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PUBLIC POLICY: AN INTRODUCTION

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Lecture notice presented at the Mwalimu Nyerere Memorial Academy

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PUBLIC POLICY: AN INTRODUCTION

  1. 1. PSU 08108 : Public Policy for BD.MSD &BA.Eco INSTRUCTOR : Mr. SANCHAWA, DH Office Number 301, Uhuru. 1Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  2. 2. Learning objectives • By the end of this lecture learners should be able to : • Define public policy and other related terms • Analyze the importance of public policy • Describe the nature and characteristics of public policy • Examine what policies do • Examine the rationale for public policy 2Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  3. 3. Definition of terms : • A policy • A line of argument rationalizing the course of action of a government; "they debated the policy on the proposed legislation" • A plan of action adopted by an individual or social group. • A written contract or certificate of insurance; "you should have read the small print on your policy 3Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  4. 4. A policy • A plan or course of action, as of a government, political party, or business, intended to influence and determine decisions, actions, and other matters • Policies are general statements or understandings which guide or channel of thinking and action in decision-making 4Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  5. 5. A Policy • Policy is a process as well as a product. It is used to refer to a process of decision-making and also the product of that process. Policy as an output ; Here policy is seen as what government actual delivers e.g. Delivery of goods and services or enforcement. E.g education, health, agriculture ,e.tc 5Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  6. 6. A policy • They are predetermined decision rules applicable for a range of managerial decisions and actions. • Policies can be understood as political, management, financial, and administrative mechanisms arranged to reach explicit goals • Policy is a means of encouraging discretion and initiative but with in units (Harold Koontz ) 6Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  7. 7. So………A policy means ? • Purposive course of action that an individual or group consistently follows in dealing with a problem. It has the following ELEMENTS • Intentions: purposes of government action • Goals: stated ends to be achieved • Plans or proposals: means for achieving goals • Programs: authorized means for pursuing goals 7Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  8. 8. Elements of a policy (ctd) • Decisions or choices: specific actions that are taken to set goals, develop plans, and implement and evaluate programs • Effects: the effects that programs have on society, whether intended or unintended 8Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  9. 9. What policies do? (Under son) • They emerge in response to policy demands • They involve what governments actually do, not just what they say they are going to do • Policies may be either positive or negative • In their positive form, policies are based on law and are authoritative 9Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  10. 10. A goal • Goals are what policies aim at or hope to achieve. A goal is a desired state of affairs that a society or an organization attempts to realize. • Goal can be understood in a variety of perspectives. These can be thought of as abstract values that a society would like to acquire. There are also goals that are specific and concrete. Removal of poverty is a goal that the government wants to pursue. 10Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  11. 11. Policy output and policy outcomes • Policy outputs: the formal actions that government takes to pursue its goals • Here policy is seen as what government actually delivers e.g. Delivery of goods and services or enforcement. E.g. education, health, agriculture, etc • Policy outcomes: the effects such actions have on society . 11Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  12. 12. Meaning of public policy • Public policy is a purposive course of actions or inactions undertaken by an actor or set of actors in dealing with a particular problem or matter of concern (James Under son, 1995,5). What are the distinguishing features of this definition? Students. 12Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  13. 13. Meaning of public policy • Robert EyeStone terms public policy as "the relationship of government unit to its environment • Thomas R. Dye says that "public policy is whatever government chooses to do or not to do" • Richard Rose says that "public policy is not a decision, it is a course or pattern of activity. 13Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  14. 14. Meaning (ctd) • In Carl J. Friedrich's opinion public policy is a proposed course of action of a person, group or government within a given environment providing opportunities and obstacles which the policy was proposed to utilize and overcome in an effort to reach a goal or realize an objective or purpose. 14Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  15. 15. Meaning of Public policy • Public policy is a course of government action or inaction in response to public problems. It is associated with formally approved policy goals and means, as well as the regulations and practices of agencies that implement programs 15Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  16. 16. The nature of public policy • In this lecture we would like to argue that public policies are governmental decisions, and are actually the result of activities which the government undertakes in pursuance of certain goals and objectives. • Thus the following points will make the nature of public policy more clear in your minds 16Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  17. 17. The nature of PP(ctd) • 1) Public Policies are goal oriented. This means that Public policies are formulated and implemented in order to attain the objectives which the government has in view for the betterment of the public 17Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  18. 18. Nature of public policy (ctd) 2) Public policy is the outcome of the government's collective actions. • It means that it is a pattern or course of activity or' the governmental officials and actors in a collective sense than being termed as their discrete and segregated decisions 18Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  19. 19. The nature of PP(ctd) 3) Public policy is what the government actually decides or chooses to do. It is the relationship of the government units to the specific field of political environment in a given administrative system. It can take a variety of forms like law, ordinances, court decisions, executive orders, decisions etc. 19Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  20. 20. The nature of PP (ctd) 4) Public policy may be positive or negative. • It is positive in the sense that it depicts the concern of the government and involves its action to a particular problem on which the policy is made. • Negatively, it involves a decisions by the governmental officials regarding not taking any action on a particular issue 20Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  21. 21. Characteristics of public policy • It is purposive and goal oriented • Public policies are made up by public authorities • Public policy consists of set of pattern of action taken over time • Public policy is a product of demand • Government directed course of actions • It can be positive or negative 21Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  22. 22. The importance of public policy • The study on Public Policy is important as it avails learners to what Public Policies are, How they are made, the politics involved in formulating them, the theoretical models for analyzing policies and the impact they have on the citizens 22Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  23. 23. The importance of public policy (ctd) • Generally , public policy plays a vital role in society as its helps to know the intentions of the government for a particular sector, depart. • Through public policy, the public can measure the achievements made by the government • Helps to respond to the needs of the society • For scientific understanding of the course and effect relationship 23Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  24. 24. Some public policy areas • Education policy • Social welfare policy • Health care policy • Criminal justice policy • Social policy • Economic policy • Environmental policy • Energy policy 24Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  25. 25. The relationship between politics and public policies • A policy is a plan of action for tackling political issues. It is often initiated by a political party in government, which undergoes reforms and changes by interested actors (for example, opposition parties and lobby groups 25Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  26. 26. The relationship (ctd) • Policy making process is a part of politics and political action. According to Gabriel Almond, political system is a set of interactions having structures, each of which performs its functions in order to keep it like an on-going concern, it is a set of processes that routinely converts inputs into outputs. 26Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  27. 27. Individual Assignment 1. Giving practical examples discuss the experience of Tanzania in Public Policy Making Process . Examine the limitations and success in the process. INSTRUCTIONS • 1. It must be typed • 2. Number of Pages: a minimum of four pages excluding cover page • 3. Font and font size : 12 font size Times New Roman • Citations and references: Highly recommended • Submission: Friday 24th April 2015 at 16: 00 PM 27Mr. SANCHAWA, DH
  28. 28. READINGS • Anderson, James E. 1975. Public Policy Making. Praeger: New York • Dror Yehezkel, 1968. Public Policy Making Re- examined, Chandler. Pennsylonia • Dye. Thomas R. 1972. Understanding Public Policy. Prentice Hall. Englewoodcliff • Frohock. Fred M. 1979. Public Policy: Scope and Logic. Prentice Hall. Englewoodcliff • Sahni Pardeep. 1987. Public Policy: Conceptual Dimensions. Kitab Mahal. Allahabad. • Saigal Krishan, 1983. Policy Making in India : An Approach to Optimisation, Vikas: 28Mr. SANCHAWA, DH

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