track Interest/ values based Advocacy Lobbying Activism Advising Policy briefings (eg: SCF, WHO) Direct action (eg: TAC) Company lobbying (eg: IFPMA, GSK) Mobilising support (eg: HAI, MSF)
  5. 5. Advocacy strategies Desired change Who? Identify & define relationships; influencers; decision makers What? Identify knowledge gaps: What research exists? What needs to be tested? What new knowledge is needed? How? Identify opportunities; Prepare communication tools & engagement strategies
  6. 6. Planning an advocacy strategy <ul><li>1. First, consider what evidence you are working with and the message it communicates . What is the story that you are trying to tell or communicate? If successful, what are the implications for policy change? This is the policy objective and message. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Second consider the audience you are targeting. Who , in government and among opinion leaders, do you need to tell the message to and whose decisions do you need to influence. Where are the supporters, entry points and policy hooks and opportunities you can hang your proposals on in a timely and focused manner? Where are your detractors? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Third, consider how to promote the message to the audience. How can the information best be delivered? How should the message be packaged? Who should deliver it and in what context? What alliances can you develop, mobilise or organise? When is the best time to promote it? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Identify influencers <ul><li>Who makes decisions? </li></ul><ul><li>How are decisions made? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the time-frame? </li></ul><ul><li>What are key moments? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>preparation is critical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understanding the rules of the game enables you to become a player. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Get to know decision makers <ul><li>Who are they? </li></ul><ul><li>Are they accessible? </li></ul><ul><li>Do they know you and your purpose? </li></ul><ul><li>Do they hear from you regularly? </li></ul><ul><li>What can you do for them? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access to your group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Press coverage for positive action </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Who’s involved and what needs to happen with them?
  10. 10. Identify allies and helpful experts <ul><li>Look at different levels of influence </li></ul><ul><li>Look at those who partially share your views </li></ul><ul><li>Look at different roles </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the expert witness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the popular hero </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the powerful voice </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Identify and understand your opponents <ul><li>Who are they? </li></ul><ul><li>What are their reasons? </li></ul><ul><li>What are their interests? </li></ul><ul><li>What strategy are they likely to adopt? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you dialogue with them? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have good counter-arguments? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Build a strong case <ul><li>Anticipate counter arguments </li></ul><ul><li>Select useful facts and examples </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate goals carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Deal positively with criticism </li></ul>
  13. 13. Context, evidence, links framework <ul><li>Based on ODI’s RAPID methodology </li></ul>
  14. 14. Promotion mix for advocacy <ul><li>1. Protest, activism, direct action </li></ul><ul><li>2. Public education, awareness raising and mobilisation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Litigation as a form of rights-based advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>4. Persuasion, lobbying often involving high-level networking for policy influence </li></ul><ul><li>5. Action-research and model programmes, often with a strong evaluation function to learn lessons, demonstrate how policy change can work </li></ul><ul><li>6. Coalition, constituency and campaigning / influencing network building </li></ul><ul><li>7. Public relations and communication (sometimes including advertising and marketing) and publications </li></ul><ul><li>8. Working with media </li></ul><ul><li>9. Citizen engagement, consultation, participation and consensus in decision-making and policy delivery. </li></ul>
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  16. 16. Key differences between scientific and advocacy communication <ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed explanations useful </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive qualifications needed for scholarly clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Technical language adds clarity & precision </li></ul><ul><li>Several points made in a single paper </li></ul><ul><li>Be objective & unbiased </li></ul><ul><li>Builds case gradually towards conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting evidence vital </li></ul><ul><li>Hastily prepared research can be discredited </li></ul><ul><li>Having celebrity support is irrelevant </li></ul><ul><li>Many people believe science is objective </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>Simplification preferable </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive qualifications blur messages </li></ul><ul><li>Technical jargon confuses people </li></ul><ul><li>Limited number of messages is essential </li></ul><ul><li>Present a passionate, compelling argument based on fact </li></ul><ul><li>State conclusions first; then support </li></ul><ul><li>Too many facts and figures overwhelm the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Quick, accurate, preparation & action are needed to take advantage of opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrity support may help </li></ul><ul><li>Many believe political truth is subjective </li></ul>
  17. 17. Multi-stakeholder processes <ul><li>Equity – equal right for all to be at the table </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency – openness and honestry in working relationships (a systematic sharing of information) </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual benefit – everyone contributes, everyone benefits (looking for win-win situations) </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue, not debate – listening, learning, sharing approaches, experience and ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Agreed action – not on everything, but on what is possible </li></ul>
  18. 18. More information <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>(Source is an international information support centre which strengthens the management, use and impact of information on health, disability and other development topics.) </li></ul>