Public Policy Advocacy For Social Change[1]


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Public Policy Advocacy For Social Change[1]

  1. 1. Public Policy Advocacy for Social Change <ul><li>“ Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.” </li></ul><ul><li>Margaret Mead </li></ul>
  2. 2. What is Advocacy? <ul><li>Speaking, writing, or acting in support of a cause </li></ul><ul><li>Using a variety of organized tactics to achieve a public policy goal </li></ul><ul><li>Demanding a change to benefit the lives of many </li></ul>
  3. 3. Advocacy: <ul><li>Asks something of others </li></ul><ul><li>Puts the demands of people into systems </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with issues and conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Involves people </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a space for public discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Finds solutions to problems </li></ul>
  4. 4. Focus for Advocacy <ul><li>The Legislature </li></ul><ul><li>The Executive </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory Agencies </li></ul><ul><li>The Judiciary </li></ul>
  5. 5. Social Justice Advocacy <ul><li>Challenging power </li></ul><ul><li>Assuming risks </li></ul><ul><li>Telling stories </li></ul><ul><li>Involving those affected </li></ul><ul><li>Offering alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Principles vs. compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing the scales of justice and equity </li></ul><ul><li>Holding ourselves accountable </li></ul>
  6. 6. Vision, Mission, and Goals <ul><li>Vision - Your picture of the ideal situation </li></ul><ul><li>Mission – What your organization will do to get there </li></ul><ul><li>Goals – Significant steps toward the vision </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives – The means to accomplish the goals </li></ul><ul><li>Action Steps – Concrete steps to achieve the objectives </li></ul>
  7. 7. How Change Happens <ul><li>“ Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never has and it never will.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Frederick Douglas </li></ul>
  8. 8. Stages of Change <ul><li>Denial of the need for change </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance to change </li></ul><ul><li>Exploration of the change </li></ul><ul><li>Managing the change </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining momentum </li></ul>
  9. 9. Change Agents <ul><li>Understand context, barriers to change, and stages of change </li></ul><ul><li>Listen </li></ul><ul><li>Respond </li></ul><ul><li>Advocate </li></ul><ul><li>Pursue change </li></ul><ul><li>Intervene at the systems level </li></ul><ul><li>Team with others </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate </li></ul>
  10. 10. Strategic Planning Process <ul><li>Set ground rules </li></ul><ul><li>Ask all questions </li></ul><ul><li>Share experiences and opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Leave space for others </li></ul><ul><li>Be informal and relax </li></ul><ul><li>All opinions count </li></ul><ul><li>Keep it simple </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm </li></ul><ul><li>Small group </li></ul><ul><li>Accept all ideas without debate </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate if necessary </li></ul>
  11. 11. Strategic Planning Questions <ul><li>What do you want? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who can deliver it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What message(s) do they need to hear? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-interest </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Strategic Planning Questions <ul><li>Who do they need to hear it from? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert voices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentic voices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do we get them to hear it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuasion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Strategic Planning Questions <ul><li>What do we have to build on? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Messages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do we need to develop? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Strategic Planning Questions <ul><li>How do we begin? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Big enough to matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small enough to win </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do we know it’s working? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implemented plan? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased engagement? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvements? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where do we go from here? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Information and Research <ul><li>Knowledge will forever govern ignorance </li></ul><ul><li>Know the most about your issue </li></ul><ul><li>Find as many sources of information as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Research arguments for and against </li></ul><ul><li>Know who supports and who opposes </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct surveys and opinion polls </li></ul><ul><li>Use a survey to inform and educate </li></ul>
  16. 16. Why do people get involved? <ul><li>They believe the issue is important to them and their family </li></ul><ul><li>They believe they have something to contribute </li></ul><ul><li>They believe that they will be listened to and their contributions respected </li></ul><ul><li>They believe that their participation will make a difference </li></ul>
  17. 17. How do people stay involved? <ul><li>Multiple opportunities for participation, from a small contribution of time to progressively larger contributions of time and effort </li></ul><ul><li>The level of participation varies depending on life circumstances. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Staying Involved <ul><li>Constituent receive sufficient advance notice. </li></ul><ul><li>Constituent participation is facilitated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Child care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dinner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education & information </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Staying Involved <ul><li>Constituents are listened to; their ideas are supported and respected. </li></ul><ul><li>Constituents do not experience retribution as a result of their participation. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Staying Involved <ul><li>Their participation has an impact – it makes an appreciable difference. </li></ul><ul><li>Their participation is appreciated; that appreciation is acknowledged. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Opportunities to Participate in Advocacy <ul><li>Tell their stories verbally to an advocate & give permission to share </li></ul><ul><li>Tell their stories verbally within a small group (focus group) </li></ul><ul><li>Tell their stories verbally to policymakers (at public hearing, meeting with monitors, at their school or district forum, etc.) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Participation Opportunities <ul><li>Share their stories in writing through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter to the state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter to the editor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter to the monitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter to an advocate with permission to disclose </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Participation Opportunities <ul><li>Reach out to encourage other constituent participation </li></ul><ul><li>Assist in collection of documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Assist in analysis of information </li></ul><ul><li>Assist in information dissemination </li></ul>
  24. 24. Participation Opportunities <ul><li>Serve as co-trainers </li></ul><ul><li>Serve as members of task forces and committees </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate public forums </li></ul><ul><li>Serve as members of monitoring teams </li></ul>
  25. 25. Preparation for Participation <ul><li>Offer trainings, developed jointly with constituents & advocates </li></ul><ul><li>Develop & disseminate informative, useful materials </li></ul><ul><li>Meet and talk with constituents, sharing information, listening carefully to their strengths, needs & concerns </li></ul>
  26. 26. Demonstrate constituent independence & contribution . <ul><li>Develop a plan to identify a diverse, representative group of constituents </li></ul><ul><li>During & after meetings, specifically recognize the value of the constituent’s participation </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize individual constituent strengths while respecting differing methods of coping & adjustment </li></ul>
  27. 27. Provide constituent-identified supports to assist participation. <ul><li>Provide convenient meeting times & locations. </li></ul><ul><li>Compensate constituents for time, expertise & expenses. </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly identify someone to be the primary contact for reimbursement & other issues; timely reimbursement & contacts are essential </li></ul>
  28. 28. Provide constituent-identified supports <ul><li>Provide direct staff support, stipends, travel expenses, & childcare </li></ul><ul><li>Identify these supports in RFPs, grants, & policies </li></ul><ul><li>Provide complete, appropriate information prior to meetings in a timely manner </li></ul><ul><li>Match veteran members with inexperienced ones to support new members & share ideas </li></ul>
  29. 29. Provide constituent-identified supports <ul><li>Recognize that some constituents may require more and different kinds of support than others </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage and facilitate constituent-to-constituent support and networking </li></ul>
  30. 30. Provide formal orientation & information <ul><li>Provide orientations about the issues, participants & process. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide informational support for constituents to participate as equal partners on a “level playing field” </li></ul><ul><li>Provide technical assistance, leadership mentoring, training, & other leadership training </li></ul>
  31. 31. Ensure diversity among constituents <ul><li>Honor the racial, ethnic, cultural, & socioeconomic diversity of families. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide all materials in the constituent’s preferred language. </li></ul><ul><li>Recruit broadly from the community and the target population. </li></ul><ul><li>Bring in new constituents. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Ensure diversity <ul><li>Adapt collaborative models to diverse cultures. Manage changing distribution of power & responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate principles of collaboration into professional education. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Ensure diversity <ul><li>Ensure broad representation among groups based on the communities in question. </li></ul><ul><li>Be particularly careful to include members of traditionally underserved groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid any appearance of tokenism. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Be ready to hear what constituents say. <ul><li>Encourage and support constituents to find their voice. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that member perspectives are not considered a separate component of the policy-making process, but are infused throughout. </li></ul><ul><li>Always consider an individual constituent’s story as valid. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Respect the passion constituents have for change. <ul><li>Support staff in developing an understanding of the value of constituent participation. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide clear information about your goals and how constituent input and participation fits in. </li></ul><ul><li>Balance membership between constituents and advocates. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider shared leadership – co-chairs </li></ul>
  36. 36. Remember: <ul><li>Empowering families to participate in advocacy for their children, their community, the larger society, is its own victory, regardless of the specific outcome of any particular effort . </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy is not a spectator sport! </li></ul>
  37. 37. Outreach Strategies <ul><li>Door-knocking </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare office, food pantry, school </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational media </li></ul><ul><li>Community media </li></ul><ul><li>Mass media </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mediating institutions” </li></ul><ul><li>Public forums </li></ul>
  38. 38. Mobilization <ul><li>Moving from spectators to participants </li></ul><ul><li>Turning opinions into actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making a phone call </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sending a fax or e-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing a letter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visiting a policymaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstration, march, sit-in </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Mobilization Steps <ul><li>Present information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The activity or event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why it’s important </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outreach to constituents & allies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phone, fax, e-mail, mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One-on-one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Needed supports for participation </li></ul>
  40. 40. Action Alert Network <ul><li>Develop & maintain Action Alert list </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor key policy developments </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize key points, pros and cons, actions </li></ul><ul><li>Mail, e-mail, fax, call to alert network </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain copies of action responses </li></ul>
  41. 41. Organizing vs. Mobilizing <ul><li>Mobilizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter-term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For particular action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less time commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer-term, for the long haul </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More involved in decision-making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater time commitment </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Leadership <ul><li>Inspire and help people work toward a goal </li></ul><ul><li>Can be shared </li></ul><ul><li>Differing roles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visionaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource mobilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statespersons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside sparkplugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inside negotiators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalists </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Key Leadership Qualities <ul><li>Effective communicators </li></ul><ul><li>Good listeners </li></ul><ul><li>Develop team spirit & cohesiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding & aware </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize accomplishments </li></ul><ul><li>Constructive criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage & motivate </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate resolution of disputes </li></ul><ul><li>Delegate & build others </li></ul><ul><li>Accept responsibility, take initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Offer help, information </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for help </li></ul><ul><li>Make things happen, but don’t have to be the center of attention </li></ul>
  44. 44. Leaders Problem-Solve <ul><li>State problem simply & clearly </li></ul><ul><li>Gather & organize relevant info & resources </li></ul><ul><li>List potential solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate each one </li></ul><ul><li>Select the best one </li></ul><ul><li>Design a plan to use </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate outcomes & readjust when needed </li></ul>
  45. 45. Leaders Know Themselves <ul><li>Who am I? </li></ul><ul><li>What am I doing here </li></ul><ul><li>What are my: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals, purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivations? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What strengths & challenges do I bring? </li></ul><ul><li>How can I best use my leadership skills? </li></ul><ul><li>How can I make space for others? </li></ul>
  46. 46. Leadership Development <ul><li>Individual advocacy </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Peer advocacy </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Public policy advocacy </li></ul>
  47. 47. Advocacy Leadership Knowledge <ul><li>Laws & regulations </li></ul><ul><li>How institutions work </li></ul><ul><li>Key decision-makers </li></ul><ul><li>Formal & informal decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Facts; current status </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers & solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities of effective systems </li></ul><ul><li>Existing resources </li></ul>
  48. 48. Advocacy Leadership Skills <ul><li>Empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Written & oral communication </li></ul><ul><li>Critical reading & thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus-building </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic planning </li></ul><ul><li>Growing leadership </li></ul>
  49. 49. How Policies are Made <ul><li>Legislature/laws: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referred to committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered by committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing/public comment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reported out with amendments/changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passed by one house </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referred to next house </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passed by 2 nd house </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goes to Governor </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. How Policies Are Made <ul><li>Executive/Governor: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signs into law as is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditionally veto (return for specific changes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto (overridden by supermajority of both houses) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pocket veto within last 45 days of session </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. How Policies Are Made <ul><li>Regulations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Draft regulations based on law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publish in Federal or State Register </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public comment/public hearing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respond to comments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make revisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publish in Register </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Go into effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implemented by agency </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Reaching Policymakers <ul><li>Call * Write * Visit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brief and to the point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stick to one subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify yourself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How will you and others be affected? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be clear about what you want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be accurate & specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be polite & positive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer your help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow up! </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Reaching the Grassroots <ul><li>Call * Write * Visit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter sent to a legislator can be a letter to the editor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Message on a legislator’s message machine can be called in to radio talk show </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testimony at hearing can be presented at church, PTA, community group meeting </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Phone Calls, E-Mail, Faxes <ul><li>Ask to speak to the legislator or aide </li></ul><ul><li>Note your legislative district </li></ul><ul><li>Give bill # & name </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why the issue is important to you </li></ul><ul><li>Jot down speaking points in advance </li></ul><ul><li>Write notes on your conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up! </li></ul>
  55. 55. Letters and Postcards <ul><li>Handwritten neatly or typed </li></ul><ul><li>Use own words </li></ul><ul><li>Personalize </li></ul><ul><li>Be brief </li></ul><ul><li>Stick to key point(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid form letters </li></ul><ul><li>Develop sample letters with messages </li></ul><ul><li>Identify yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Use bill # & title </li></ul><ul><li>Be timely </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up! </li></ul>
  56. 56. Effective Advocacy Writing <ul><li>Be clear about what you want to say and how it will be heard </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful about your tone </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that communication is filtered and may be blocked </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is never value-free </li></ul>
  57. 57. Purpose of Advocacy Writing <ul><li>Share facts </li></ul><ul><li>Guide reader to a clear understanding of issue </li></ul><ul><li>Persuade/convince reader to think the way you do </li></ul><ul><li>Persuade/convince reader to act the way you want them to </li></ul>
  58. 58. Types of Advocacy Writing <ul><li>Op-Ed piece </li></ul><ul><li>Letter to editor </li></ul><ul><li>Press advisory/release </li></ul><ul><li>Letter to policymaker </li></ul><ul><li>Letter of complaint </li></ul><ul><li>Public testimony </li></ul><ul><li>Investigative report </li></ul><ul><li>Letters to inform & mobilize others </li></ul><ul><li>Activity notices </li></ul>
  59. 59. Questions of Advocacy Writing <ul><li>Who is the audience? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the issue & message? </li></ul><ul><li>When can you convey the message? </li></ul><ul><li>Where can you convey the message? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are you writing? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you most effectively convey your message? </li></ul>
  60. 60. Advocacy Writing “Tricks” <ul><li>Challenge with a thought-provoking question </li></ul><ul><li>Open with quotation </li></ul><ul><li>Offer a sip of your conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>List all main points </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic or eye-opening statement </li></ul><ul><li>Use an angle your readers haven’t seen </li></ul>
  61. 61. Advocacy Writing Tips <ul><li>Keep it short & simple </li></ul><ul><li>Watch punctuation, spelling & organization Know intended recipients </li></ul><ul><li>Have a clear goal </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the context </li></ul><ul><li>Catch them in the beginning </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize/introduce, explain, summarize/conclude </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is a process </li></ul><ul><li>Have someone review your work </li></ul>
  62. 62. Testifying – In advance <ul><li>Monitor Federal and State Register </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilize authentic & expert voices </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilize diverse constituencies </li></ul><ul><li>Call to request time </li></ul><ul><li>Find out how much time and how many copies to bring </li></ul>
  63. 63. Writing Testimony <ul><li>Be brief & concise </li></ul><ul><li>Written is longer than oral </li></ul><ul><li>Have a purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Identify yourself </li></ul><ul><li>State position, reasoning, and request </li></ul><ul><li>Personalize </li></ul><ul><li>Use your own words </li></ul><ul><li>Be substantive & give examples </li></ul><ul><li>Single space for them, double space for you </li></ul><ul><li>Make extra copies </li></ul><ul><li>Practice presentation & rehearse questions! </li></ul>
  64. 64. Presenting Testimony <ul><li>Dress properly </li></ul><ul><li>Arrive early </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared to shorten testimony </li></ul><ul><li>Relax </li></ul><ul><li>Speak slowly & clearly </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid monotone </li></ul><ul><li>Look up, make eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>No disparaging remarks </li></ul><ul><li>Thank them for the opportunity </li></ul>
  65. 65. Speaking in Public <ul><li>Prepare content and delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Know your audience and tailor to them </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize key points </li></ul><ul><li>Establish eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Use visual aids </li></ul><ul><li>Be brief </li></ul><ul><li>Leave your opponent with dignity intact </li></ul>
  66. 66. Meeting with Elected Officials <ul><li>Speak up </li></ul><ul><li>Be part of a group </li></ul><ul><li>Go with someone who has experience </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be afraid </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t lie if you don’t know </li></ul><ul><li>Practice helps; role play beforehand! </li></ul><ul><li>Be yourself </li></ul>
  67. 67. Preparing for Legislative Visits <ul><li>Decide who you will visit. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish agenda & goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan your visit. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine group composition. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen well. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Preparing for Legislative Visits <ul><li>Be prepared, but don’t feel everyone has to be an expert. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t get intimidated or frustrated. </li></ul><ul><li>Be on time, and don’t stay too long. </li></ul><ul><li>Build a relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up! </li></ul>
  69. 69. IRS Rules for Non-Profits <ul><li>No supporting or opposing candidates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can do candidate surveys & disseminate results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limits on lobbying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No appreciable amount </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IRS election: 20% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funder restrictions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lobbying involves specific legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory advocacy is not lobbying </li></ul>
  70. 70. Regulatory Advocacy <ul><li>Determine agency with jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>Identify responsible party within agency </li></ul><ul><li>Develop relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Know relevant law governing regulations (Administrative Procedures Act) </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor media, State & Federal Registers </li></ul>
  71. 71. Regulatory Advocacy <ul><li>Develop a plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comments on draft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential opposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compromises </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop coalitions </li></ul><ul><li>Get broad endorsement </li></ul><ul><li>Use legislative oversight </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilize grassroots </li></ul>
  72. 72. Grassroots & Media Advocacy <ul><li>Communicate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Own constituency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Own supporters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential Allies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General public </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grassroots media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community papers, radio, & public access TV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass media </li></ul></ul>
  73. 73. Coalition Advocacy <ul><li>Builds support </li></ul><ul><li>Combines power & resources </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces competition for funding & support </li></ul><ul><li>More efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Provides support & expertise to smaller groups </li></ul><ul><li>Strength in numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Strength in diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Broadened skills & expertise </li></ul>
  74. 74. Coalition Advocacy <ul><li>Need clarity of goals and how they fit with each organization </li></ul><ul><li>Clear decision-making processes </li></ul><ul><li>Strong communications plans </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure all contribute, have a say, and get credit </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict resolution mechanisms </li></ul>
  75. 75. Questions for Coalitions <ul><li>Temporary or permanent? </li></ul><ul><li>Agreed on issues? </li></ul><ul><li>Differences among groups? </li></ul><ul><li>Gifts of each? </li></ul><ul><li>Stuff to give up? </li></ul><ul><li>Stuff to gain? </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipated conflicts & compromises? </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to address? </li></ul>
  76. 76. Leadership/ Maintaining a Strong Organization <ul><li>Intense dedication to improving outcomes for substantial numbers </li></ul><ul><li>High commitment to maintenance activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear decision-making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sufficient funding </li></ul></ul>
  77. 77. Effective Strategies Shape Action <ul><li>Ongoing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revision of plan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Persistent focus on key systems & central issues </li></ul><ul><li>Understand specific changes needed </li></ul><ul><li>Bring about changes </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor implementation to make sure improvements take place </li></ul>
  78. 78. Information <ul><li>Document problems and solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Develop accurate “map” of systems – how they work, who’s important, relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Know how other groups have solved problems </li></ul>
  79. 79. Building Support <ul><li>Use media to communicate views and mobilize others </li></ul><ul><li>Develop support networks </li></ul><ul><li>Build well-organized, committed constituency capable of mobilizing substantial political power </li></ul>
  80. 80. Intervention <ul><li>Multiple levels </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple tactics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filing complaints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testifying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing, calling, visiting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continue direct pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Persistence! </li></ul>