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- 1. The IPO ModelInput – Process - Output
- 2. I = Input Input is something from the external environment that is fed into the system. In an information system, the inputs may be raw data "captured" in some way or pre-existing data which has been provided by an external system. In either case, the data input is provided by an external entity.
- 3. P = Process The transformation process is the most important element of a system. The process accepts the inputs into the system and performs some type of operation on it which transforms it into some other state. In the simplest of terms, the process is at the heart of any system. In a computerised information system, the process is normally the storage, retrieval and modification of data which is accomplished by hardware and software.
- 4. O = Output Output from the system which is the result of processing the input. Without output, a system has no link back into its external environment. Output of an information system may be reports generated by an information system, or a picture on a computer monitor, or even data that is fed into another external system.
- 5. The IPO Model Data andINPUT OUTPU Processing T Your analysis starts here The requirements of the Output, more than anything else, will determine the requirements of the System.
- 6. Steps to complete an IPO ModelSteps 1. Read and understand the problem 2. Identify the outputs Pick intrinsic variable names that represent the output 3. Decide what data (the inputs) is required in order to get the required output Sometimes these will be given to you, sometimes not, which means you may need to invent inputs. 4. Once you have the outputs and the inputs you need to determine how the inputs can be transformed into the required outputs. This is a dynamic process which may mean you need to continually return to the previous steps.
- 7. ExampleAnalysis for CelsiusToFahrenheit Program: Input degrees Celsius Process F = C * 9/5 + 32 Output degrees Fahrenheit
- 8. Problem Statement A students final grade for a course is a weighted average of two tests, a final exam, and four projects. Each test is worth 15%, the final is worth 30%, and the projects are worth a total of 40% (10% each). Given a students grades for all of these assignments, calculate the final score. What output/s are require?
- 9. Problem Statement A students final grade for a course is a weighted average of two tests, a final exam, and four projects. Each test is worth 15%, the final is worth 30%, and the projects are worth a total of 40% (10% each). Given a students grades for all of these assignments, calculate the final score. What input/s are require?
- 10. Problem Statement A students final grade for a course is a weighted average of two tests, a final exam, and four projects. Each test is worth 15%, the final is worth 30%, and the projects are worth a total of 40% (10% each). Given a students grades for all of these assignments, calculate the final score. What process/es are require?
- 11. Problem StatementA students final grade for a course is a weighted average of two tests, a finalexam, and four projects. Each test is worth 15%, the final is worth 30%, and theprojects are worth a total of 40% (10% each). Given a students grades for all ofthese assignments, calculate the final score. Input Process Output Get Result of Test1 1. Calculate FinalScore FinalScore Get Result of Test2 2. FinalScore = (Test1 + Test2) Get Result of FinalExam * 15/100 + Test3 * 30/100 + (Project1 + Project2 + Get Result of Project1 Project3 + Project4) * 40/100 Get Result of Project2 Get Result of Project3 Get Result of Project4
- 12. Design Exercises1. Consider a student file that contains the following data fields: First Name Last Name Course GradeWould this set of data be suitable and sufficient to use to test each of thefollowing programs? Explain why or why not. A program that prints a list of SDD students A program that prints a list of students nearly failing - those with a grade is less than 50% A program that prints a list of student on the Principal’s list A program that prints a list of students from Parramatta A program that prints a list of female students.2. Construct an IPO chart for a program that gives an employee$50 bonus for every 500 items sold in a week.3. Construct an IPO chart for a program that will output astudents grading based on letter grades (A, B, C, D, or F) in fivecourses.
- 13. 2 * IPO ExamplesInput Processing Outputoriginal number 1. calculate the squared value by multiplying the original number by squared value itself 2. display the squared valueInput Processing Outputstate1 sales 1. enter state1 sales, state2 sales, and commission rate commissionstate2 sales 2. calculate the total commission by adding the state1 sales to the state2commission rate sales, and then multiplying the result by the commission rate 3. display the total commission Describe what these two IPO models are doing…
- 14. 2 more IPO ExamplesInput Processing OutputSales 1. Enter the sales and Commission rate Commission RateCommission rate 2. Calculate the commission rate by multiplying sales time Commission rate 3. Display the Commission rateInput Processing OutputOriginal number 1.Enter the Original Number Squared value 2.If the original number is less than or equal to zero then display an error message, otherwise calculate the squared value by multiplying the Original number by itself. 3. Display the squared value Describe what these two IPO models are doing…

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