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PISA 2022 results
Creative minds, creative schools
Most school subjects strive to foster creativity
Percentage of countries/economies in which subject areas refer to creativity in secondary education curricula
Figure III.1.1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Visual Arts (73)
Technology (69)
Performance Arts (72)
Reading (80)
Science (76)
Mathematics (76)
Foreign Languages (70)
Geography (73)
History (73)
Citizenship (68)
Physical Education (71)
%
15-year-olds tend to report lower creativity than 10-year-olds
Standardised differences between 10- and 15-year-olds, average across sites
-0.6
-0.5
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0.0
0.1
Challenges to integration of creative thinking in education:
policymakers’ perspective
Percentage of jurisdictions reporting the following challenges to integrate creative thinking in their education system
Figure III.3.3
53
52
51
45
43
38
32
26
18
13
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Overcrowded curriculum
Lack of assessment focus on creativity
Lack of teacher training or pedagogical resources to develop student creativity
Lack of appropriate facilities, equipment and/or materials
Lack of system-level guidelines/standards or learning progressions on
developing creativity
Focus on preparing for high stakes exams
Financial constraints
Unclear evidence to support integrating creativity in education
Lack of political will or high-level strategy focused on developing student
creativity
Other
%
PISA participants
Around 690,000 15-year-old students in
81 countries and economies took PISA 2022
PISA 2022 competency model for creative thinking
Figure III.1.2
20
30
40
Overall country performance in creative thinking
Student
performance [CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE] [CELL…
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
Countries/economies statistically significantly
above the OECD average
Countries/economies not statistically
significantly above or below the OECD average
Countries/economies statistically significantly
below the OECD average
Some countries do much better in creative thinking
than expected from PISA mathematics performance
Score-point difference between actual and expected performance in creative thinking
Figure III.2.5
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
Chile
31
Mexico
29
Australia*
37
New
Zealand*
36
Costa
Rica
27
Canada*
38
El
Salvador
23
Jamaica*
26
Finland
36
Uruguay
29
Panama*
23
Colombia
26
Korea
38
Portugal
34
Israel
32
Latvia*
35
Denmark*
35
Singapore
41
Belgium
35
Qatar
28
OECD
average
33
Poland
34
Spain
33
United
Arab
Emirates
28
Lithuania
33
Estonia
36
Brazil
23
Germany
33
France
32
Malta
31
Serbia
29
Iceland
30
Italy
31
Czechia
33
Saudi
Arabia
23
Peru
23
Croatia
30
Jordan
20
Malaysia
25
Netherlands*
32
Hungary
31
Greece
27
Romania
26
Slovak
Republic
29
Baku
(Azerbaijan)
23
Ukrainian
regions
(18
of
27)
27
Moldova
24
Mongolia
25
Indonesia
19
Palestinian
Authority
18
Slovenia
30
Dominican
Republic**
15
Thailand
21
Kazakhstan
24
North
Macedonia
19
Chinese
Taipei
33
Brunei
Darussalam
24
Hong
Kong
(China)*
32
Bulgaria
21
Morocco
15
Philippines
14
Macao
(China)
32
Uzbekistan
14
Albania**
13
Relative performance in creative thinking based on performance in mathematics
Score-point difference
Countries and economies that perform better than expected in creative thinking
Figure III.2.6
Belgium
Korea
Latvia*
Singapore
Australia*
Canada*
Finland
New Zealand
Chile
Costa Rica
El Salvador
Mexico
Uruguay
Moderate relative
performance
Strong relative
performance
Moderate
relative
performance
Strong
relative
performance
Denmark*
Estonia
Israel
Lithuania
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Spain
United Arab
Emirates
Relative
strength
in
creative
thinking
given
READING
performance
Relative strength in creative thinking given
MATHEMATICS performance
Relationship between students' socio-economic status and
performance in creative thinking, mathematics and reading
Percentage of variation in performance explained by socio-economic status
Figure III.3.10
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Uzbekistan
Kazakhstan
Jamaica*
Jordan
Morocco
United
Arab
Emirates
Baku
(Azerbaijan)
Indonesia
Albania**
Hong
Kong
(China)*
Saudi
Arabia
Palestinian
Authority
Dominican
Republic**
Croatia
Korea
Macao
(China)
Canada*
Chile
Philippines
Estonia
Denmark*
Spain
Latvia*
Qatar
Finland
Chinese
Taipei
Italy
Serbia
Australia*
Netherlands*
Mexico
Slovenia
Malta
Portugal
Thailand
Iceland
Malaysia
OECD
average
Greece
North
Macedonia
Mongolia
Brazil
Poland
Germany
El
Salvador
Ukrainian
regions
(18
of
27)
Colombia
Panama*
Uruguay
Singapore
Belgium
Moldova
Czechia
Lithuania
Brunei
Darussalam
France
Israel
New
Zealand*
Slovak
Republic
Peru
Bulgaria
Hungary
Romania
Creative thinking Mathematics
% (R²)
Girls are stronger creative thinkers
Score-point difference in creative thinking between boys and girls
Figure III.3.4
-7
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
Mexico
29
Peru
23
Chile
31
Costa
Rica
27
El
Salvador
23
Uruguay
29
Panama*
23
Indonesia
19
Colombia
26
Uzbekistan
14
Italy
31
Ukrainian
regions
(18
of
27)
27
Singapore
41
Portugal
34
Romania
26
Hungary
31
Spain
33
Belgium
35
Brazil
23
France
32
Israel
32
Canada*
38
Dominican
Republic**
15
Latvia*
35
Serbia
29
Denmark*
35
OECD
average
33
Australia*
37
Poland
34
Czechia
33
Greece
27
Morocco
15
Croatia
30
Kazakhstan
24
Moldova
24
Korea
38
Germany
33
North
Macedonia
19
Netherlands*
32
Bulgaria
21
New
Zealand*
36
Malaysia
25
Slovak
Republic
29
Albania**
13
Estonia
36
Lithuania
33
Chinese
Taipei
33
Mongolia
25
Baku
(Azerbaijan)
23
Hong
Kong
(China)*
32
Thailand
21
Macao
(China)
32
Brunei
Darussalam
24
Philippines
14
Slovenia
30
Malta
31
Iceland
30
Qatar
28
United
Arab
Emirates
28
Jamaica*
26
Saudi
Arabia
23
Palestinian
Authority
18
Finland
36
Jordan
20
Score-point dif. (boys - girls)
Girls
scored
higher
than
boys
Gender differences in relative performance in creative thinking
Score-point difference between the actual and expected performance of girls in creative thinking
Figure III.3.9
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Saudi
Arabia
Finland
Iceland
Macao
(China)
Jordan
Malta
United
Arab
Emirates
Hong
Kong
(China)*
Slovenia
Palestinian
Authority
Qatar
Germany
Chinese
Taipei
New
Zealand*
Netherlands*
Lithuania
Estonia
Jamaica*
Serbia
Denmark*
Croatia
Italy
Australia*
Czechia
Hungary
OECD
average
Canada*
Brazil
Greece
Moldova
Israel
Slovak
Republic
Thailand
Korea
France
Poland
Latvia*
Baku
(Azerbaijan)
Mongolia
Kazakhstan
Portugal
Spain
Ukrainian
regions
(18
of
27)
Belgium
Brunei
Darussalam
Costa
Rica
Bulgaria
Colombia
Singapore
Romania
Morocco
North
Macedonia
Uzbekistan
Philippines
Dominican
Republic**
Uruguay
Albania**
Peru
Chile
El
Salvador
Malaysia
Panama*
Mexico
Indonesia
Mathematics Reading
Score-point dif.
Girls performed above their expected level
Girls performed below their expected level
Can every school be a creative school?
Figure III.3.2
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
United
Arab
Emirates
Jamaica*
Slovak
Republic
Bulgaria
Israel
Netherlands*
Romania
North
Macedonia
Hungary
Qatar
Morocco
Germany
Philippines
Colombia
Peru
Kazakhstan
Poland
Brunei
Darussalam
Brazil
Thailand
El
Salvador
Slovenia
Ukrainian
regions
(18
of
27)
France
Czechia
Serbia
Jordan
Chinese
Taipei
Moldova
Croatia
Belgium
Malaysia
Uruguay
Lithuania
Palestinian
Authority
Macao
(China)
Mongolia
OECD
average
Indonesia
Greece
Malta
Panama*
Hong
Kong
(China)*
Italy
Mexico
Costa
Rica
Albania**
Saudi
Arabia
Australia*
Korea
Dominican
Republic**
New
Zealand*
Singapore
Canada*
Chile
Baku
(Azerbaijan)
Uzbekistan
Portugal
Finland
Estonia
Spain
Latvia*
Iceland
Denmark*
Between-school variation Within-school variation
%
%
OECD average: 74%
OECD average: 26%
Performance variation between schools
Performance variation within schools
Distribution of students across quintiles of performance in creative
thinking and mathematics
OECD average
Figure III.2.4
Top quintile
In
Creative
Thinking
4th quintile
3rd quintile
2nd quintile
Bottom quintile
Top quintile
4th quintile
3rd quintile
2nd quintile
Bottom quintile
In
Mathematics
Student beliefs, attitudes and expectations
Figure III.5.1
Beliefs about
creativity
Attitudes towards
creative thinking
Social-emotional
characteristics
Expectations for the
future
The nature of
creativity
Growth mindset
on creativity
Expected end of
education
Expected job at 30
years old
Creative self-
efficacy
Openness to
intellect
Openness to art
and experience
Imagination and
adventurousness
Curiosity
Persistence
Perspective taking
Assertiveness
Co-operation
Stress resistance
Emotional control
Student beliefs, attitudes and expectations
Figure III.5.1
Beliefs about
creativity
Attitudes towards
creative thinking
Social-emotional
characteristics
Expectations for the
future
The nature of
creativity
Growth mindset
on creativity
Expected end of
education
Expected job at 30
years old
Creative self-
efficacy
Openness to
intellect
Openness to art
and experience
Imagination and
adventurousness
Curiosity
Persistence
Perspective taking
Assertiveness
Co-operation
Stress resistance
Emotional control
Student beliefs about the nature of creativity
Percentage of students who agree/strongly agree that it is possible to be creative in nearly any subject, by gender
Figure III.5.2
50
60
70
80
90
100
Portugal
Chinese
Taipei
Costa
Rica
Peru
Mexico
Israel
Chile
Croatia
Spain
Switzerland
Italy
Colombia
Germany
Panama*
France
Poland
Finland
Canada*
Romania
Denmark*
Ukrainian
regions
(18
of
27)
Kazakhstan
Australia*
Singapore
Thailand
New
Zealand*
Ireland*
Belgium
Lithuania
OECD
average
Iceland
Austria
Indonesia
Korea
Uruguay
El
Salvador
United
Arab
Emirates
Jamaica*
Brunei
Darussalam
Macao
(China)
Brazil
Philippines
Hong
Kong
(China)*
Moldova
Argentina
Serbia
Greece
Uzbekistan
United
Kingdom*
Estonia
Mongolia
Türkiye
Malaysia
Malta
Latvia*
Qatar
North
Macedonia
Slovak
Republic
Bulgaria
Norway
Albania
Saudi
Arabia
Georgia
Baku
(Azerbaijan)
Netherlands*
Hungary
Czechia
Kosovo
Dominican
Republic
Montenegro
Slovenia
Morocco
Palestinian
Authority
Jordan
Boys Girls
%
Student growth mindset on creativity, by student' socio-economic status
Percentage of students who disagree/strongly disagree with the statement "creativity is something about you that
you cannot change very much", by student' socio-economic status
Figure III.5.4
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Chinese
Taipei
Brazil
Ireland*
Kazakhstan
Georgia
Iceland
Denmark*
Latvia*
Austria
New
Zealand*
Canada*
Türkiye
Australia*
Mongolia
Chile
Uzbekistan
Germany
Thailand
Ukrainian
regions
(18
of
27)
Estonia
Peru
Finland
Jordan
Croatia
Brunei
Darussalam
Slovak
Republic
Singapore
Macao
(China)
Korea
OECD
average
Poland
Colombia
Lithuania
Switzerland
Uruguay
Portugal
Mexico
United
Kingdom*
Czechia
Serbia
Hong
Kong
(China)*
United
Arab
Emirates
Norway
Hungary
Bulgaria
Slovenia
El
Salvador
Baku
(Azerbaijan)
Palestinian
Authority
Argentina
Qatar
Panama*
Spain
Montenegro
Philippines
Dominican
Republic
Malta
North
Macedonia
Belgium
Romania
Saudi
Arabia
France
Greece
Malaysia
Jamaica*
Indonesia
Morocco
Italy
Kosovo
Netherlands*
Moldova
Albania
Disadvantaged students Advantaged students
%
Student beliefs, attitudes and expectations
Figure III.5.1
Beliefs about
creativity
Attitudes towards
creative thinking
Social-emotional
characteristics
Expectations for the
future
The nature of
creativity
Growth mindset
on creativity
Expected end of
education
Expected job at 30
years old
Creative self-
efficacy
Openness to
intellect
Openness to art
and experience
Imagination and
adventurousness
Curiosity
Persistence
Perspective taking
Assertiveness
Co-operation
Stress resistance
Emotional control
Student attitudes towards creative thinking (self-efficacy, imagination)
Mean index comparison across countries and economies
Figure III.5.6 (1)
-0.40
-0.30
-0.20
-0.10
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
Panama*
Albania
Colombia
El
Salvador
France
Croatia
Baku
(Azerbaijan)
Peru
Saudi
Arabia
Switzerland
United
Arab
Emirates
Dominican
Republic
Costa
Rica
Uzbekistan
Uruguay
Kazakhstan
Romania
North
Macedonia
Canada*
Türkiye
Mexico
Iceland
Qatar
Spain
Austria
Palestinian
Authority
Germany
Italy
Jordan
Morocco
Greece
Bulgaria
Australia*
Portugal
Kosovo
Malta
Jamaica*
Mongolia
OECD
average
Moldova
Chile
Argentina
Ireland*
Serbia
Hungary
Belgium
Denmark*
Netherlands*
Finland
Montenegro
Lithuania
New
Zealand*
Georgia
Indonesia
Norway
Ukrainian
regions
(18
of
27)
Philippines
Korea
Slovenia
Brazil
Poland
United
Kingdom*
Slovak
Republic
Singapore
Czechia
Chinese
Taipei
Estonia
Latvia*
Thailand
Macao
(China)
Malaysia
Hong
Kong
(China)*
Brunei
Darussalam
Israel
Creative self-efficacy Imagination and adventurousness
Mean index
Student attitudes towards creative thinking (openness to intellect,
art and experience)
Mean index comparison across countries and economies
Figure III.5.6 (2)
-0.40
-0.30
-0.20
-0.10
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
Albania
Thailand
United
Arab
Emirates
Philippines
North
Macedonia
Kazakhstan
Peru
Qatar
Colombia
El
Salvador
Kosovo
Mongolia
Baku
(Azerbaijan)
Indonesia
Romania
Bulgaria
Uzbekistan
Panama*
Israel
Saudi
Arabia
Georgia
Palestinian
Authority
Brunei
Darussalam
Dominican
Republic
Canada*
Montenegro
Chinese
Taipei
Macao
(China)
Korea
Hong
Kong
(China)*
Jamaica*
Latvia*
Moldova
Brazil
Türkiye
Mexico
Australia*
Singapore
Argentina
Estonia
Lithuania
Malta
Costa
Rica
Serbia
Morocco
New
Zealand*
Greece
Slovak
Republic
Jordan
Croatia
Ukrainian
regions
(18
of
27)
Ireland*
Hungary
Chile
Finland
Malaysia
Slovenia
Portugal
OECD
average
Uruguay
Iceland
Italy
United
Kingdom*
Czechia
Poland
Spain
Switzerland
France
Belgium
Denmark*
Austria
Germany
Netherlands*
Norway
Openness to intellect Openness to art and experience
Mean index
Change in creative thinking performance associated with change in
attitudes towards creative thinking
Change in creative thinking score associated with agreeing/strongly agreeing or feeling confident/very confident with
the following statements; OECD average
Figure III.5.7
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Would like to
travel to places I
have never
been
Coming up with
new ideas is
satisfying to me
Often get lost in
thought
Enjoy learning
new things
Enjoy doing
something
creative
Can suggest
several
solutions to
problems
Reflect on
movies I watch
See beauty in
everyday things
Enjoy artistic
activities
Can think of
many ideas for
solving
disagreements
with people
Can tell creative
stories
Can be creative
After accounting for gender and students' and schools' socio-economic profile Before accounting for gender and students' and schools' socio-economic profile
Openness to intellect Creative self-efficacy
Openness to art
and experience
Imagination and
adventurousness
Score-point
difference
Student beliefs, attitudes and expectations
Figure III.5.1
Beliefs about
creativity
Attitudes towards
creative thinking
Social-emotional
characteristics
Expectations for the
future
The nature of
creativity
Growth mindset
on creativity
Expected end of
education
Expected job at 30
years old
Creative self-
efficacy
Openness to
intellect
Openness to art
and experience
Imagination and
adventurousness
Curiosity
Persistence
Perspective taking
Assertiveness
Co-operation
Stress resistance
Emotional control
Curiosity
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Costa
Rica
Jamaica*
Peru
Portugal
Romania
Ireland*
Colombia
Panama*
Mexico
Mongolia
Moldova
Morocco
Türkiye
Greece
Brunei
Darussalam
Brazil
Spain
Uzbekistan
Kosovo
Dominican
Republic
Chile
Albania
Germany
Uruguay
Denmark*
Philippines
El
Salvador
Italy
France
Australia*
Malta
New
Zealand*
Iceland
United
Kingdom*
Singapore
Slovak
Republic
Canada*
Serbia
OECD
average
Argentina
Malaysia
Switzerland
North
Macedonia
Austria
Indonesia
Estonia
Croatia
Georgia
Montenegro
Korea
Kazakhstan
United
Arab
Emirates
Poland
Hungary
Latvia*
Saudi
Arabia
Finland
Thailand
Belgium
Czechia
Bulgaria
Norway
Palestinian
Authority
Cyprus
Qatar
Lithuania
Slovenia
Macao
(China)
Baku
(Azerbaijan)
Jordan
Hong
Kong
(China)*
Chinese
Taipei
Netherlands*
Ukrainian
regions
(18
of
27)
Students agreeing/strongly agreeing that they like to know how things work
Students agreeing/strongly agreeing that they are curious about many different things
%
Figure III.5.11 (2)
Persistence
Figure III.5.11 (3)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Peru
Colombia
Mexico
Panama*
Thailand
Chile
Austria
Costa
Rica
El
Salvador
Germany
Uruguay
Morocco
Spain
Philippines
Türkiye
Albania
Portugal
Malaysia
Chinese
Taipei
Dominican
Republic
Uzbekistan
Serbia
Saudi
Arabia
Korea
Greece
United
Arab
Emirates
Jamaica*
Kosovo
Montenegro
Kazakhstan
Indonesia
Mongolia
Singapore
Switzerland
North
Macedonia
Qatar
Palestinian
Authority
Malta
Czechia
Iceland
Moldova
Italy
Canada*
OECD
average
Latvia*
Bulgaria
Romania
Slovenia
Australia*
Jordan
Brunei
Darussalam
Ukrainian
regions
(18
of
27)
Cyprus
Baku
(Azerbaijan)
Brazil
Macao
(China)
Slovak
Republic
Hungary
Argentina
Croatia
Estonia
United
Kingdom*
Ireland*
New
Zealand*
Georgia
Denmark*
Hong
Kong
(China)*
Belgium
Poland
Lithuania
France
Netherlands*
Norway
Finland
Students agreeing/strongly agreeing that they apply additional effort when work becomes challenging
Students agreeing/strongly agreeing that they complete tasks even when they become more difficult than they thought
%
Perspective taking
Figure III.5.11 (1)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Portugal
Ireland*
Austria
Singapore
Greece
Germany
Slovak
Republic
Finland
Switzerland
Belgium
Netherlands*
Denmark*
Latvia*
Chinese
Taipei
Estonia
Hungary
Canada*
France
Türkiye
Cyprus
Spain
Poland
OECD
average
Korea
Slovenia
Australia*
New
Zealand*
Czechia
Macao
(China)
United
Kingdom*
Hong
Kong
(China)*
Bulgaria
Kazakhstan
Malta
Brazil
Georgia
Italy
Iceland
Uruguay
Ukrainian
regions
(18
of
27)
Lithuania
Jamaica*
Croatia
Moldova
Argentina
Romania
Serbia
United
Arab
Emirates
Morocco
Chile
Qatar
Mongolia
Dominican
Republic
Baku
(Azerbaijan)
Colombia
Montenegro
North
Macedonia
Kosovo
Peru
Malaysia
El
Salvador
Costa
Rica
Philippines
Panama*
Saudi
Arabia
Jordan
Palestinian
Authority
Mexico
Uzbekistan
Albania
Brunei
Darussalam
Thailand
Indonesia
Students disagreeing/strongly diagreeing that there is only there is only one correct position in a disagreement.
Students agreeing/strongly agreeing that they want to understant why people behave the way they do.
%
Co-operation
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Portugal
Indonesia
Morocco
Costa
Rica
Germany
Serbia
Mongolia
Switzerland
Austria
Kosovo
Spain
Peru
Colombia
Croatia
Türkiye
Montenegro
Saudi
Arabia
Ireland*
Malta
Greece
North
Macedonia
Mexico
Albania
Italy
Slovenia
Romania
Denmark*
El
Salvador
Malaysia
United
Arab
Emirates
Uzbekistan
Thailand
Georgia
Brazil
Palestinian
Authority
France
Canada*
Singapore
Panama*
Qatar
Brunei
Darussalam
Slovak
Republic
Philippines
Australia*
OECD
average
Belgium
Uruguay
Chile
Moldova
Dominican
Republic
Czechia
Hungary
Jamaica*
Kazakhstan
Baku
(Azerbaijan)
Argentina
Norway
New
Zealand*
Jordan
Poland
United
Kingdom*
Cyprus
Finland
Estonia
Iceland
Bulgaria
Latvia*
Ukrainian
regions
(18
of
27)
Lithuania
Chinese
Taipei
Hong
Kong
(China)*
Korea
Netherlands*
Macao
(China)
Students agreeing/strongly agreeing that they like to help others
%
Figure III.5.11 (6)
Assertiveness
Figure III.5.11 (5)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Portugal
Italy
Colombia
Panama*
Uruguay
Austria
Switzerland
Croatia
Argentina
Greece
Belgium
Mongolia
France
Chinese
Taipei
Peru
Uzbekistan
Serbia
Estonia
Netherlands*
Spain
Singapore
Slovenia
Germany
Dominican
Republic
OECD
average
Australia*
Czechia
Ireland*
Finland
El
Salvador
Mexico
New
Zealand*
Malta
Canada*
Macao
(China)
North
Macedonia
Montenegro
Lithuania
Bulgaria
Latvia*
Cyprus
Costa
Rica
Jamaica*
Romania
Slovak
Republic
Hong
Kong
(China)*
United
Arab
Emirates
Brazil
Chile
Iceland
Hungary
Moldova
Türkiye
Qatar
United
Kingdom*
Denmark*
Georgia
Poland
Albania
Philippines
Malaysia
Thailand
Saudi
Arabia
Brunei
Darussalam
Morocco
Kosovo
Ukrainian
regions
(18
of
27)
Korea
Kazakhstan
Jordan
Palestinian
Authority
Indonesia
Baku
(Azerbaijan)
Students agreeing/strongly agreeing that they speak up about things that matter to them
%
Stress resistance and emotional control
Figure III.5.11 (4)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Ireland*
Denmark*
Australia*
Canada*
Spain
Costa
Rica
Switzerland
Finland
Austria
Germany
Netherlands*
France
New
Zealand*
Greece
Slovak
Republic
Chinese
Taipei
Estonia
Iceland
Panama*
Mexico
OECD
average
Chile
United
Kingdom*
El
Salvador
Singapore
United
Arab
Emirates
Saudi
Arabia
Uruguay
Serbia
Belgium
Hong
Kong
(China)*
Romania
Macao
(China)
Slovenia
Czechia
Croatia
Korea
Hungary
Malta
Portugal
Colombia
Poland
Argentina
Montenegro
Italy
Latvia*
Bulgaria
Lithuania
Philippines
Palestinian
Authority
Peru
Cyprus
Qatar
Dominican
Republic
Thailand
Jamaica*
Jordan
Morocco
Moldova
Brunei
Darussalam
Indonesia
Kosovo
Kazakhstan
Ukrainian
regions
(18
of
27)
Albania
North
Macedonia
Brazil
Uzbekistan
Mongolia
Malaysia
Baku
(Azerbaijan)
Georgia
Türkiye
Students agreeing/strongly agreeing that they are able to work under pressure
Students disagreeing/strongly disagreeing that they overreact to every little thing in life
%
Change in creative thinking performance
associated with social-emotional characteristics
Change in creative thinking score associated with agreeing/strongly agreeing (or disagreeing/strongly disagreeing)*
with the following statements; OECD average
Figure III.5.11
Score-point
difference
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
*Think there is only
one correct
position in a
disagreement
Want to
understand why
people behave the
way they do
Like to know how
things work
Be curious about
many different
things
Apply additional
effort when work
becomes
challenging
Complete tasks
even when they
become more
difficult
Be able to work
under pressure
Speak up to others
about things that
matter to me
Like to help others *Overreact to every
little thing in life
After accounting for gender and students' and schools' socio-economic profile Before accounting for gender and students' and schools' socio-economic profile
Co-operation
Stress
resistance
Persistence
Curiosity Assertiveness
Perspective taking
Emotional
control
Change in student creative thinking performance associated with
their parents’ beliefs about creativity
Score point difference between students whose parents agree/strongly agree that it is possible to be creative in
nearly any subject and those who disagree/strongly disagree, before and after accounting for gender and students'
and schools' socio-economic profile
Figure III.5.8
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Brazil
Croatia
Belgium
Portugal
Colombia
Saudi
Arabia
Italy
OECD
average
Hong
Kong
(China)*
Germany
Panama*
Korea
Macao
(China)
Dominican
Republic**
Latvia*
Before accounting for gender, students' and schools' socio-economic profile After accounting for gender, students' and schools' socio-economic profile
Score dif.
Student beliefs, attitudes and expectations
Figure III.5.1
Beliefs about
creativity
Attitudes towards
creative thinking
Social-emotional
characteristics
Expectations for the
future
The nature of
creativity
Growth mindset
on creativity
Expected end of
education
Expected job at 30
years old
Creative self-
efficacy
Openness to
intellect
Openness to art
and experience
Imagination and
adventurousness
Curiosity
Persistence
Perspective taking
Assertiveness
Co-operation
Stress resistance
Emotional control
Creative thinking performance and expected end of education
OECD average
Figure III.5.13
27
27
32
31
32
35
37
35
20
25
30
35
40
ISCED 2
Lower secondary
education
(4.2%)
ISCED 3.3
Upper secondary
education
(5.2%)
ISCED 3.4
Upper secondary
education
(15.4%)
ISCED 4
Post-secondary non-
tertiary education
(5.5%)
ISCED 5
Short-cycle tertiary
education
(6.4%)
ISCED 6
Bachelor's or
equivalent level
(17.9%)
ISCED 7
Master's or equivalent
level
(21.2%)
ISCED 8
Doctoral or equivalent
level
(24.1%)
Mean score
PISA 2022 coverage of aspects of the students' educational
environment related to creative thinking Figure III.6.1
School climate
and creativity
Classroom
practices
Intra- and extra-
curricular activities
Digital
environment
School principals'
beliefs about
creativity
Teachers' beliefs
about creativity
School openness
to creativity
Pedagogies
encouraging
creative thinking
Importance
attached to
developing
creativity
Use of creative
pedagogies
Activities at
school
Activities outside
of school
Assessment
practices*
Use of digital
tools at school
Use of digital
tools outside of
school
PISA 2022 coverage of aspects of the students' educational
environment related to creative thinking Figure III.6.1
School climate
and creativity
Classroom
practices
Intra- and extra-
curricular activities
Digital
environment
School principals'
beliefs about
creativity
Teachers' beliefs
about creativity
School openness
to creativity
Pedagogies
encouraging
creative thinking
Importance
attached to
developing
creativity
Use of creative
pedagogies
Activities at
school
Activities outside
of school
Assessment
practices*
Use of digital
tools at school
Use of digital
tools outside of
school
Students’ and school principals’ growth mindset on creativity
Percentage of students who disagree/strongly disagree that "Your creativity is something about you that you cannot change
very much"; percentage of students in schools whose principal agree/strongly agree that "Creativity can be trained"
Figure III.6.2
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Chinese
Taipei
Ireland*
Kazakhstan
Georgia
Costa
Rica
Brazil
Austria
Iceland
Latvia*
Türkiye
Estonia
Germany
Denmark*
Canada*
Korea
New
Zealand*
Australia*
Macao
(China)
Slovak
Republic
Croatia
Uzbekistan
Singapore
Switzerland
Ukrainian
regions
(18
of
27)
Czechia
Chile
Lithuania
Thailand
Poland
OECD
average
United
Kingdom*
Finland
Mongolia
Hong
Kong
(China)*
Uruguay
United
Arab
Emirates
Baku
(Azerbaijan)
Jordan
Bulgaria
Serbia
Colombia
Brunei
Darussalam
Norway
Peru
Mexico
Portugal
Spain
Montenegro
Malta
Hungary
Slovenia
Italy
Belgium
Dominican
Republic
Argentina
Qatar
Saudi
Arabia
Greece
Panama*
France
Palestinian
Authority
Romania
Malaysia
North
Macedonia
El
Salvador
Morocco
Philippines
Indonesia
Jamaica*
Kosovo
Netherlands*
Moldova
Albania
Israel
Students disagreeing/strongly disagreeing that their creativity is something about them that they cannot change very much
School principals agreeing/strongly agreeing that creativity can be trained
%
PISA 2022 coverage of aspects of the students' educational
environment related to creative thinking Figure III.6.1
School climate
and creativity
Classroom
practices
Intra- and extra-
curricular activities
Digital
environment
School principals'
beliefs about
creativity
Teachers' beliefs
about creativity
School openness
to creativity
Pedagogies
encouraging
creative thinking
Importance
attached to
developing
creativity
Use of creative
pedagogies
Activities at
school
Activities outside
of school
Assessment
practices*
Use of digital
tools at school
Use of digital
tools outside of
school
Both students and school principals report that their teachers use
relatively less creative thinking pedagogies
Both students and school principals report that their teachers use relatively
more creative thinking pedagogies
Students’ and school principals’ views on their teachers' use of
pedagogies encouraging creative thinking Figure III.6.4
[CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CEL…
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLR…
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
[CELLRANGE]
R² = 0.402
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
Yes No Missing information
Index
of
creative
thinking
pedagogies
(students'
views)
Index of creative thinking pedagogies (school principals' views) More creative thinking pedagogies
Jurisdictions where "developing students' creativity" formally features in teacher initial training:
Less creative thinking pedagogies
More
creative
thinking
pedagogies
Less
creative
thinking
pedagogies
PISA 2022 coverage of aspects of the students' educational
environment related to creative thinking Figure III.6.1
School climate
and creativity
Classroom
practices
Intra- and extra-
curricular activities
Digital
environment
School principals'
beliefs about
creativity
Teachers' beliefs
about creativity
School openness
to creativity
Pedagogies
encouraging
creative thinking
Importance
attached to
developing
creativity
Use of creative
pedagogies
Activities at
school
Activities outside
of school
Assessment
practices*
Use of digital
tools at school
Use of digital
tools outside of
school
Availability of activities offered at school
Figure III.6.6
Percentage of students in schools whose principal reported that their school offers the following activities at least once a week;
OECD average
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Art
classes/activities
(e.g. painting,
drawing)
Music
classes/activities
(e.g. choir, band)
Computer
programming
classes/activities
Drama, theatre
classes/activities
Creative writing
classes/activities
Science club Debate club Publications (e.g.
newspaper,
yearbook, literary
magazine)
All students Disadvanategd schools Advantaged schools
%
PISA 2022 coverage of aspects of the students' educational
environment related to creative thinking Figure III.6.1
School climate
and creativity
Classroom
practices
Intra- and extra-
curricular activities
Digital
environment
School principals'
beliefs about
creativity
Teachers' beliefs
about creativity
School openness
to creativity
Pedagogies
encouraging
creative thinking
Importance
attached to
developing
creativity
Use of creative
pedagogies
Activities at
school
Activities outside
of school
Assessment
practices*
Use of digital
tools at school
Use of digital
tools outside of
school
Student use of digital devices and creative thinking proficiency
Figure III.6.9
Mean score in creative thinking; OECD average
28
33
None Up to 1 hour More than 1 hour
and up to 2 hours
More than 2 hours
and up to 3 hours
More than 3 hours
and up to 4 hours
More than 4 hours
and up to 5 hours
More than 5 hours
and up to 6 hours
More than 6 hours
and up to 7 hours
More than 7 hours
Digital learning activities at school Digital learning activities on weekends
Digital leisure at school Digital leisure on weekends
Mean score
Some takeaways
Academic excellence is not a pre-requisite for excellence in creative thinking. But a baseline level of
proficiency in one domain complements proficiency in the other.
Girls are stronger creative thinkers than boys, and their better reading skills only explains part of this.
Girls have more positive beliefs about creativity and in their capacity to do creative work; and they feel more
imaginative and open to perspective taking...
…together with curiosity, openness to intellect and persistence, those are characteristics associated with
stronger creative thinking.
Socio-economically advantaged students outperformed their less advantaged peers, though the strength of
the association between socio-economic status and performance is weaker in creative thinking than for
mathematics, reading and science.
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 June 2024.pptx
PISA main reports PISA Country notes
Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org/pisa
Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org
X : SchleicherEDU
WeChat : AndreasSchleicher
Take the test: bit.ly/PISA-Test
PISA FAQs: www.oecd.org/pisa/pisafaq
PISA Data Explorer: www.oecd.org/pisa/data

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Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 June 2024.pptx

  • 1. PISA 2022 results Creative minds, creative schools
  • 2. Most school subjects strive to foster creativity Percentage of countries/economies in which subject areas refer to creativity in secondary education curricula Figure III.1.1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Visual Arts (73) Technology (69) Performance Arts (72) Reading (80) Science (76) Mathematics (76) Foreign Languages (70) Geography (73) History (73) Citizenship (68) Physical Education (71) %
  • 3. 15-year-olds tend to report lower creativity than 10-year-olds Standardised differences between 10- and 15-year-olds, average across sites -0.6 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1
  • 4. Challenges to integration of creative thinking in education: policymakers’ perspective Percentage of jurisdictions reporting the following challenges to integrate creative thinking in their education system Figure III.3.3 53 52 51 45 43 38 32 26 18 13 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Overcrowded curriculum Lack of assessment focus on creativity Lack of teacher training or pedagogical resources to develop student creativity Lack of appropriate facilities, equipment and/or materials Lack of system-level guidelines/standards or learning progressions on developing creativity Focus on preparing for high stakes exams Financial constraints Unclear evidence to support integrating creativity in education Lack of political will or high-level strategy focused on developing student creativity Other %
  • 5. PISA participants Around 690,000 15-year-old students in 81 countries and economies took PISA 2022
  • 6. PISA 2022 competency model for creative thinking Figure III.1.2
  • 7. 20 30 40 Overall country performance in creative thinking Student performance [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELL… [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] Countries/economies statistically significantly above the OECD average Countries/economies not statistically significantly above or below the OECD average Countries/economies statistically significantly below the OECD average
  • 8. Some countries do much better in creative thinking than expected from PISA mathematics performance Score-point difference between actual and expected performance in creative thinking Figure III.2.5 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 Chile 31 Mexico 29 Australia* 37 New Zealand* 36 Costa Rica 27 Canada* 38 El Salvador 23 Jamaica* 26 Finland 36 Uruguay 29 Panama* 23 Colombia 26 Korea 38 Portugal 34 Israel 32 Latvia* 35 Denmark* 35 Singapore 41 Belgium 35 Qatar 28 OECD average 33 Poland 34 Spain 33 United Arab Emirates 28 Lithuania 33 Estonia 36 Brazil 23 Germany 33 France 32 Malta 31 Serbia 29 Iceland 30 Italy 31 Czechia 33 Saudi Arabia 23 Peru 23 Croatia 30 Jordan 20 Malaysia 25 Netherlands* 32 Hungary 31 Greece 27 Romania 26 Slovak Republic 29 Baku (Azerbaijan) 23 Ukrainian regions (18 of 27) 27 Moldova 24 Mongolia 25 Indonesia 19 Palestinian Authority 18 Slovenia 30 Dominican Republic** 15 Thailand 21 Kazakhstan 24 North Macedonia 19 Chinese Taipei 33 Brunei Darussalam 24 Hong Kong (China)* 32 Bulgaria 21 Morocco 15 Philippines 14 Macao (China) 32 Uzbekistan 14 Albania** 13 Relative performance in creative thinking based on performance in mathematics Score-point difference
  • 9. Countries and economies that perform better than expected in creative thinking Figure III.2.6 Belgium Korea Latvia* Singapore Australia* Canada* Finland New Zealand Chile Costa Rica El Salvador Mexico Uruguay Moderate relative performance Strong relative performance Moderate relative performance Strong relative performance Denmark* Estonia Israel Lithuania Poland Portugal Qatar Spain United Arab Emirates Relative strength in creative thinking given READING performance Relative strength in creative thinking given MATHEMATICS performance
  • 10. Relationship between students' socio-economic status and performance in creative thinking, mathematics and reading Percentage of variation in performance explained by socio-economic status Figure III.3.10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Uzbekistan Kazakhstan Jamaica* Jordan Morocco United Arab Emirates Baku (Azerbaijan) Indonesia Albania** Hong Kong (China)* Saudi Arabia Palestinian Authority Dominican Republic** Croatia Korea Macao (China) Canada* Chile Philippines Estonia Denmark* Spain Latvia* Qatar Finland Chinese Taipei Italy Serbia Australia* Netherlands* Mexico Slovenia Malta Portugal Thailand Iceland Malaysia OECD average Greece North Macedonia Mongolia Brazil Poland Germany El Salvador Ukrainian regions (18 of 27) Colombia Panama* Uruguay Singapore Belgium Moldova Czechia Lithuania Brunei Darussalam France Israel New Zealand* Slovak Republic Peru Bulgaria Hungary Romania Creative thinking Mathematics % (R²)
  • 11. Girls are stronger creative thinkers Score-point difference in creative thinking between boys and girls Figure III.3.4 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 Mexico 29 Peru 23 Chile 31 Costa Rica 27 El Salvador 23 Uruguay 29 Panama* 23 Indonesia 19 Colombia 26 Uzbekistan 14 Italy 31 Ukrainian regions (18 of 27) 27 Singapore 41 Portugal 34 Romania 26 Hungary 31 Spain 33 Belgium 35 Brazil 23 France 32 Israel 32 Canada* 38 Dominican Republic** 15 Latvia* 35 Serbia 29 Denmark* 35 OECD average 33 Australia* 37 Poland 34 Czechia 33 Greece 27 Morocco 15 Croatia 30 Kazakhstan 24 Moldova 24 Korea 38 Germany 33 North Macedonia 19 Netherlands* 32 Bulgaria 21 New Zealand* 36 Malaysia 25 Slovak Republic 29 Albania** 13 Estonia 36 Lithuania 33 Chinese Taipei 33 Mongolia 25 Baku (Azerbaijan) 23 Hong Kong (China)* 32 Thailand 21 Macao (China) 32 Brunei Darussalam 24 Philippines 14 Slovenia 30 Malta 31 Iceland 30 Qatar 28 United Arab Emirates 28 Jamaica* 26 Saudi Arabia 23 Palestinian Authority 18 Finland 36 Jordan 20 Score-point dif. (boys - girls) Girls scored higher than boys
  • 12. Gender differences in relative performance in creative thinking Score-point difference between the actual and expected performance of girls in creative thinking Figure III.3.9 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Saudi Arabia Finland Iceland Macao (China) Jordan Malta United Arab Emirates Hong Kong (China)* Slovenia Palestinian Authority Qatar Germany Chinese Taipei New Zealand* Netherlands* Lithuania Estonia Jamaica* Serbia Denmark* Croatia Italy Australia* Czechia Hungary OECD average Canada* Brazil Greece Moldova Israel Slovak Republic Thailand Korea France Poland Latvia* Baku (Azerbaijan) Mongolia Kazakhstan Portugal Spain Ukrainian regions (18 of 27) Belgium Brunei Darussalam Costa Rica Bulgaria Colombia Singapore Romania Morocco North Macedonia Uzbekistan Philippines Dominican Republic** Uruguay Albania** Peru Chile El Salvador Malaysia Panama* Mexico Indonesia Mathematics Reading Score-point dif. Girls performed above their expected level Girls performed below their expected level
  • 13. Can every school be a creative school? Figure III.3.2 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 United Arab Emirates Jamaica* Slovak Republic Bulgaria Israel Netherlands* Romania North Macedonia Hungary Qatar Morocco Germany Philippines Colombia Peru Kazakhstan Poland Brunei Darussalam Brazil Thailand El Salvador Slovenia Ukrainian regions (18 of 27) France Czechia Serbia Jordan Chinese Taipei Moldova Croatia Belgium Malaysia Uruguay Lithuania Palestinian Authority Macao (China) Mongolia OECD average Indonesia Greece Malta Panama* Hong Kong (China)* Italy Mexico Costa Rica Albania** Saudi Arabia Australia* Korea Dominican Republic** New Zealand* Singapore Canada* Chile Baku (Azerbaijan) Uzbekistan Portugal Finland Estonia Spain Latvia* Iceland Denmark* Between-school variation Within-school variation % % OECD average: 74% OECD average: 26% Performance variation between schools Performance variation within schools
  • 14. Distribution of students across quintiles of performance in creative thinking and mathematics OECD average Figure III.2.4 Top quintile In Creative Thinking 4th quintile 3rd quintile 2nd quintile Bottom quintile Top quintile 4th quintile 3rd quintile 2nd quintile Bottom quintile In Mathematics
  • 15. Student beliefs, attitudes and expectations Figure III.5.1 Beliefs about creativity Attitudes towards creative thinking Social-emotional characteristics Expectations for the future The nature of creativity Growth mindset on creativity Expected end of education Expected job at 30 years old Creative self- efficacy Openness to intellect Openness to art and experience Imagination and adventurousness Curiosity Persistence Perspective taking Assertiveness Co-operation Stress resistance Emotional control
  • 16. Student beliefs, attitudes and expectations Figure III.5.1 Beliefs about creativity Attitudes towards creative thinking Social-emotional characteristics Expectations for the future The nature of creativity Growth mindset on creativity Expected end of education Expected job at 30 years old Creative self- efficacy Openness to intellect Openness to art and experience Imagination and adventurousness Curiosity Persistence Perspective taking Assertiveness Co-operation Stress resistance Emotional control
  • 17. Student beliefs about the nature of creativity Percentage of students who agree/strongly agree that it is possible to be creative in nearly any subject, by gender Figure III.5.2 50 60 70 80 90 100 Portugal Chinese Taipei Costa Rica Peru Mexico Israel Chile Croatia Spain Switzerland Italy Colombia Germany Panama* France Poland Finland Canada* Romania Denmark* Ukrainian regions (18 of 27) Kazakhstan Australia* Singapore Thailand New Zealand* Ireland* Belgium Lithuania OECD average Iceland Austria Indonesia Korea Uruguay El Salvador United Arab Emirates Jamaica* Brunei Darussalam Macao (China) Brazil Philippines Hong Kong (China)* Moldova Argentina Serbia Greece Uzbekistan United Kingdom* Estonia Mongolia Türkiye Malaysia Malta Latvia* Qatar North Macedonia Slovak Republic Bulgaria Norway Albania Saudi Arabia Georgia Baku (Azerbaijan) Netherlands* Hungary Czechia Kosovo Dominican Republic Montenegro Slovenia Morocco Palestinian Authority Jordan Boys Girls %
  • 18. Student growth mindset on creativity, by student' socio-economic status Percentage of students who disagree/strongly disagree with the statement "creativity is something about you that you cannot change very much", by student' socio-economic status Figure III.5.4 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Chinese Taipei Brazil Ireland* Kazakhstan Georgia Iceland Denmark* Latvia* Austria New Zealand* Canada* Türkiye Australia* Mongolia Chile Uzbekistan Germany Thailand Ukrainian regions (18 of 27) Estonia Peru Finland Jordan Croatia Brunei Darussalam Slovak Republic Singapore Macao (China) Korea OECD average Poland Colombia Lithuania Switzerland Uruguay Portugal Mexico United Kingdom* Czechia Serbia Hong Kong (China)* United Arab Emirates Norway Hungary Bulgaria Slovenia El Salvador Baku (Azerbaijan) Palestinian Authority Argentina Qatar Panama* Spain Montenegro Philippines Dominican Republic Malta North Macedonia Belgium Romania Saudi Arabia France Greece Malaysia Jamaica* Indonesia Morocco Italy Kosovo Netherlands* Moldova Albania Disadvantaged students Advantaged students %
  • 19. Student beliefs, attitudes and expectations Figure III.5.1 Beliefs about creativity Attitudes towards creative thinking Social-emotional characteristics Expectations for the future The nature of creativity Growth mindset on creativity Expected end of education Expected job at 30 years old Creative self- efficacy Openness to intellect Openness to art and experience Imagination and adventurousness Curiosity Persistence Perspective taking Assertiveness Co-operation Stress resistance Emotional control
  • 20. Student attitudes towards creative thinking (self-efficacy, imagination) Mean index comparison across countries and economies Figure III.5.6 (1) -0.40 -0.30 -0.20 -0.10 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 Panama* Albania Colombia El Salvador France Croatia Baku (Azerbaijan) Peru Saudi Arabia Switzerland United Arab Emirates Dominican Republic Costa Rica Uzbekistan Uruguay Kazakhstan Romania North Macedonia Canada* Türkiye Mexico Iceland Qatar Spain Austria Palestinian Authority Germany Italy Jordan Morocco Greece Bulgaria Australia* Portugal Kosovo Malta Jamaica* Mongolia OECD average Moldova Chile Argentina Ireland* Serbia Hungary Belgium Denmark* Netherlands* Finland Montenegro Lithuania New Zealand* Georgia Indonesia Norway Ukrainian regions (18 of 27) Philippines Korea Slovenia Brazil Poland United Kingdom* Slovak Republic Singapore Czechia Chinese Taipei Estonia Latvia* Thailand Macao (China) Malaysia Hong Kong (China)* Brunei Darussalam Israel Creative self-efficacy Imagination and adventurousness Mean index
  • 21. Student attitudes towards creative thinking (openness to intellect, art and experience) Mean index comparison across countries and economies Figure III.5.6 (2) -0.40 -0.30 -0.20 -0.10 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 Albania Thailand United Arab Emirates Philippines North Macedonia Kazakhstan Peru Qatar Colombia El Salvador Kosovo Mongolia Baku (Azerbaijan) Indonesia Romania Bulgaria Uzbekistan Panama* Israel Saudi Arabia Georgia Palestinian Authority Brunei Darussalam Dominican Republic Canada* Montenegro Chinese Taipei Macao (China) Korea Hong Kong (China)* Jamaica* Latvia* Moldova Brazil Türkiye Mexico Australia* Singapore Argentina Estonia Lithuania Malta Costa Rica Serbia Morocco New Zealand* Greece Slovak Republic Jordan Croatia Ukrainian regions (18 of 27) Ireland* Hungary Chile Finland Malaysia Slovenia Portugal OECD average Uruguay Iceland Italy United Kingdom* Czechia Poland Spain Switzerland France Belgium Denmark* Austria Germany Netherlands* Norway Openness to intellect Openness to art and experience Mean index
  • 22. Change in creative thinking performance associated with change in attitudes towards creative thinking Change in creative thinking score associated with agreeing/strongly agreeing or feeling confident/very confident with the following statements; OECD average Figure III.5.7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Would like to travel to places I have never been Coming up with new ideas is satisfying to me Often get lost in thought Enjoy learning new things Enjoy doing something creative Can suggest several solutions to problems Reflect on movies I watch See beauty in everyday things Enjoy artistic activities Can think of many ideas for solving disagreements with people Can tell creative stories Can be creative After accounting for gender and students' and schools' socio-economic profile Before accounting for gender and students' and schools' socio-economic profile Openness to intellect Creative self-efficacy Openness to art and experience Imagination and adventurousness Score-point difference
  • 23. Student beliefs, attitudes and expectations Figure III.5.1 Beliefs about creativity Attitudes towards creative thinking Social-emotional characteristics Expectations for the future The nature of creativity Growth mindset on creativity Expected end of education Expected job at 30 years old Creative self- efficacy Openness to intellect Openness to art and experience Imagination and adventurousness Curiosity Persistence Perspective taking Assertiveness Co-operation Stress resistance Emotional control
  • 24. Curiosity 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Costa Rica Jamaica* Peru Portugal Romania Ireland* Colombia Panama* Mexico Mongolia Moldova Morocco Türkiye Greece Brunei Darussalam Brazil Spain Uzbekistan Kosovo Dominican Republic Chile Albania Germany Uruguay Denmark* Philippines El Salvador Italy France Australia* Malta New Zealand* Iceland United Kingdom* Singapore Slovak Republic Canada* Serbia OECD average Argentina Malaysia Switzerland North Macedonia Austria Indonesia Estonia Croatia Georgia Montenegro Korea Kazakhstan United Arab Emirates Poland Hungary Latvia* Saudi Arabia Finland Thailand Belgium Czechia Bulgaria Norway Palestinian Authority Cyprus Qatar Lithuania Slovenia Macao (China) Baku (Azerbaijan) Jordan Hong Kong (China)* Chinese Taipei Netherlands* Ukrainian regions (18 of 27) Students agreeing/strongly agreeing that they like to know how things work Students agreeing/strongly agreeing that they are curious about many different things % Figure III.5.11 (2)
  • 25. Persistence Figure III.5.11 (3) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Peru Colombia Mexico Panama* Thailand Chile Austria Costa Rica El Salvador Germany Uruguay Morocco Spain Philippines Türkiye Albania Portugal Malaysia Chinese Taipei Dominican Republic Uzbekistan Serbia Saudi Arabia Korea Greece United Arab Emirates Jamaica* Kosovo Montenegro Kazakhstan Indonesia Mongolia Singapore Switzerland North Macedonia Qatar Palestinian Authority Malta Czechia Iceland Moldova Italy Canada* OECD average Latvia* Bulgaria Romania Slovenia Australia* Jordan Brunei Darussalam Ukrainian regions (18 of 27) Cyprus Baku (Azerbaijan) Brazil Macao (China) Slovak Republic Hungary Argentina Croatia Estonia United Kingdom* Ireland* New Zealand* Georgia Denmark* Hong Kong (China)* Belgium Poland Lithuania France Netherlands* Norway Finland Students agreeing/strongly agreeing that they apply additional effort when work becomes challenging Students agreeing/strongly agreeing that they complete tasks even when they become more difficult than they thought %
  • 26. Perspective taking Figure III.5.11 (1) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Portugal Ireland* Austria Singapore Greece Germany Slovak Republic Finland Switzerland Belgium Netherlands* Denmark* Latvia* Chinese Taipei Estonia Hungary Canada* France Türkiye Cyprus Spain Poland OECD average Korea Slovenia Australia* New Zealand* Czechia Macao (China) United Kingdom* Hong Kong (China)* Bulgaria Kazakhstan Malta Brazil Georgia Italy Iceland Uruguay Ukrainian regions (18 of 27) Lithuania Jamaica* Croatia Moldova Argentina Romania Serbia United Arab Emirates Morocco Chile Qatar Mongolia Dominican Republic Baku (Azerbaijan) Colombia Montenegro North Macedonia Kosovo Peru Malaysia El Salvador Costa Rica Philippines Panama* Saudi Arabia Jordan Palestinian Authority Mexico Uzbekistan Albania Brunei Darussalam Thailand Indonesia Students disagreeing/strongly diagreeing that there is only there is only one correct position in a disagreement. Students agreeing/strongly agreeing that they want to understant why people behave the way they do. %
  • 27. Co-operation 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Portugal Indonesia Morocco Costa Rica Germany Serbia Mongolia Switzerland Austria Kosovo Spain Peru Colombia Croatia Türkiye Montenegro Saudi Arabia Ireland* Malta Greece North Macedonia Mexico Albania Italy Slovenia Romania Denmark* El Salvador Malaysia United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Thailand Georgia Brazil Palestinian Authority France Canada* Singapore Panama* Qatar Brunei Darussalam Slovak Republic Philippines Australia* OECD average Belgium Uruguay Chile Moldova Dominican Republic Czechia Hungary Jamaica* Kazakhstan Baku (Azerbaijan) Argentina Norway New Zealand* Jordan Poland United Kingdom* Cyprus Finland Estonia Iceland Bulgaria Latvia* Ukrainian regions (18 of 27) Lithuania Chinese Taipei Hong Kong (China)* Korea Netherlands* Macao (China) Students agreeing/strongly agreeing that they like to help others % Figure III.5.11 (6)
  • 28. Assertiveness Figure III.5.11 (5) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Portugal Italy Colombia Panama* Uruguay Austria Switzerland Croatia Argentina Greece Belgium Mongolia France Chinese Taipei Peru Uzbekistan Serbia Estonia Netherlands* Spain Singapore Slovenia Germany Dominican Republic OECD average Australia* Czechia Ireland* Finland El Salvador Mexico New Zealand* Malta Canada* Macao (China) North Macedonia Montenegro Lithuania Bulgaria Latvia* Cyprus Costa Rica Jamaica* Romania Slovak Republic Hong Kong (China)* United Arab Emirates Brazil Chile Iceland Hungary Moldova Türkiye Qatar United Kingdom* Denmark* Georgia Poland Albania Philippines Malaysia Thailand Saudi Arabia Brunei Darussalam Morocco Kosovo Ukrainian regions (18 of 27) Korea Kazakhstan Jordan Palestinian Authority Indonesia Baku (Azerbaijan) Students agreeing/strongly agreeing that they speak up about things that matter to them %
  • 29. Stress resistance and emotional control Figure III.5.11 (4) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Ireland* Denmark* Australia* Canada* Spain Costa Rica Switzerland Finland Austria Germany Netherlands* France New Zealand* Greece Slovak Republic Chinese Taipei Estonia Iceland Panama* Mexico OECD average Chile United Kingdom* El Salvador Singapore United Arab Emirates Saudi Arabia Uruguay Serbia Belgium Hong Kong (China)* Romania Macao (China) Slovenia Czechia Croatia Korea Hungary Malta Portugal Colombia Poland Argentina Montenegro Italy Latvia* Bulgaria Lithuania Philippines Palestinian Authority Peru Cyprus Qatar Dominican Republic Thailand Jamaica* Jordan Morocco Moldova Brunei Darussalam Indonesia Kosovo Kazakhstan Ukrainian regions (18 of 27) Albania North Macedonia Brazil Uzbekistan Mongolia Malaysia Baku (Azerbaijan) Georgia Türkiye Students agreeing/strongly agreeing that they are able to work under pressure Students disagreeing/strongly disagreeing that they overreact to every little thing in life %
  • 30. Change in creative thinking performance associated with social-emotional characteristics Change in creative thinking score associated with agreeing/strongly agreeing (or disagreeing/strongly disagreeing)* with the following statements; OECD average Figure III.5.11 Score-point difference 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 *Think there is only one correct position in a disagreement Want to understand why people behave the way they do Like to know how things work Be curious about many different things Apply additional effort when work becomes challenging Complete tasks even when they become more difficult Be able to work under pressure Speak up to others about things that matter to me Like to help others *Overreact to every little thing in life After accounting for gender and students' and schools' socio-economic profile Before accounting for gender and students' and schools' socio-economic profile Co-operation Stress resistance Persistence Curiosity Assertiveness Perspective taking Emotional control
  • 31. Change in student creative thinking performance associated with their parents’ beliefs about creativity Score point difference between students whose parents agree/strongly agree that it is possible to be creative in nearly any subject and those who disagree/strongly disagree, before and after accounting for gender and students' and schools' socio-economic profile Figure III.5.8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Brazil Croatia Belgium Portugal Colombia Saudi Arabia Italy OECD average Hong Kong (China)* Germany Panama* Korea Macao (China) Dominican Republic** Latvia* Before accounting for gender, students' and schools' socio-economic profile After accounting for gender, students' and schools' socio-economic profile Score dif.
  • 32. Student beliefs, attitudes and expectations Figure III.5.1 Beliefs about creativity Attitudes towards creative thinking Social-emotional characteristics Expectations for the future The nature of creativity Growth mindset on creativity Expected end of education Expected job at 30 years old Creative self- efficacy Openness to intellect Openness to art and experience Imagination and adventurousness Curiosity Persistence Perspective taking Assertiveness Co-operation Stress resistance Emotional control
  • 33. Creative thinking performance and expected end of education OECD average Figure III.5.13 27 27 32 31 32 35 37 35 20 25 30 35 40 ISCED 2 Lower secondary education (4.2%) ISCED 3.3 Upper secondary education (5.2%) ISCED 3.4 Upper secondary education (15.4%) ISCED 4 Post-secondary non- tertiary education (5.5%) ISCED 5 Short-cycle tertiary education (6.4%) ISCED 6 Bachelor's or equivalent level (17.9%) ISCED 7 Master's or equivalent level (21.2%) ISCED 8 Doctoral or equivalent level (24.1%) Mean score
  • 34. PISA 2022 coverage of aspects of the students' educational environment related to creative thinking Figure III.6.1 School climate and creativity Classroom practices Intra- and extra- curricular activities Digital environment School principals' beliefs about creativity Teachers' beliefs about creativity School openness to creativity Pedagogies encouraging creative thinking Importance attached to developing creativity Use of creative pedagogies Activities at school Activities outside of school Assessment practices* Use of digital tools at school Use of digital tools outside of school
  • 35. PISA 2022 coverage of aspects of the students' educational environment related to creative thinking Figure III.6.1 School climate and creativity Classroom practices Intra- and extra- curricular activities Digital environment School principals' beliefs about creativity Teachers' beliefs about creativity School openness to creativity Pedagogies encouraging creative thinking Importance attached to developing creativity Use of creative pedagogies Activities at school Activities outside of school Assessment practices* Use of digital tools at school Use of digital tools outside of school
  • 36. Students’ and school principals’ growth mindset on creativity Percentage of students who disagree/strongly disagree that "Your creativity is something about you that you cannot change very much"; percentage of students in schools whose principal agree/strongly agree that "Creativity can be trained" Figure III.6.2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Chinese Taipei Ireland* Kazakhstan Georgia Costa Rica Brazil Austria Iceland Latvia* Türkiye Estonia Germany Denmark* Canada* Korea New Zealand* Australia* Macao (China) Slovak Republic Croatia Uzbekistan Singapore Switzerland Ukrainian regions (18 of 27) Czechia Chile Lithuania Thailand Poland OECD average United Kingdom* Finland Mongolia Hong Kong (China)* Uruguay United Arab Emirates Baku (Azerbaijan) Jordan Bulgaria Serbia Colombia Brunei Darussalam Norway Peru Mexico Portugal Spain Montenegro Malta Hungary Slovenia Italy Belgium Dominican Republic Argentina Qatar Saudi Arabia Greece Panama* France Palestinian Authority Romania Malaysia North Macedonia El Salvador Morocco Philippines Indonesia Jamaica* Kosovo Netherlands* Moldova Albania Israel Students disagreeing/strongly disagreeing that their creativity is something about them that they cannot change very much School principals agreeing/strongly agreeing that creativity can be trained %
  • 37. PISA 2022 coverage of aspects of the students' educational environment related to creative thinking Figure III.6.1 School climate and creativity Classroom practices Intra- and extra- curricular activities Digital environment School principals' beliefs about creativity Teachers' beliefs about creativity School openness to creativity Pedagogies encouraging creative thinking Importance attached to developing creativity Use of creative pedagogies Activities at school Activities outside of school Assessment practices* Use of digital tools at school Use of digital tools outside of school
  • 38. Both students and school principals report that their teachers use relatively less creative thinking pedagogies Both students and school principals report that their teachers use relatively more creative thinking pedagogies Students’ and school principals’ views on their teachers' use of pedagogies encouraging creative thinking Figure III.6.4 [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CEL… [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLR… [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] [CELLRANGE] R² = 0.402 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 Yes No Missing information Index of creative thinking pedagogies (students' views) Index of creative thinking pedagogies (school principals' views) More creative thinking pedagogies Jurisdictions where "developing students' creativity" formally features in teacher initial training: Less creative thinking pedagogies More creative thinking pedagogies Less creative thinking pedagogies
  • 39. PISA 2022 coverage of aspects of the students' educational environment related to creative thinking Figure III.6.1 School climate and creativity Classroom practices Intra- and extra- curricular activities Digital environment School principals' beliefs about creativity Teachers' beliefs about creativity School openness to creativity Pedagogies encouraging creative thinking Importance attached to developing creativity Use of creative pedagogies Activities at school Activities outside of school Assessment practices* Use of digital tools at school Use of digital tools outside of school
  • 40. Availability of activities offered at school Figure III.6.6 Percentage of students in schools whose principal reported that their school offers the following activities at least once a week; OECD average 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Art classes/activities (e.g. painting, drawing) Music classes/activities (e.g. choir, band) Computer programming classes/activities Drama, theatre classes/activities Creative writing classes/activities Science club Debate club Publications (e.g. newspaper, yearbook, literary magazine) All students Disadvanategd schools Advantaged schools %
  • 41. PISA 2022 coverage of aspects of the students' educational environment related to creative thinking Figure III.6.1 School climate and creativity Classroom practices Intra- and extra- curricular activities Digital environment School principals' beliefs about creativity Teachers' beliefs about creativity School openness to creativity Pedagogies encouraging creative thinking Importance attached to developing creativity Use of creative pedagogies Activities at school Activities outside of school Assessment practices* Use of digital tools at school Use of digital tools outside of school
  • 42. Student use of digital devices and creative thinking proficiency Figure III.6.9 Mean score in creative thinking; OECD average 28 33 None Up to 1 hour More than 1 hour and up to 2 hours More than 2 hours and up to 3 hours More than 3 hours and up to 4 hours More than 4 hours and up to 5 hours More than 5 hours and up to 6 hours More than 6 hours and up to 7 hours More than 7 hours Digital learning activities at school Digital learning activities on weekends Digital leisure at school Digital leisure on weekends Mean score
  • 43. Some takeaways Academic excellence is not a pre-requisite for excellence in creative thinking. But a baseline level of proficiency in one domain complements proficiency in the other. Girls are stronger creative thinkers than boys, and their better reading skills only explains part of this. Girls have more positive beliefs about creativity and in their capacity to do creative work; and they feel more imaginative and open to perspective taking... …together with curiosity, openness to intellect and persistence, those are characteristics associated with stronger creative thinking. Socio-economically advantaged students outperformed their less advantaged peers, though the strength of the association between socio-economic status and performance is weaker in creative thinking than for mathematics, reading and science.
  • 45. PISA main reports PISA Country notes Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org/pisa Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org X : SchleicherEDU WeChat : AndreasSchleicher Take the test: bit.ly/PISA-Test PISA FAQs: www.oecd.org/pisa/pisafaq PISA Data Explorer: www.oecd.org/pisa/data