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Influencing, Advocacy
and Campaigning -
MENa Teams
Richard English Webinar 2 22nd
Oct 2015
Page 2
What we will cover in two webinars
Wednesday 21st
11.00 – 13.00
• Oxfam’s approach on
influencing, advocacy and
campaigning
• How Change happens
• Advocacy and campaigns
planning process
• Power analysis and Theories
of Change
• Working in partnership and
with others
Thursday 22nd
09.00 – 11.00
• Personal approaches to
influencing
• Lobbying and policy dialogue
and engagement
• Messaging and media
strategies
• Managing risks
Influencing and Lobby
Skills
Page 4
Power Framework 1
• Power Over Others: having power over takes power away
from others and using it to dominate and prevent others from
gaining it
• Power With Others: finding common ground among
different interests – based on mutual support, solidarity and
collective strength
• Power To Make a Difference: is unique opportunity of every
person to shape his or her life and the life of others. If based
on mutual support can lead to power with. Each individual
has the power to make a difference.
Page 5
5
5 Distinct bases of power
Coercive Power
Legitimate Power
Reward Power
Referent Power
Expert Power
the person has the authority to proscribe
behaviour
identification and attraction to the person
the person can mediate punishment
the person mediates rewards
the person possesses unique and rare
knowledge/ skill
Page 6
6
Individual power
- Charisma
- Reputation
- Credibility
- Empathy
- Expertise
- Information
- Tradition
- Family
- Community
- Workplace
Knowledge
Personality
Others’
support
Page 7
Individual Reflection:
How can you be more
strategic in your use
of your power bases
to influence for
positive change?
7
Page 8
Power strategies in use
• Form alliances and
coalitions
• Present a persuasive
viewpoint or argument
• Deal directly with key
decision makers
• Use data/information to
convince others
• Focus on needs of the
audience or target group
• Use contacts for
information
• Deal with others socially
• Be persistent
• Trade favours
• Use threats
• Give guarantees
Page 9
PLAN
ESTABLISH
CONTACT AND
RELATIONSHIP
DIAGNOS
E
SITUATIO
N
CREATE POSITIVE
PARTNERSHIP
APPROACH
WORK
COOPERATIVELY
OVERCOME
CONCERNS/
RESISTANC
E
CONTINUE
OR CLOSE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PROCESS OF
INFLUENCING
Page 10
Effective lobbying – different needs
• Sharing information:
• Need to keep each other up-to-date on relevant issues
• Offering something of value:
• Involves building relationships of trust so government officials
are willing to use expertise and advice of organisation in policy
making
• Using soft power:
• Making representations on need for policy change – issue are
resolved through influencing or negotiation backed by
submissions and outside influencers
Page 11
Effective lobbying – different needs
• Sharing information:
• Need to keep each other up-to-date on relevant issues
• Offering something of value:
• Involves building relationships of trust so government officials
are willing to use expertise and advice of organisation in policy
making
• Using soft power:
• Making representations on need for policy change – issue are
resolved through influencing or negotiation backed by
submissions and outside influencers
Page 12
Top Tips for lobbyists 1
Opportunity to learn what your target actually thinks
Builds and maintains relationships
•        Confirm timings and agenda in advance
•        Don’t be late
•        Be absolutely clear on key messages and your key asks and
what you want the key decision-maker to do
•        Who else will attend – talk to them informally in advance
•        What’s the composition of your delegation – the more formal the
less useful
•        Pre-meeting with colleagues or allies and agree on what to focus
and don’t air differences in public
•        Dress for the occasion
•        Agree who will lead and have a note-taker
•        Know your stuff but engage in genuine dialogue
•        Debrief
•        Follow-up
Page 13
Building the relationships
• Don’t forget to cultivate the officials who have influence
• Face-to-face and telephone contact beats everything
else
• Share information – help them in their work
• Lobby is not a one –off event it’s a strategy
• Lobby relationships are for life – who knows where your
lobby target will end up
• Value all your contacts and keep them updated…
Page 14
Top Tips for lobbyists 2
• Know your targets – what makes them tick
• Give them credit where its due
• Research their potential arguments and have your counter-
arguments prepared
• Use reasoned and evidence-based argument
• Ask questions, make suggestions and build trust
• Listen and respect views even if you disagree
• Look for common ground and provide solutions not obstacles –
look for win-win solutions
• Know when to stop
• Be assertive but not aggressive
• Be clear on your bottom-lines
• If you’re not going to get what you need then know when to
retire and fight again another day
Page 15
A word on negotiation
• Plan ahead – Are there win/wins? Clear bottom-lines?
Concessions? Are the conditions right to negotiate? Can
you anticipate what they will say’?
 rehearse, document, develop answers to likely
responses before hand
• Negotiate in good faith; seek common ground or shared
interests; communicate what you want well; withdraw if
things are not going well
• Close the meeting with a summary or positions and
next steps;
Research forAdvocacy
and influencing
Scheduled for Monday 2nd
November
Key Messages
Page 18
What is a key message
A message is a concise and persuasive statement about your advocacy objective that
captures:
• What you want to achieve – e.g. sanitation for all
• Why you want to achieve it – e.g. positive consequences of action - better health
and better environments; or negative consequences of no action - people continue to
die unnecessarily
• How you propose to achieve it – e.g. by getting government to give sanitation
priority in the budget
• What action you want the audience to take – e.g. writing to their political
representatives
Messages should encapsulate everything you need to say – they are not the same as
slogans or sound bites. A good basic message can be tailored to fit specific audiences.
Page 19
KEY MESSAGE HAS TO BE…
• Clear, and concise (ideally you should be able to communicate it in less
than one minute)
• Present clear and credible solutions
• Inspiring, shows possibilities for change.
• Action oriented. Aim to craft messages that will convince people to act,
and just communicate what you want to say.
• May change over time to reflect changed attitudes or circumstances.
Helpful: checklist of targets likely arguments/excuses and how to counter
them.
Page 20
Page 21
Page 22
Are women visible in our messages?
• Do your messages reflect the different needs of both men and
women?
• Did you identify messages that “appeal” to both men and
women?
• Do your messages and approaches further marginalize
women? Do you promote gender equality through “positive”
images, case studies, and representation?
• Did you identify different approaches that are suitable for
men? women?
• Are the channels and medium of messages accessible to men
and women?
Page 23
TAILOR YOUR MESSAGE
• Consider your audience(s) and tailor your message accordingly -
what is likely to make them listen and engage.
• Tap into the audience’s priorities, values and concerns:
o What will motivate them to act?
o What attitudes will prevent them from acting?
o Connect to their value systems and political views.
o What do they want / need to know? What kind of information
attracts them?
• Often, your messages may need to emphasise different elements to
make them relevant for particular groups.
Page 24
Example
Key message: Reducing smoking-related illness makes
health care more affordable for everyone.
Tailored messages:
• For an audience of doctors: Passive smoking is an
expensive public health hazard that requires responsive
public health laws and regulations.
• For an audience of policy makers: Smoking bans in public
places achieve clear health benefits at reasonable or low
costs and are politically popular.
Page 25
Support Messages
• Key messages must be backed with some form of evidence
—otherwise, there is a danger they will be seen only as
assertions.
• The evidence can be in the form of facts and figures,
testimonials, expert opinions, case studies, agreements,
independent reports or favourable international
comparisons.
• If you cannot support a key message with evidence, assess
whether the message is the right one for your issue, or do
further research to provide more evidence.
Page 25
Page 26
Page 26
Page 27
Tell a Story
• Stories “show” your reader or listener rather than “telling” them. They help
position you as an expert and build trust among your audience.
• Stories are memorable and touch readers/listeners in a personal way.
• Stories help you focus your message to avoid communicating too much
unnecessary information.
• Stories help you bring independent pieces of information together into a
coherent message.
• Keep stories short and relevant to your audience, and make them about a
single person or group of people. And don’t forget to deliver an underlying
message that ties back to your mission and goals.
Remember!
• “Storyless” narratives rely on dry data and program descriptions without ever
bringing the content to life. The result is a lost audience. Instead … tell a great
story!
• The best stories have a beginning, a middle and an end. They establish heroes
and villains, create conflict and use an emotional hook.
Page 28
EXERCISE
Scenario:
• You walk in to a lift going to the top floor of a building.
Standing next to you is one of your target audiences for your
advocacy – a community leader, decision-maker, journalist
etc.
• You have 2mins to share your key message.
Media Advocacy
Page 30
What and Why?
• What?
The strategic use of mass media (TV, radio, newspapers) to
advance a social or public policy goal.
• Why?
• Inform and influence public opinion: delivers your message to a large
number of people
• Attracts supporters to your cause.
• Getting your issue on the policymakers agenda
• Profile and credibility with policymakers = improved access to them
• Pressure for change
Page 31
Media Strategy
• What’s your message? Strong and clear messaging.
• Who do you want to reach (targets)?
• Which media will reach them?
• What media tool will you use?
• Presentation – story, creative, newsy, timing
• How will you time your media effort to complement your other
activities and link with external opportunities?
• Risks
• Spokespersons
Page 32
Which Media?
Page 32
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES WHAT’S WANTED WHAT’S NOT
WANTED
TV •quick
▪ combines visuals and
sound
▪ large reach
▪ expensive and not
accessible by
all
work to tight
guidelines
availability for
interviews
▪ good visuals
▪ controversy
▪ local interest
▪ international interest
technical issues
▪ events that have
already happened
▪ “man gives
speech” stories
RADIO ▪ portable
▪ capable of rapid reaction
•broadcast immediately
▪ widely accessible
and affordable
▪ local languages
▪ message can be
repeated many times
•sound only
▪ stories usually very
short
▪ works to very tight
deadlines
▪ FM stations cover
small areas so costs
can be high
availability for
interviews
▪ controversy
▪ local interest
▪ strong sound bites
▪ visuals
▪ dry long-winded
interviews
▪ complex data
▪ and statistics
▪ events that have
already happened
PRINT •reaches a
broader audience
▪ accessible and
affordable
▪ in-depth
coverage with
more details
▪ dedicates more
time to a story
▪ willing to follow
a story over time
•not as immediate
as visuals or TV
or radio
▪ no sound or
moving pictures
▪ daily news - stories
often decided
morning before
publication, deadlines
afternoon
•a strong angle
▪ local interest
▪ human stories
▪ background
information
▪ quotations
▪ facts & figures
▪ photographs
▪ colours
▪ too many
technical terms
▪ no local or
national angle
▪ stories already
reported on TV or
radio
Page 33
Media Tool box
• News release
• Media advisory (news events/conferences)
• Fact sheet
• Background Briefing note
• Photo and cutline
• Media field visits or to the scene/event
• Opinion pieces
• Reactives
• Letters to Editor
• Media stunts
• Celebrities and Influencers
Page 34
OPINION PIECE
Page 34
Page 35
MEDIA STUNTS/ PHOTO NEWS
Page 35
Page 36
Page 36
MAKE USE OF
CELEBRITIES/
INFLUENCERS
Page 37
HOOKS
Link your story with news opportunities like:
• current events
• high level meetings
• a speech
• anniversary
• days when certain produce is traditionally consumed
– these are often known as ‘hooks’.
Page 37
Page 38
Page 38
Page 39
• One thing is to highlight is digital as a powerful channel to
disseminate our messages/asks and the importance of
supporter journeys....moving away from ad hoc engagement
(i.e. asking people something only when we need them), to
continuous genuine engagement where we care about what
our supporters think.
Managing Risks
Page 41
Managing Risks
Risk management is about making informed judgments quickly, effectively and
continuously about the opportunities and risks in advocacy and campaigning. If
managed effectively it will increase opportunity, result in less failure and be more
cost-effective as we strive to deliver impact in our work.
Page 42
Types of Risks
Page 43
Identify Assess Manage Monitor
1. At campaign planning
stage or at significant
points in the campaign
identify the main risks
alongside the main
opportunities
Level of risk: What could happen
Probability - High, Medium, Low
Impact – High, Medium, Low
Weight - opportunities vs. risks
Green:
If opportunities outweigh risks which are not seen
as significant proceed to run the risk but
continue to monitor
Amber:
If more balanced – amber – proceed with caution
– more rigorous mitigation and monitoring
required
Red:
If risks far outweigh opportunities decide to avoid
the risk by not proceeding with particular
opportunities or activities
Decide on how to
manage and mitigate
major risks identified:
e.g.
Prevent – action to
limit the probability of
the risk arising
Reduce – action to
decrease negative
consequences of risk
identified
Share – the risk with
another organisation
(either by doing a
campaign unbranded)
Review risk register
on a regular basis
2. Identify main
stakeholders impacted or
affected by risk areas
(informed by campaign
power analysis)
Likely responses of key stakeholders Incorporate into
process above
Review
stakeholders and
position on regular
basis in line with
reviewing power
analysis
Do a Risk Assessment

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Advocacy training webinar Middle East Teams 2

  • 1. Influencing, Advocacy and Campaigning - MENa Teams Richard English Webinar 2 22nd Oct 2015
  • 2. Page 2 What we will cover in two webinars Wednesday 21st 11.00 – 13.00 • Oxfam’s approach on influencing, advocacy and campaigning • How Change happens • Advocacy and campaigns planning process • Power analysis and Theories of Change • Working in partnership and with others Thursday 22nd 09.00 – 11.00 • Personal approaches to influencing • Lobbying and policy dialogue and engagement • Messaging and media strategies • Managing risks
  • 4. Page 4 Power Framework 1 • Power Over Others: having power over takes power away from others and using it to dominate and prevent others from gaining it • Power With Others: finding common ground among different interests – based on mutual support, solidarity and collective strength • Power To Make a Difference: is unique opportunity of every person to shape his or her life and the life of others. If based on mutual support can lead to power with. Each individual has the power to make a difference.
  • 5. Page 5 5 5 Distinct bases of power Coercive Power Legitimate Power Reward Power Referent Power Expert Power the person has the authority to proscribe behaviour identification and attraction to the person the person can mediate punishment the person mediates rewards the person possesses unique and rare knowledge/ skill
  • 6. Page 6 6 Individual power - Charisma - Reputation - Credibility - Empathy - Expertise - Information - Tradition - Family - Community - Workplace Knowledge Personality Others’ support
  • 7. Page 7 Individual Reflection: How can you be more strategic in your use of your power bases to influence for positive change? 7
  • 8. Page 8 Power strategies in use • Form alliances and coalitions • Present a persuasive viewpoint or argument • Deal directly with key decision makers • Use data/information to convince others • Focus on needs of the audience or target group • Use contacts for information • Deal with others socially • Be persistent • Trade favours • Use threats • Give guarantees
  • 9. Page 9 PLAN ESTABLISH CONTACT AND RELATIONSHIP DIAGNOS E SITUATIO N CREATE POSITIVE PARTNERSHIP APPROACH WORK COOPERATIVELY OVERCOME CONCERNS/ RESISTANC E CONTINUE OR CLOSE                           PROCESS OF INFLUENCING
  • 10. Page 10 Effective lobbying – different needs • Sharing information: • Need to keep each other up-to-date on relevant issues • Offering something of value: • Involves building relationships of trust so government officials are willing to use expertise and advice of organisation in policy making • Using soft power: • Making representations on need for policy change – issue are resolved through influencing or negotiation backed by submissions and outside influencers
  • 11. Page 11 Effective lobbying – different needs • Sharing information: • Need to keep each other up-to-date on relevant issues • Offering something of value: • Involves building relationships of trust so government officials are willing to use expertise and advice of organisation in policy making • Using soft power: • Making representations on need for policy change – issue are resolved through influencing or negotiation backed by submissions and outside influencers
  • 12. Page 12 Top Tips for lobbyists 1 Opportunity to learn what your target actually thinks Builds and maintains relationships •        Confirm timings and agenda in advance •        Don’t be late •        Be absolutely clear on key messages and your key asks and what you want the key decision-maker to do •        Who else will attend – talk to them informally in advance •        What’s the composition of your delegation – the more formal the less useful •        Pre-meeting with colleagues or allies and agree on what to focus and don’t air differences in public •        Dress for the occasion •        Agree who will lead and have a note-taker •        Know your stuff but engage in genuine dialogue •        Debrief •        Follow-up
  • 13. Page 13 Building the relationships • Don’t forget to cultivate the officials who have influence • Face-to-face and telephone contact beats everything else • Share information – help them in their work • Lobby is not a one –off event it’s a strategy • Lobby relationships are for life – who knows where your lobby target will end up • Value all your contacts and keep them updated…
  • 14. Page 14 Top Tips for lobbyists 2 • Know your targets – what makes them tick • Give them credit where its due • Research their potential arguments and have your counter- arguments prepared • Use reasoned and evidence-based argument • Ask questions, make suggestions and build trust • Listen and respect views even if you disagree • Look for common ground and provide solutions not obstacles – look for win-win solutions • Know when to stop • Be assertive but not aggressive • Be clear on your bottom-lines • If you’re not going to get what you need then know when to retire and fight again another day
  • 15. Page 15 A word on negotiation • Plan ahead – Are there win/wins? Clear bottom-lines? Concessions? Are the conditions right to negotiate? Can you anticipate what they will say’?  rehearse, document, develop answers to likely responses before hand • Negotiate in good faith; seek common ground or shared interests; communicate what you want well; withdraw if things are not going well • Close the meeting with a summary or positions and next steps;
  • 18. Page 18 What is a key message A message is a concise and persuasive statement about your advocacy objective that captures: • What you want to achieve – e.g. sanitation for all • Why you want to achieve it – e.g. positive consequences of action - better health and better environments; or negative consequences of no action - people continue to die unnecessarily • How you propose to achieve it – e.g. by getting government to give sanitation priority in the budget • What action you want the audience to take – e.g. writing to their political representatives Messages should encapsulate everything you need to say – they are not the same as slogans or sound bites. A good basic message can be tailored to fit specific audiences.
  • 19. Page 19 KEY MESSAGE HAS TO BE… • Clear, and concise (ideally you should be able to communicate it in less than one minute) • Present clear and credible solutions • Inspiring, shows possibilities for change. • Action oriented. Aim to craft messages that will convince people to act, and just communicate what you want to say. • May change over time to reflect changed attitudes or circumstances. Helpful: checklist of targets likely arguments/excuses and how to counter them.
  • 22. Page 22 Are women visible in our messages? • Do your messages reflect the different needs of both men and women? • Did you identify messages that “appeal” to both men and women? • Do your messages and approaches further marginalize women? Do you promote gender equality through “positive” images, case studies, and representation? • Did you identify different approaches that are suitable for men? women? • Are the channels and medium of messages accessible to men and women?
  • 23. Page 23 TAILOR YOUR MESSAGE • Consider your audience(s) and tailor your message accordingly - what is likely to make them listen and engage. • Tap into the audience’s priorities, values and concerns: o What will motivate them to act? o What attitudes will prevent them from acting? o Connect to their value systems and political views. o What do they want / need to know? What kind of information attracts them? • Often, your messages may need to emphasise different elements to make them relevant for particular groups.
  • 24. Page 24 Example Key message: Reducing smoking-related illness makes health care more affordable for everyone. Tailored messages: • For an audience of doctors: Passive smoking is an expensive public health hazard that requires responsive public health laws and regulations. • For an audience of policy makers: Smoking bans in public places achieve clear health benefits at reasonable or low costs and are politically popular.
  • 25. Page 25 Support Messages • Key messages must be backed with some form of evidence —otherwise, there is a danger they will be seen only as assertions. • The evidence can be in the form of facts and figures, testimonials, expert opinions, case studies, agreements, independent reports or favourable international comparisons. • If you cannot support a key message with evidence, assess whether the message is the right one for your issue, or do further research to provide more evidence. Page 25
  • 27. Page 27 Tell a Story • Stories “show” your reader or listener rather than “telling” them. They help position you as an expert and build trust among your audience. • Stories are memorable and touch readers/listeners in a personal way. • Stories help you focus your message to avoid communicating too much unnecessary information. • Stories help you bring independent pieces of information together into a coherent message. • Keep stories short and relevant to your audience, and make them about a single person or group of people. And don’t forget to deliver an underlying message that ties back to your mission and goals. Remember! • “Storyless” narratives rely on dry data and program descriptions without ever bringing the content to life. The result is a lost audience. Instead … tell a great story! • The best stories have a beginning, a middle and an end. They establish heroes and villains, create conflict and use an emotional hook.
  • 28. Page 28 EXERCISE Scenario: • You walk in to a lift going to the top floor of a building. Standing next to you is one of your target audiences for your advocacy – a community leader, decision-maker, journalist etc. • You have 2mins to share your key message.
  • 30. Page 30 What and Why? • What? The strategic use of mass media (TV, radio, newspapers) to advance a social or public policy goal. • Why? • Inform and influence public opinion: delivers your message to a large number of people • Attracts supporters to your cause. • Getting your issue on the policymakers agenda • Profile and credibility with policymakers = improved access to them • Pressure for change
  • 31. Page 31 Media Strategy • What’s your message? Strong and clear messaging. • Who do you want to reach (targets)? • Which media will reach them? • What media tool will you use? • Presentation – story, creative, newsy, timing • How will you time your media effort to complement your other activities and link with external opportunities? • Risks • Spokespersons
  • 32. Page 32 Which Media? Page 32 ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES WHAT’S WANTED WHAT’S NOT WANTED TV •quick ▪ combines visuals and sound ▪ large reach ▪ expensive and not accessible by all work to tight guidelines availability for interviews ▪ good visuals ▪ controversy ▪ local interest ▪ international interest technical issues ▪ events that have already happened ▪ “man gives speech” stories RADIO ▪ portable ▪ capable of rapid reaction •broadcast immediately ▪ widely accessible and affordable ▪ local languages ▪ message can be repeated many times •sound only ▪ stories usually very short ▪ works to very tight deadlines ▪ FM stations cover small areas so costs can be high availability for interviews ▪ controversy ▪ local interest ▪ strong sound bites ▪ visuals ▪ dry long-winded interviews ▪ complex data ▪ and statistics ▪ events that have already happened PRINT •reaches a broader audience ▪ accessible and affordable ▪ in-depth coverage with more details ▪ dedicates more time to a story ▪ willing to follow a story over time •not as immediate as visuals or TV or radio ▪ no sound or moving pictures ▪ daily news - stories often decided morning before publication, deadlines afternoon •a strong angle ▪ local interest ▪ human stories ▪ background information ▪ quotations ▪ facts & figures ▪ photographs ▪ colours ▪ too many technical terms ▪ no local or national angle ▪ stories already reported on TV or radio
  • 33. Page 33 Media Tool box • News release • Media advisory (news events/conferences) • Fact sheet • Background Briefing note • Photo and cutline • Media field visits or to the scene/event • Opinion pieces • Reactives • Letters to Editor • Media stunts • Celebrities and Influencers
  • 35. Page 35 MEDIA STUNTS/ PHOTO NEWS Page 35
  • 36. Page 36 Page 36 MAKE USE OF CELEBRITIES/ INFLUENCERS
  • 37. Page 37 HOOKS Link your story with news opportunities like: • current events • high level meetings • a speech • anniversary • days when certain produce is traditionally consumed – these are often known as ‘hooks’. Page 37
  • 39. Page 39 • One thing is to highlight is digital as a powerful channel to disseminate our messages/asks and the importance of supporter journeys....moving away from ad hoc engagement (i.e. asking people something only when we need them), to continuous genuine engagement where we care about what our supporters think.
  • 41. Page 41 Managing Risks Risk management is about making informed judgments quickly, effectively and continuously about the opportunities and risks in advocacy and campaigning. If managed effectively it will increase opportunity, result in less failure and be more cost-effective as we strive to deliver impact in our work.
  • 43. Page 43 Identify Assess Manage Monitor 1. At campaign planning stage or at significant points in the campaign identify the main risks alongside the main opportunities Level of risk: What could happen Probability - High, Medium, Low Impact – High, Medium, Low Weight - opportunities vs. risks Green: If opportunities outweigh risks which are not seen as significant proceed to run the risk but continue to monitor Amber: If more balanced – amber – proceed with caution – more rigorous mitigation and monitoring required Red: If risks far outweigh opportunities decide to avoid the risk by not proceeding with particular opportunities or activities Decide on how to manage and mitigate major risks identified: e.g. Prevent – action to limit the probability of the risk arising Reduce – action to decrease negative consequences of risk identified Share – the risk with another organisation (either by doing a campaign unbranded) Review risk register on a regular basis 2. Identify main stakeholders impacted or affected by risk areas (informed by campaign power analysis) Likely responses of key stakeholders Incorporate into process above Review stakeholders and position on regular basis in line with reviewing power analysis Do a Risk Assessment

Editor's Notes

  1. Give examples of what is meant by each. What does this tell them about how they are going to develop their own approach to their own empowerment? What strategies are they going to be using?
  2. Do you have any of these power bases? Do you have all of them? Which don’t you have? Give examples of power bases and power bases people have.
  3. Another way to look at it….
  4. Add local examples here
  5. Campaigning for justice and social change, advocating for major shifts in the policies and practices of those who hold power, or working in difficult humanitarian situations is inherently risky for both Oxfam and its partners. The risks of taking action must also be weighed against the risks to Oxfam and citizens of doing nothing and allowing an injustice to occur or continue. Good risk management is about making informed judgments quickly, effectively, and continuously about the opportunities and risks associated with influencing. It is not about avoiding risks, it is about managing and mitigating risks. Oxfam’s risk management framework involves the identification, assessment, management, and monitoring of risk in a cycle. The operating context we work in constantly changes, and we need to keep monitoring a situation, identifying new risks, and assessing their impact.
  6. The most common types of risks associated with influencing include: direct security risks, political risks, reputational risks, legal risks and impact risks. Oxfam teams need to do a comprehensive analysis of potential risks related to their influencing strategy. The risk assessment should be done and completed by all those involved in the management and delivery of the strategy.
  7. A good risk assessment identifies the risks and the stakeholders who will be affected by the risks. The assessment of the risk involves the following steps: 1) Identifying what could happen - You need to list all the scenarios that may arise as a result of Oxfam influencing work. For example, “the government may revoke Oxfam’s permit to work in the country” or “Oxfam partners may be threatened or harassed”. This section is often based on a team brainstorm and should include all of the major fears of team members. This discussion should also reflect on the risks to citizens of taking no action at all and allowing an injustice to continue or occur. Each scenario is analyzed given its: Probability: Analyse the probability of each scenario (using a simple scale of low, medium, or high), and cite at least two or three pieces of concrete evidence to explain how you chose that level. This should include a description of the current climate as well as any past incidents. For example “two other INGOs have been expelled from the country in the past five years” or “Oxfam has already received two anonymous threat letters”. Ensure widespread consultation on this section, as different team members and partners often have different views on the likelihood of each scenario. Potential impact of risk. Consider the repercussions of each scenario, and decide how significant the impact would be if it were to become a reality (using a simple scale of low, medium, or high). Be aware of any scenarios with a “high” or “very high” impact, for example any scenario that could lead to serious injury or death (of Oxfam staff, partners, beneficiaries or others), as these will probably require the most detailed mitigation strategies. Weight. The level of risk is assessed versus the opportunities of the influencing work for Oxfam – how much would the risks outweigh the opportunities?   A Green status means that opportunities outweigh the risks and the organization can proceed to run the risk, but continue to monitor; An Amber status means that the scale is more balanced, the work can proceed but with caution and with a more rigorous mitigation and monitoring; and A Red status, which means that the risks far outweigh the opportunities and a decision must be made whether to proceed with the risk or not. 2) Identify the Key stakeholders who can influence decisions and those most affected by risk. List all stakeholders who are directly involved in making decisions that could affect the scenario – for example, national government ministries or representatives, security forces or other armed groups, local authorities, etc. Be as specific as possible in naming the person or group who affects decision making. List those stakeholders who are most directly affected by the impact of each scenario – this might include beneficiaries and other INGOs as well as Oxfam staff and partners. 3) Identify how Oxfam will manage the risk. What actions will be taken to mitigate risks or maximise benefit: Describe what actions will be taken to manage and mitigate the risk posed by each scenario, and who will take them. Actions might reflect agreed ways of working (such as “Ensure full compliance with national legal requirements”) or tacticsto be taken on a case-by-case basis (“Oxfam identifies lawyer to provide legal advice to communities if probability rises”.) 4) Continually monitor your risk register as context can change rapidly.