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Grape (Vitis spp.)
Origin and distribution
Viticulture: the art and science of growing grapes
 Long-term perennial, support requiring plant (vine) so
grape is the fruit of a woody climbing vine
 The exact origin of the grape is not really known,
although many believe it to be Asia Minor, the Caspian
Sea region or Armenia
 The grape is one of the oldest cultivated fruits in the
world, dating back to the earliest civilizations.
Origin and distribution cont’d…
 While some suggest that grapes go back 7000 years to western
Asia
 Wine making in Egypt dated back about 5000-6000 yrs
 It reached to Ethiopia with Christianity in the 4th A.D. but its
production started lately
 Modern wine yards were established by foreigner before 50 years
(Italian and Greeks).
 The Portuguese are said to have cultivated grape in Gondar in the
16thC and then after sporadic cultivation has been reported.
Origin and distribution cont’d…
 It is deciduous crops of warm temperate regions which grows
predominantly from 20-400
 Production of grape under tropics is possible under a certain
conditions
Choosing suitable cultivars
Applying suitable management practices
Defoliation
Holding irrigation water continuously
Application of chemicals
Origin and distribution cont’d…
• The main problem is its flower production which
needs lower temperature
• The leading producers are Italy, Switzerland, Spain,
France, Turkey etc
• In Ethiopia its production is found in Ziway, Dukam,
Guder, Merti, Abadir, Nura Era etc
30 January 2024 7
Uses & composition
Like most berries, grapes have a lot of nutritive value as
highlighted below:
• Important vitamins such as vitamin A, B1, B2, B6 and C are
found in grapes.
• Grapes also contain acids such as tartaric acids, malic acids,
succinic, fumaric, glyceric, p-coumaric and caffeic acids.
• Grapes have important anti-oxidants such as anthocyanins,
flavones, geraniol, linalol, nerol and tannins.
• Grapes contain all the necessary minerals such as Ca, Cl, Cu,
F, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, K, Si andS.
Taxonomy and morphology of Grape
Belongs to the family Vitaceae and genus Vitis
• Classification of grape based on their origin
1. Vitis vinifera (French grape)-European type
 90 % world production belong to such group
 Grown for wine making
2. Vitis labrusa (America grape)
 Grown mainly where there is frost problem
 Grown for juice, wine, table grape but wine
made is inferior to the first one
Taxonomy and morphology cont’d…
3. Vitis rotundifolia (the muscadines)
 French-American hybrids
 Tolerant to hot condition
 Used for fresh consumption and canning
 Native to gulf of Mexico
There are several other American species which
have regional importance or used in breeding
purpose for disease and frost resistance.
Taxonomy and morphology cont’d
 Commercial class of grape (depending upon their purpose)
1. Table grapes
 for fresh consumption
 Used for fresh market (food or decoration)
 Attractive in appearance (shape, size, color)
 Good eating quality
 Good shipping quality
 tend to have large, seedless fruit with relatively thin skin.
2. Raisin grapes
 Produce acceptable dry product
 Should be seedless
 Have good flavor
 Soft texture
Taxonomy and morphology cont’
3. Wine grapes
 used for wine making
 are smaller, usually seeded, and have relatively thick skins (a
desirable characteristic in wine making, since much of the
aroma in wine comes from the skin).
 by far the most expensive use of grape is in producing wine.
 There are two types of wines:
 Table wine (dry or dinner wine)
• Contain <14% alcohol
• Produced from grape moderately high sugar content and
relatively high acidity
Dessert wine (Appetizer or sweet)
• Contain > 14 % alcohol (17-20%)
• Produced from grape of high sugar content and low
acidity.
Wine grapes on the vine
"White" table grape
Raisin
Taxonomy and morphology cont’d
4. Juice grapes (Sweet juice grapes)
Those juice grapes produce an acceptable beverage
when it is preserved by pasteurization or other
processes.
For making sweet juice, it necessary to maintain the
natural fresh grape flavor through preservation.
5. Canning grapes
Grape canned in combination with other fruits.
seedless,.
Grape juice
Taxonomy and morphology cont’d…
Plant: a liana or woody vine.
Leaves: are often large sometimes deeply lobed as in
many cultivars, or rounded with entire or serrate
margins.
Tendrils occur opposite levels at nodes.
Flower: are small, borne in racemose panicles
Fruit: are berries, with 2 to 4 seeds
Taxonomy and morphology cont’d…
Like other higher plants the vine has different
parts
1. The root system.
 About 1/3 of the dry weight of a grape tree comprises of
the root system.
 The roots spread over a wide area, penetrating the soil
up to a depth of 6 – 12 feet in soils of favorable texture.
 The bulk of the root are usually confound to the upper
60 – 150 cm surface soil.
2. The shoot system
 Comprises the above ground parts of the vine and
 these are: trunk, arms, shoots (cane when mature),
the leaves, tendrils and fruits.
Taxonomy and morphology cont’d…
 Trunk: the main un-branched body (stem) of the vine.
It grows only in diameter.
 Arm: permanent division of the vine arising from or along the
top of the trunk.
The arms bear the spur and canes.
 Head: the region of the trunk from which arms or canes arise.
 Shoot: succulent growth arising from a bud.
It has the growing tip, nodes, internodes, buds, tendrils and
laterals.
Taxonomy and morphology cont’d…
Cane: dormant shoot that has become woody, mature and
dropped its leaves.
Spur: the basal portions of a cane cut back to 1-4 nodes in
length.
The buds: normally developed at each node just above the
leaf (in the leaf axil).
Leaf buds: it is a rudimentary sterile shoots i.e.
it elongates into a shoot that bears only leaves and tendrils.
Fruit bud: contains a shoot having both rudimentary leaves
and flower clusters.
a) Trunk (main stem) b) Arm c) Shoots (bearing unit,
canes)
Fig. A shoot elongated from fruit bud (fertile bud)
Taxonomy and morphology cont’d…
The buds of the vine may be classified
according to
The nature of the structures they contain
i. Leaf bud – elongates into a sterile shoot
ii. Fruit bud- elongates into fruitful shoot
Their position on the shoot or arm
i. Basal buds
ii. Middle buds
iii. Apical buds
Fig. Grape bud (node) - nearly sprouting
Taxonomy and morphology cont’d…
Flower
Types of flower
Hermaphrodite –Self-fruitful
Female (Pistillate) – Self unfruitful
Male (Staminate) – Self unfruitful
a b c
Figure . Flower types in grapes:
(a) Hermaphrodite, (b) Female, and (c) Male
Grape Cultivars
The four main varieties of local grapes in
Ethiopia are
“Tekur” (black)
“Nech Debulbul” (white round)
 “Kai Debulbul” (Red round)
“Nech shul” (White oval)- not much
recommended
Cultivars cont’d…
The other commercially known varieties of
grape are
Anab-e-Shahi, (Table grape) –white
Carignane, red (wine grape)
Thomson seedless, white (Raisin grape)
Grenache, red (wine grape)
Rulaender, white (wine grape)
Grape Ecological
Requirements
Altitude
 The top altitude limit for commercial production is
2000masl, above these there is frost damage
 From 1800 to 2000 m only one crop/year can produced
 Below about 1,700 m temperature is high enough to
enable two crops/year because the growing period is
shorter but supplementary irrigation is essential
Two crops around Ziway and Merti
No. Place Altitude(m) Rain(mm)
1 Abider 900 326
2 Dukem 2000 785
3 Guder 1800-2000 750-800
4 Ziway 1640 680-970
5 Nuraera 950-1000 540
6 Merti 950-1000 540
Table. Vineyard locations in Ethiopia and their altitude
and amount of rainfall per year.
Ecological Req’ts
Temperature
The optimum temperature condition for grapes are
where mean temperature fall between 20 – 25 oC
Grapes grown in cooler climates are reported to be
better quality for wine making
because they develop good color and higher
tannin content
At warmer area they produce more TSS
Ecological Req’ts
Heat summation (Degree days / Heat index)
 the total amount heat received that
determines the ripening time of gape berries
HS = (X - 10 0C)t
Where 10 0C is base temperature
x- mean monthly temperature
t- number of days/months
Maximum total heat summation => High mean
temperature => short crop duration
Minimum total heat summation => low mean
temperature => long crop duration
Ecological Req’ts cont’d…
Soil
Can be grown on most soil types provided there
is good drainage
No impermeable layer within a minimum depth
of 1.3m below the surface
Deep loamy with good structure
 pH – the ideal pH is between 6.5 & 7.5
Grape crop husbandry
Propagation
Seed – for breeding purpose
Stem cutting (Hardwood)
Layering (simple layering)
 Budding (Chip budding)
 Grafting (wedge, splice, cleft)
Crop husbandry cont’d…
Propagation by stem cutting (hardwood)
Common method in Ethiopia
 Simple & cheap
Cutting should be of medium diameter and about
30cm long
Cutting should be taken from healthy, vigorous
and high yielding mother plants
Cutting should be prepared on the same day as the
mother plant is pruned and packed in plastic bags
Crop husbandry cont’d…
Planting
Spacing (depends mainly on)
 Vine vigour
 Training system
 Pruning method to be followed
 Fertility level of the soil & climatic factor
• 2 x 2 m
• 2 x 1.5 m
• 2.5 x 1.5 m
Crop husbandry cont’d…
Support and training system
Generally grapes require support throughout their
life and this adds considerable cost of production
A great varieties of support and training is in use in
different grape producing countries
Trellise (support provision)
Temporary or permanent
 3 - 4 wire trellise system for supporting bilateral
cordon
Crop husbandry cont’d…
Training
aims at giving proper shape
Maximize production, facilitate cultural operations
 The growth of grape is influenced by apical
dominance
The training of vine starts from the very day of
planting and needs close follow-up by trained staff.
During this time all laterals have to be removed,
leaving one leading shoot trained straight upward the
stake.
There are different systems.
Crop husbandry cont’d…
I. Head system
 the vine trained up to a height of 1 – 1.3m where a
head is formed by pinching the shoot,
 least expensive and best suited for less vigorous
variety.
 Close spacing is common.
II. Trellis system (cordon)
It is only suitable for varieties which require spur or
short cane pruning and which are of moderate vigor.
Unilateral- if development of the arm is in one
direction
Bilateral- if its growth is on both directions.
A head-trained grapevine that is cane pruned.
A bilateral cordon grapevine that is spur
pruned.
Crop husbandry cont’d…
III. Telephone trellis system
 This rather expensive system is recommended for vigorous
varieties which require a long cane pruning.
 High yield can be obtained by this method with successful
crop protection.
 Shoots should be trained on the middle wire and are cut to
develop arms.
 Then the shoots are oriented to develop arms.
IV. Arbor system
 Training many or single vines on a continuous bed
Arbor training system
Crop husbandry cont’d…
Pruning
Procedures:
 Thinning out
 Heading back
Rejuvenation
Objectives:
To help establish & maintain the vine in a form that
will save labor & facilitate vineyard operations
To distribute the bearing wood over the vine, among
vines, and over the years in accordance with the
capacity of the spurs ( or canes) & vines
To lessen or eliminate thinning in the control of crop
Crop husbandry cont’d…
Pruning methods
Depending on position of fertile buds
1. Spur pruning
Recommended for varieties which have their most
fertile buds at the basal part of the canes
Fully mature canes are pruned to two buds spur
which distributed regularly all over the plant
Successful in tropical viticulture since apical
dominance is not very pronounced
Spur pruning (2 buds)
Crop husbandry cont’d…
2. Short cane pruning
Recommended for varieties which have their most
fertile buds at the middle part of the canes
Fully mature canes are pruned to 4-8 buds
More suitable for varieties of “Shinin blanck” and
Tikur
Short cane pruning (4 – 8 buds)
Crop husbandry cont’d…
3. Long cane pruning
Recommended for varieties which have their most
fertile buds at the apical part of the canes
It is very difficult to manage because of apical
dominance
Fully mature canes are pruned to 8-12 buds
It suitable for variety of Thompson seedless
Long cane pruning (8-12 buds)
Pests of Grape
Major diseases
Downy mildew
Powdery mildew
Cluster botrytis rot
Anthracnose
Insects and other pests
Aphids, termite, mealy bugs, scale insects,
Flea beetle, thrips, mites etc.
Nematode (Root-knot)
Birds
Harvest and post-harvest handling
Determination of stage of maturity
 Depends (mainly) on their end use
TSS (Degree Brix)
 Table grapes -----------16 oBrix
 Raisins------------------18-20
 Light white wine------ 17-18
 Heavy red wine -------22-23
The end of Course !

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Chapter 5 Grape production (1).pptx

  • 2.
  • 3. Origin and distribution Viticulture: the art and science of growing grapes  Long-term perennial, support requiring plant (vine) so grape is the fruit of a woody climbing vine  The exact origin of the grape is not really known, although many believe it to be Asia Minor, the Caspian Sea region or Armenia  The grape is one of the oldest cultivated fruits in the world, dating back to the earliest civilizations.
  • 4. Origin and distribution cont’d…  While some suggest that grapes go back 7000 years to western Asia  Wine making in Egypt dated back about 5000-6000 yrs  It reached to Ethiopia with Christianity in the 4th A.D. but its production started lately  Modern wine yards were established by foreigner before 50 years (Italian and Greeks).  The Portuguese are said to have cultivated grape in Gondar in the 16thC and then after sporadic cultivation has been reported.
  • 5. Origin and distribution cont’d…  It is deciduous crops of warm temperate regions which grows predominantly from 20-400  Production of grape under tropics is possible under a certain conditions Choosing suitable cultivars Applying suitable management practices Defoliation Holding irrigation water continuously Application of chemicals
  • 6. Origin and distribution cont’d… • The main problem is its flower production which needs lower temperature • The leading producers are Italy, Switzerland, Spain, France, Turkey etc • In Ethiopia its production is found in Ziway, Dukam, Guder, Merti, Abadir, Nura Era etc
  • 7. 30 January 2024 7 Uses & composition Like most berries, grapes have a lot of nutritive value as highlighted below: • Important vitamins such as vitamin A, B1, B2, B6 and C are found in grapes. • Grapes also contain acids such as tartaric acids, malic acids, succinic, fumaric, glyceric, p-coumaric and caffeic acids. • Grapes have important anti-oxidants such as anthocyanins, flavones, geraniol, linalol, nerol and tannins. • Grapes contain all the necessary minerals such as Ca, Cl, Cu, F, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, K, Si andS.
  • 8. Taxonomy and morphology of Grape Belongs to the family Vitaceae and genus Vitis • Classification of grape based on their origin 1. Vitis vinifera (French grape)-European type  90 % world production belong to such group  Grown for wine making 2. Vitis labrusa (America grape)  Grown mainly where there is frost problem  Grown for juice, wine, table grape but wine made is inferior to the first one
  • 9. Taxonomy and morphology cont’d… 3. Vitis rotundifolia (the muscadines)  French-American hybrids  Tolerant to hot condition  Used for fresh consumption and canning  Native to gulf of Mexico There are several other American species which have regional importance or used in breeding purpose for disease and frost resistance.
  • 10. Taxonomy and morphology cont’d  Commercial class of grape (depending upon their purpose) 1. Table grapes  for fresh consumption  Used for fresh market (food or decoration)  Attractive in appearance (shape, size, color)  Good eating quality  Good shipping quality  tend to have large, seedless fruit with relatively thin skin. 2. Raisin grapes  Produce acceptable dry product  Should be seedless  Have good flavor  Soft texture
  • 11. Taxonomy and morphology cont’ 3. Wine grapes  used for wine making  are smaller, usually seeded, and have relatively thick skins (a desirable characteristic in wine making, since much of the aroma in wine comes from the skin).  by far the most expensive use of grape is in producing wine.  There are two types of wines:  Table wine (dry or dinner wine) • Contain <14% alcohol • Produced from grape moderately high sugar content and relatively high acidity Dessert wine (Appetizer or sweet) • Contain > 14 % alcohol (17-20%) • Produced from grape of high sugar content and low acidity.
  • 12. Wine grapes on the vine "White" table grape Raisin
  • 13.
  • 14. Taxonomy and morphology cont’d 4. Juice grapes (Sweet juice grapes) Those juice grapes produce an acceptable beverage when it is preserved by pasteurization or other processes. For making sweet juice, it necessary to maintain the natural fresh grape flavor through preservation. 5. Canning grapes Grape canned in combination with other fruits. seedless,.
  • 16. Taxonomy and morphology cont’d… Plant: a liana or woody vine. Leaves: are often large sometimes deeply lobed as in many cultivars, or rounded with entire or serrate margins. Tendrils occur opposite levels at nodes. Flower: are small, borne in racemose panicles Fruit: are berries, with 2 to 4 seeds
  • 17. Taxonomy and morphology cont’d… Like other higher plants the vine has different parts 1. The root system.  About 1/3 of the dry weight of a grape tree comprises of the root system.  The roots spread over a wide area, penetrating the soil up to a depth of 6 – 12 feet in soils of favorable texture.  The bulk of the root are usually confound to the upper 60 – 150 cm surface soil. 2. The shoot system  Comprises the above ground parts of the vine and  these are: trunk, arms, shoots (cane when mature), the leaves, tendrils and fruits.
  • 18. Taxonomy and morphology cont’d…  Trunk: the main un-branched body (stem) of the vine. It grows only in diameter.  Arm: permanent division of the vine arising from or along the top of the trunk. The arms bear the spur and canes.  Head: the region of the trunk from which arms or canes arise.  Shoot: succulent growth arising from a bud. It has the growing tip, nodes, internodes, buds, tendrils and laterals.
  • 19. Taxonomy and morphology cont’d… Cane: dormant shoot that has become woody, mature and dropped its leaves. Spur: the basal portions of a cane cut back to 1-4 nodes in length. The buds: normally developed at each node just above the leaf (in the leaf axil). Leaf buds: it is a rudimentary sterile shoots i.e. it elongates into a shoot that bears only leaves and tendrils. Fruit bud: contains a shoot having both rudimentary leaves and flower clusters.
  • 20. a) Trunk (main stem) b) Arm c) Shoots (bearing unit, canes)
  • 21. Fig. A shoot elongated from fruit bud (fertile bud)
  • 22. Taxonomy and morphology cont’d… The buds of the vine may be classified according to The nature of the structures they contain i. Leaf bud – elongates into a sterile shoot ii. Fruit bud- elongates into fruitful shoot Their position on the shoot or arm i. Basal buds ii. Middle buds iii. Apical buds
  • 23. Fig. Grape bud (node) - nearly sprouting
  • 24. Taxonomy and morphology cont’d… Flower Types of flower Hermaphrodite –Self-fruitful Female (Pistillate) – Self unfruitful Male (Staminate) – Self unfruitful a b c Figure . Flower types in grapes: (a) Hermaphrodite, (b) Female, and (c) Male
  • 25. Grape Cultivars The four main varieties of local grapes in Ethiopia are “Tekur” (black) “Nech Debulbul” (white round)  “Kai Debulbul” (Red round) “Nech shul” (White oval)- not much recommended
  • 26. Cultivars cont’d… The other commercially known varieties of grape are Anab-e-Shahi, (Table grape) –white Carignane, red (wine grape) Thomson seedless, white (Raisin grape) Grenache, red (wine grape) Rulaender, white (wine grape)
  • 27. Grape Ecological Requirements Altitude  The top altitude limit for commercial production is 2000masl, above these there is frost damage  From 1800 to 2000 m only one crop/year can produced  Below about 1,700 m temperature is high enough to enable two crops/year because the growing period is shorter but supplementary irrigation is essential Two crops around Ziway and Merti
  • 28. No. Place Altitude(m) Rain(mm) 1 Abider 900 326 2 Dukem 2000 785 3 Guder 1800-2000 750-800 4 Ziway 1640 680-970 5 Nuraera 950-1000 540 6 Merti 950-1000 540 Table. Vineyard locations in Ethiopia and their altitude and amount of rainfall per year.
  • 29. Ecological Req’ts Temperature The optimum temperature condition for grapes are where mean temperature fall between 20 – 25 oC Grapes grown in cooler climates are reported to be better quality for wine making because they develop good color and higher tannin content At warmer area they produce more TSS
  • 30. Ecological Req’ts Heat summation (Degree days / Heat index)  the total amount heat received that determines the ripening time of gape berries HS = (X - 10 0C)t Where 10 0C is base temperature x- mean monthly temperature t- number of days/months Maximum total heat summation => High mean temperature => short crop duration Minimum total heat summation => low mean temperature => long crop duration
  • 31. Ecological Req’ts cont’d… Soil Can be grown on most soil types provided there is good drainage No impermeable layer within a minimum depth of 1.3m below the surface Deep loamy with good structure  pH – the ideal pH is between 6.5 & 7.5
  • 32. Grape crop husbandry Propagation Seed – for breeding purpose Stem cutting (Hardwood) Layering (simple layering)  Budding (Chip budding)  Grafting (wedge, splice, cleft)
  • 33. Crop husbandry cont’d… Propagation by stem cutting (hardwood) Common method in Ethiopia  Simple & cheap Cutting should be of medium diameter and about 30cm long Cutting should be taken from healthy, vigorous and high yielding mother plants Cutting should be prepared on the same day as the mother plant is pruned and packed in plastic bags
  • 34. Crop husbandry cont’d… Planting Spacing (depends mainly on)  Vine vigour  Training system  Pruning method to be followed  Fertility level of the soil & climatic factor • 2 x 2 m • 2 x 1.5 m • 2.5 x 1.5 m
  • 35. Crop husbandry cont’d… Support and training system Generally grapes require support throughout their life and this adds considerable cost of production A great varieties of support and training is in use in different grape producing countries Trellise (support provision) Temporary or permanent  3 - 4 wire trellise system for supporting bilateral cordon
  • 36. Crop husbandry cont’d… Training aims at giving proper shape Maximize production, facilitate cultural operations  The growth of grape is influenced by apical dominance The training of vine starts from the very day of planting and needs close follow-up by trained staff. During this time all laterals have to be removed, leaving one leading shoot trained straight upward the stake. There are different systems.
  • 37. Crop husbandry cont’d… I. Head system  the vine trained up to a height of 1 – 1.3m where a head is formed by pinching the shoot,  least expensive and best suited for less vigorous variety.  Close spacing is common. II. Trellis system (cordon) It is only suitable for varieties which require spur or short cane pruning and which are of moderate vigor. Unilateral- if development of the arm is in one direction Bilateral- if its growth is on both directions.
  • 38. A head-trained grapevine that is cane pruned.
  • 39. A bilateral cordon grapevine that is spur pruned.
  • 40. Crop husbandry cont’d… III. Telephone trellis system  This rather expensive system is recommended for vigorous varieties which require a long cane pruning.  High yield can be obtained by this method with successful crop protection.  Shoots should be trained on the middle wire and are cut to develop arms.  Then the shoots are oriented to develop arms. IV. Arbor system  Training many or single vines on a continuous bed
  • 42. Crop husbandry cont’d… Pruning Procedures:  Thinning out  Heading back Rejuvenation Objectives: To help establish & maintain the vine in a form that will save labor & facilitate vineyard operations To distribute the bearing wood over the vine, among vines, and over the years in accordance with the capacity of the spurs ( or canes) & vines To lessen or eliminate thinning in the control of crop
  • 43. Crop husbandry cont’d… Pruning methods Depending on position of fertile buds 1. Spur pruning Recommended for varieties which have their most fertile buds at the basal part of the canes Fully mature canes are pruned to two buds spur which distributed regularly all over the plant Successful in tropical viticulture since apical dominance is not very pronounced
  • 45. Crop husbandry cont’d… 2. Short cane pruning Recommended for varieties which have their most fertile buds at the middle part of the canes Fully mature canes are pruned to 4-8 buds More suitable for varieties of “Shinin blanck” and Tikur
  • 46. Short cane pruning (4 – 8 buds)
  • 47. Crop husbandry cont’d… 3. Long cane pruning Recommended for varieties which have their most fertile buds at the apical part of the canes It is very difficult to manage because of apical dominance Fully mature canes are pruned to 8-12 buds It suitable for variety of Thompson seedless
  • 48. Long cane pruning (8-12 buds)
  • 49. Pests of Grape Major diseases Downy mildew Powdery mildew Cluster botrytis rot Anthracnose Insects and other pests Aphids, termite, mealy bugs, scale insects, Flea beetle, thrips, mites etc. Nematode (Root-knot) Birds
  • 50. Harvest and post-harvest handling Determination of stage of maturity  Depends (mainly) on their end use TSS (Degree Brix)  Table grapes -----------16 oBrix  Raisins------------------18-20  Light white wine------ 17-18  Heavy red wine -------22-23
  • 51. The end of Course !