SlideShare a Scribd company logo
A Pragmatic Perspective on
Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs)
從實用的觀點評估鋰電池研究近期的契機
Bing Hsieh
November, 2015
$100B energy storage industry
• Key Players: Japan, China, Korea, and US
Does Taiwan want to become a “key” player?
•In 2014, global lithium battery anode materials output totaled around
70,000 tons, concentrated in China and Japan, which together constituted
over 95% of global anode materials sales volume.
•Global anode materials industry is highly concentrated, with major
manufacturers including Hitachi Chemical, JFE Chemical, Mitsubishi
Chemical, BTR, and Ningbo Shanshan, which held a combined market
share of over 80% in 2014.
- Hitachi & Ningbo Shanshan: artificial graphite
- BTR & Mitsubishi : natural graphite
- JFE Chemical & Ningbo Shanshan in MCMB
(MesoCarbon MicroBeads)
Startups in the Bay Area
Founder University Focus
Amprius Yi Cui Stanford Si Anode
Imprint Energy James Evans UC Berkeley ZincPoly
Seeo (acquired
By Bosch 博世)
Nitash Balsara UC Berkeley Polymer Electrolytes
BlueCurrent Nitash Balsara UC Berkeley Oligomer Electrolytes
Saktis3 Ann Marie Sastry U Michigan Solid State LIBs
Cambrios Angela Belcher MIT Ag Nanowires
Transparent conductor
C3Nano Zhenan Bao Stanford CNT transparent Conductor
Carbon3D Joe Desimone U N Carolina 3D printing (business product)
Ubiquitous
Energy
Vladimir Bulović MIT Transparent Solar Cells
Does it make sense for Taiwan to invest more
in energy storage technologies?
If yes, Why & How?
Cost of LIBs
DOE cost
target of
$150/kWh
in ~2030
Nissan Leaf
Battery Pack
@ $270/kWh
In 2014
Li+ & e- flow in LIBs
• Li+ & e- flow in the same direction.
• During charging Li+/e- flow from v+ to v-.
• During discharging from v- to v+ electrode.
(Cu)(Al)
• Al (d=2.7); Cu (d=9.0)
• Al: light weight; but can alloy with Li
• Surface Al2O3 gives impedance.
(3M has carbon coated oxide-free Al )
• Energy density α Electrode thickness
• High Battery Cost: $1000/kwh
Micrographs of Electrode Particles
LiCoO2
LiCoO2
LiCoO2
LiNiO2
LiNiO2
KS4 Graphite Si NP
NonPorous particles!
Various Form Factors of LIBs
Thin or thick electrode?
Seeo Inc
SolidEnergy System
US 2014/0170524
1-28. (canceled)
29. An electrochemical cell,
comprising: an anode;
a semi-solid cathode including a
suspension of about 40% to
about 75% by volume of an active
material and about 1% to about
6% by volume of a conductive
material in a non-aqueous liquid
electrolyte; and
an ion-permeable membrane
disposed between the anode and
the semi-solid cathode,
wherein, the semi-solid cathode
has a thickness in the range of
about 250 μm to about 2,000 μm,
and wherein the electrochemical
cell has an area specific capacity
of at least 7 mAh/cm2 at a C-rate
of C/4.
+
-
Cu Al
C
Sep
E
Key Areas & Issues in LIBs
• High Voltage and High Capacity Cathodes –
- No stable and no electrolytes could be used.
- Electrode coating has potential.
- 3M, Umicore, BASF, Argonne, Hydro Quebec
- S (1670mAh/g); O2 (>3300 mAh/g, light oxygen)
• High Capacity Anodes –
-Li (3860 mAh/g) or Si (4200 mAh/g);
- Li dendrite formation vs. Si pulverization.
- Electrode coating has shown potential.
- Li over Si, because Si anode may not work out.
- Li: SolidEnergy, Seeo. Si: Amprius and various big companies
• High Voltage Electrolytes
- May not be practical,
- additives work may bare fruits; but can only be used for final optimization
• Polymer Electrolytes
- Safer, could suppress dendrite formation and enable the use of Li metal; but need to
operate at 50-90oC.
- Could reduce the overall cost of LIBs and enable Li-S and Li-Air technologies.
- May be used as separators, binders for electrodes, especially for Si anode – An value add.
Three Types of Cathode Materials
John Goodenough,
Not enough for Goodenough,
The man who brought us the lithium-ion battery at the age of 57
has an idea for a new one at 92
http://qz.com/338767/the-man-who-brought-us-the-lithium-ion-battery-at-57-has-
an-idea-for-a-new-one-at-92/
“I want to solve the problem before I throw my chips in.
I’m only 92. I still have time to go.”
—John Goodenough Feb 2015
Major Strategies to Improve LIB Materials
B or N doped grapheneGraphene-PNNi compositenanoparticles
List of Important Cathode Materials
voltage specific
capacity
(mAh/g)
energy
density
(wh/kg)
Conductivi
ty
Density
(g/cm3)
[Tapped]
Surface
area
(m2/g)
Cost
($/kg)
LiFePO4 (Fiscar) LFP O 3.4 100-160
(170)
578 E-8 0.23
LiFe1/2Mn1/2PO4 O 3.4-4.1 160
(170)
LiMnPO4 O 4.1 171 701 E-10
LiCoPO4 O 4.8 167 802
LiNiPO4 O 5.1 167 852
LiCoO2 (toxic) (Tesla) LCO L 3.7 120-155
(274 )
570 E-4 25
LiMnO2 L
LiNiO2 (toxic) L 135-180
(274)
13
Li(Ni16/20Co3/20Al1/20)O2 NCA L 3.8
(3-4.2)
180-200
(??)
680-760 4.45 0.5
Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2
Nissan & GM
NMC111
BC618
L 4.2-4.6 130-150
(272)
597 4.8
[2.69]
0.26
Li(Ni1/2Mn3/10Co2/10)O2
1/5LiCoO2*4/5(LiMn3/8Ni2/8)O2
NMC532 ??
(164)
635
Li(Ni2/5Mn2/5Co1/5)O2
1/5LiCoO2*4/5(LiMn1/2Ni1/2)O2
NMC442
BC718
??
(155)
4.7
[2.29]
0.39
Li(Ni3/5Mn1/5Co1/5)O2
1/5LiCoO2*2/5(LiMn1/2Ni1/2)O2
NMC622
Li(Ni4/5Mn1/10Co1/10)O2
1/10LiCoO2*4/5(LiMn1/2Ni1/2)O2
NMC811
Lithium Rich Layer Oxide
Li(Li1/3Mn2/3)O2*Li(Mn3/8Ni3/8Co
1/4)O2 = Li(Li, Mn, Ni, Co)O2
HE-NMC
(HE-NCM)
L 4.65
(5.1)
???
(250)
986
LiMn2O4 LMO S 4.3
(3.5-4.3)
100-130
(148)
500
(585)
E-4 4.29 0.5 0.5
LiMn3/2Ni1/2O4
(Nissan, GM)
LMNO
HV-spinel
S 4.7 120
(148)
651 4.45 1.3
Energy Diagrams of LIBs
Vacuum level
Li = 2.9 eV 7 eV
Coatings on cathode particles &
Li metals can be viewed as preformed
SEI layers. Working on preformed SEI layers
Is more practical than trying to develop
Electrolytes with higher oxidation potentials.
Coatings on Cathodes Particles
- Preformed SEI Layers
• Carbon coatings: Amorphous C, Graphene, C-PANI composites
• Metal oxide coatings – Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2, MgO
• Metal fluoride – AlF3, LaF3
• FePO4 and FePO4-PANI
• Hybrid coatings of carbon – C+Li3PO4;
Dendrite Formation in LIBs
•“Good” SEI formation allows Li+
to diffuse in and out of the anode.
•“Bad” SEI does not allow the flow
of Li+ in and out of the anode due
to both thickness issues as well as
a different chemical makeup
compared to good SEI. Dendritic
growth of metallic Li shorts the
battery after reaching the
cathode.
Dendrite Suppressing Methods
• Electrolyte additives: Alkali salts (Cs+), high LiTFSI
concentrations.
• Coatings on Li metal: Carbon coating
• Thermal conductor coatings on separator: BN
• Ionic liquids as eletrolytes.
• Polymer electrolytes: block polymers, crosslinked polymers.
• Pulse charging
• Others
Dendrite Formation in Li ion/Li metal Batteries
Yi Cui, Stanford
Mechanism of Dendrite Formation
in Li ion/Li metal Batteries
This seemingly elegant method for suppressing
The growth of Li dendrite was not patented.
Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield (SHES)
Mechanism
•SEI layer will form once Li metal
contact liquid electrolyte.
•Li ions can diffuse through SEI layer
and deposit on Li surface
•SHES additives (such as Cs ions) will
stay outside of SEI layer
•Formation and stability of SEI layer
are the main factors affecting the
Coulombic efficiency of Li
deposition/stripping processes.
CsPF6 prevents dendrite formation
Coulombic efficiency is still low.
Block Copolymers as Solid Electrolytes
Seeo Inc.
PATTERNS APLENTY
These TEM images show
various morphologies of
polystyrene-
poly(ethylene oxide)
copolymers, doped with
salts, that can be used in
advanced batteries.
Understanding the
factors that control
polymer structure and
ionic conductivity is key
to exploiting these
materials.
PS = red, black; PEO = green, white; salt = blue.
Credit: Nitash Balsara, UC Berkeley (Founder of Seeo Inc)
Mechanism of Dendrite Formation
in Li metal Batteries
Synchrotron hard X-ray microtomography experiments on
symmetric lithium–polymer–lithium cells cycled at 90 °C
Credit: Nitash Balsara, UC Berkeley
Block Copolymers as Solid Electrolytes
(Seeo Inc)
Mw = 100K or 200K
50% triblock
No homopolymers
•Anionic polymers can be easily isolated in high purity
•ATRP polymers have ionic and homopolymer impurities and weak ester groups.
•Nitroxide Mediated Polymerization (NMP) has become the method of choice.
•Too expensive.
s-BuLi EO
(CH2CH2O)(CH2 CH)
PEG OHHO
Br
O
Br
PEG OO
O
Br
O
Br CuCl2
Me6TREN
(CH2CH2O)(CH2 CH) (CH2 CH)
s-BuLi EO
Br Br
(CH2CH2O)(CH2 CH) (CH2 CH)
<50% triblock
Block/Comb Polysiloxanes as Electrolytes
Polysiloxane chain has very low Tg of -123oC
D3V
(CH2 CH) (Si
CH3
O)
s-BuLi
Si O SiH CH2CH2R
1-3
(CH2 CH) (Si
CH3
O)
Si O Si CH2CH2RPt cat
Si O SiH H
R
Rh
Si O SiH CH2CH2R
•A powerful modular synthesis of functional block copolymers.
•Achieved quantitative grafting for many pendant groups.
•Wide range of oligoEO groups have been incorporated into R .
•Highest conductivity achieved is 1x10-4 S/cm (n = 4 is sufficient), giving an
operation temperature of ~50oC.
•Amphiphilic polysiloxanes remain an attractive but barely explored solid
electrolyte materials.
•Too expansive.
(Si
CH3
H
O) (Si
CH3
O)
R
R
(Si
CH3
O) (Si
CH3
O)
Si O Si CH2CH2R
R = -(CH2CH2O)n-CH3 n = 3-6
Ionic Liquids as Conductivity Enhancing Additives
N
NR1
R1
R3+
CF3-SO2-N--SO2CF3
X- N+
X-
B-
O
O
O
O
-Commercial materials not stable and did not give much
improvement on conductivity.
-Chemistry is straight forward, but purification was more involved.
-One of the ionic liquid gave 10X improvement of conductivity of a
polysiloxane electrolyte to 7 x 10-4 S/cm (4EO)
X- =
Si Anodes
• Yi Cui has a monopoly in this area. See
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Z7cEWrX9U4
• Pomegranate Si micron particles
• Reduced Silica
• New polymer biners
• Others
Si Anodes Yi Cui -Stanford
Si Anodes
Yi Cui -Stanford
Si NP from Reduced Silica
high reversible capacity of 3105 mAh g21. In particular, reversible Li storage capacities
above 1500 mAh/g were maintained after 500 cycles at a high rate of C/2.
Conjugated Polymers as Binders for Si Anode
Gao Liu -LBNL
peel strength
Electrode swelling
Cycling
Performance
Rate
Performance
Non-conjugated Polymers as Binders for Si Anode
Gao Liu -LBNL
After 500 cycles After only 40 cycles
•Lower cost materials.
•Work better than conjugated polymers
PVDFPoly(pyrene)
Key Issues & Interests in LIBs
• High Voltage and High Capacity Cathodes –
- No stable and no electrolytes could be used.
- Electrode coating has potential.
- 3M, Umicore, BASF, Argonne, Hydro Quebec
- S (1670mAh/g); O2 (>3300 mAh/g, light oxygen)
• High Capacity Anodes –
-Li (3860 mAh/g) or Si (4200 mAh/g);
- Li dendrite formation vs. Si pulverization.
- Electrode coating has shown potential.
- Li over Si, because Si anode may not work out.
- Li: SolidEnergy, Seeo. Si: Amprius and various big companies
• High Voltage Electrolytes
- May not be practical,
- additives work may bare fruits; but can only be used for final optimization
• Polymer Electrolytes
- Safer, could suppress dendrite formation and enable the use of Li metal; but need to
operate at 50-90oC.
- Could reduce the overall cost of LIBs and enable Li-S and Li-Air technologies.
- May be used as separators, binders for electrodes, especially for Si anode – An value add.
Summary
Solid polymer batteries with thin lithium metal
anode is one of the best paths forward

More Related Content

What's hot

Lithium ion battery recycling market sample extract (with data) | IndustryARC
Lithium ion battery recycling market sample extract (with data) | IndustryARCLithium ion battery recycling market sample extract (with data) | IndustryARC
Lithium ion battery recycling market sample extract (with data) | IndustryARC
vijay vardhan Bejjam
 
Rechargeable Sodium-ion Battery - The Future of Battery Development
Rechargeable Sodium-ion Battery - The Future of Battery DevelopmentRechargeable Sodium-ion Battery - The Future of Battery Development
Rechargeable Sodium-ion Battery - The Future of Battery Development
DESH D YADAV
 
Status of Rechargeable Li-ion Battery Industry 2019 by Yole Développement
Status of Rechargeable Li-ion Battery Industry 2019 by Yole DéveloppementStatus of Rechargeable Li-ion Battery Industry 2019 by Yole Développement
Status of Rechargeable Li-ion Battery Industry 2019 by Yole Développement
Yole Developpement
 
NASA Presentation
NASA PresentationNASA Presentation
NASA Presentation
Gerry Flood
 
From battery-to-precursor - Recycling of Lithium-Ion Batteries
From battery-to-precursor - Recycling of Lithium-Ion BatteriesFrom battery-to-precursor - Recycling of Lithium-Ion Batteries
From battery-to-precursor - Recycling of Lithium-Ion Batteries
Christian Hanisch
 
Hydrogen fuel cell
Hydrogen fuel cellHydrogen fuel cell
Hydrogen fuel cell
shailesh mishra
 
New Battery Technology Developments
New Battery Technology DevelopmentsNew Battery Technology Developments
New Battery Technology Developments
Epec Engineered Technologies
 
Energy storage devices
Energy storage devicesEnergy storage devices
Energy storage devices
Satyajeet Udavant
 
Lithium ion batteries and latest innovation
Lithium ion batteries and latest innovationLithium ion batteries and latest innovation
Lithium ion batteries and latest innovation
Dheeraj Kumar Soni
 
Li ion-battery
Li ion-batteryLi ion-battery
Recycling and Reusing of used lithium ion batteries
Recycling and Reusing of used lithium ion batteriesRecycling and Reusing of used lithium ion batteries
Recycling and Reusing of used lithium ion batteries
Jisha Krishnan
 
BATTERY CHEMISTRY [Autosaved].pptx
BATTERY CHEMISTRY [Autosaved].pptxBATTERY CHEMISTRY [Autosaved].pptx
BATTERY CHEMISTRY [Autosaved].pptx
ANILGARECHEMIST
 
Lithium-Ion Battery (LIB) Manufacturing Industry
Lithium-Ion Battery (LIB) Manufacturing IndustryLithium-Ion Battery (LIB) Manufacturing Industry
Lithium-Ion Battery (LIB) Manufacturing Industry
Ajjay Kumar Gupta
 
EV BATTERY RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY AND THE PRIMARY DRIVERS
EV BATTERY RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY AND THE PRIMARY DRIVERSEV BATTERY RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY AND THE PRIMARY DRIVERS
EV BATTERY RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY AND THE PRIMARY DRIVERS
DesignTeam8
 
solid state batteries
solid state batteriessolid state batteries
solid state batteries
M. Raja Reddy
 
Strategic insights battery materials
Strategic insights  battery materialsStrategic insights  battery materials
Strategic insights battery materials
Kowthamraj Vs
 
Rechargeable Batteries With Conductive Polymer
Rechargeable Batteries With Conductive PolymerRechargeable Batteries With Conductive Polymer
Rechargeable Batteries With Conductive Polymer
Devansh Gupta
 
Development of lithium ion battery
Development of lithium ion batteryDevelopment of lithium ion battery
Development of lithium ion battery
Kiran Qamar Kayani
 
hydrogen as a fuel , ecosystem and future initiative
hydrogen as a fuel , ecosystem and future initiativehydrogen as a fuel , ecosystem and future initiative
hydrogen as a fuel , ecosystem and future initiative
Saquib Khursheed
 
Lithium ion batteries
Lithium ion batteriesLithium ion batteries
Lithium ion batteries
samira mohammadpour
 

What's hot (20)

Lithium ion battery recycling market sample extract (with data) | IndustryARC
Lithium ion battery recycling market sample extract (with data) | IndustryARCLithium ion battery recycling market sample extract (with data) | IndustryARC
Lithium ion battery recycling market sample extract (with data) | IndustryARC
 
Rechargeable Sodium-ion Battery - The Future of Battery Development
Rechargeable Sodium-ion Battery - The Future of Battery DevelopmentRechargeable Sodium-ion Battery - The Future of Battery Development
Rechargeable Sodium-ion Battery - The Future of Battery Development
 
Status of Rechargeable Li-ion Battery Industry 2019 by Yole Développement
Status of Rechargeable Li-ion Battery Industry 2019 by Yole DéveloppementStatus of Rechargeable Li-ion Battery Industry 2019 by Yole Développement
Status of Rechargeable Li-ion Battery Industry 2019 by Yole Développement
 
NASA Presentation
NASA PresentationNASA Presentation
NASA Presentation
 
From battery-to-precursor - Recycling of Lithium-Ion Batteries
From battery-to-precursor - Recycling of Lithium-Ion BatteriesFrom battery-to-precursor - Recycling of Lithium-Ion Batteries
From battery-to-precursor - Recycling of Lithium-Ion Batteries
 
Hydrogen fuel cell
Hydrogen fuel cellHydrogen fuel cell
Hydrogen fuel cell
 
New Battery Technology Developments
New Battery Technology DevelopmentsNew Battery Technology Developments
New Battery Technology Developments
 
Energy storage devices
Energy storage devicesEnergy storage devices
Energy storage devices
 
Lithium ion batteries and latest innovation
Lithium ion batteries and latest innovationLithium ion batteries and latest innovation
Lithium ion batteries and latest innovation
 
Li ion-battery
Li ion-batteryLi ion-battery
Li ion-battery
 
Recycling and Reusing of used lithium ion batteries
Recycling and Reusing of used lithium ion batteriesRecycling and Reusing of used lithium ion batteries
Recycling and Reusing of used lithium ion batteries
 
BATTERY CHEMISTRY [Autosaved].pptx
BATTERY CHEMISTRY [Autosaved].pptxBATTERY CHEMISTRY [Autosaved].pptx
BATTERY CHEMISTRY [Autosaved].pptx
 
Lithium-Ion Battery (LIB) Manufacturing Industry
Lithium-Ion Battery (LIB) Manufacturing IndustryLithium-Ion Battery (LIB) Manufacturing Industry
Lithium-Ion Battery (LIB) Manufacturing Industry
 
EV BATTERY RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY AND THE PRIMARY DRIVERS
EV BATTERY RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY AND THE PRIMARY DRIVERSEV BATTERY RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY AND THE PRIMARY DRIVERS
EV BATTERY RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY AND THE PRIMARY DRIVERS
 
solid state batteries
solid state batteriessolid state batteries
solid state batteries
 
Strategic insights battery materials
Strategic insights  battery materialsStrategic insights  battery materials
Strategic insights battery materials
 
Rechargeable Batteries With Conductive Polymer
Rechargeable Batteries With Conductive PolymerRechargeable Batteries With Conductive Polymer
Rechargeable Batteries With Conductive Polymer
 
Development of lithium ion battery
Development of lithium ion batteryDevelopment of lithium ion battery
Development of lithium ion battery
 
hydrogen as a fuel , ecosystem and future initiative
hydrogen as a fuel , ecosystem and future initiativehydrogen as a fuel , ecosystem and future initiative
hydrogen as a fuel , ecosystem and future initiative
 
Lithium ion batteries
Lithium ion batteriesLithium ion batteries
Lithium ion batteries
 

Viewers also liked

Lithium Ion Batteries, an Overview
Lithium Ion Batteries, an OverviewLithium Ion Batteries, an Overview
Lithium Ion Batteries, an Overview
Prakhar Gupta
 
Anode materials.ppt
Anode materials.pptAnode materials.ppt
Anode materials.ppt
Saiful Islam
 
Software Methods for Sustainable Solutions
Software Methods for Sustainable SolutionsSoftware Methods for Sustainable Solutions
Software Methods for Sustainable Solutions
BIOVIA
 
Find hot news in china fluoride materials monthly report 1401
Find hot news in china fluoride materials monthly report 1401Find hot news in china fluoride materials monthly report 1401
Find hot news in china fluoride materials monthly report 1401
CCM Intelligence
 
Sirris Innovate 2011 - Smart products by printing, prof. Marc Van Parys, Sens...
Sirris Innovate 2011 - Smart products by printing, prof. Marc Van Parys, Sens...Sirris Innovate 2011 - Smart products by printing, prof. Marc Van Parys, Sens...
Sirris Innovate 2011 - Smart products by printing, prof. Marc Van Parys, Sens...
Sirris
 
мухамеджанова мастеркласс
мухамеджанова мастерклассмухамеджанова мастеркласс
мухамеджанова мастеркласс
Вспомогательный образовательный сайт
 
Lithium Batteries and Supercapacitors
Lithium Batteries and SupercapacitorsLithium Batteries and Supercapacitors
Lithium Batteries and Supercapacitors
Bing Hsieh
 
Lithium ion silicon anode batteries
Lithium ion   silicon anode batteriesLithium ion   silicon anode batteries
Lithium ion silicon anode batteries
ASHIMA GUPTA
 
Types of lithium ion
Types of lithium ionTypes of lithium ion
Types of lithium ion
Andrew Gelston
 
Battery recycling slide presentation
Battery recycling slide presentationBattery recycling slide presentation
Battery recycling slide presentation
Shan Lin
 

Viewers also liked (10)

Lithium Ion Batteries, an Overview
Lithium Ion Batteries, an OverviewLithium Ion Batteries, an Overview
Lithium Ion Batteries, an Overview
 
Anode materials.ppt
Anode materials.pptAnode materials.ppt
Anode materials.ppt
 
Software Methods for Sustainable Solutions
Software Methods for Sustainable SolutionsSoftware Methods for Sustainable Solutions
Software Methods for Sustainable Solutions
 
Find hot news in china fluoride materials monthly report 1401
Find hot news in china fluoride materials monthly report 1401Find hot news in china fluoride materials monthly report 1401
Find hot news in china fluoride materials monthly report 1401
 
Sirris Innovate 2011 - Smart products by printing, prof. Marc Van Parys, Sens...
Sirris Innovate 2011 - Smart products by printing, prof. Marc Van Parys, Sens...Sirris Innovate 2011 - Smart products by printing, prof. Marc Van Parys, Sens...
Sirris Innovate 2011 - Smart products by printing, prof. Marc Van Parys, Sens...
 
мухамеджанова мастеркласс
мухамеджанова мастерклассмухамеджанова мастеркласс
мухамеджанова мастеркласс
 
Lithium Batteries and Supercapacitors
Lithium Batteries and SupercapacitorsLithium Batteries and Supercapacitors
Lithium Batteries and Supercapacitors
 
Lithium ion silicon anode batteries
Lithium ion   silicon anode batteriesLithium ion   silicon anode batteries
Lithium ion silicon anode batteries
 
Types of lithium ion
Types of lithium ionTypes of lithium ion
Types of lithium ion
 
Battery recycling slide presentation
Battery recycling slide presentationBattery recycling slide presentation
Battery recycling slide presentation
 

Similar to A pragmatic perspective on lithium ion batteries

High energy and capacity cathode material for li ion battries
High energy and capacity cathode material for li ion battriesHigh energy and capacity cathode material for li ion battries
High energy and capacity cathode material for li ion battries
Natraj Hulsure
 
Electrical properties of solids
Electrical properties of solidsElectrical properties of solids
Electrical properties of solids
Priyanka Jaiswal
 
Baterias LIB.ppt
Baterias LIB.pptBaterias LIB.ppt
Baterias LIB.ppt
Cesario Ajpi Condori
 
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Solid Oxide Fuel CellsSolid Oxide Fuel Cells
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
RitamGhosh12
 
The Most Complete Interpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion...
The Most Complete Interpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion...The Most Complete Interpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion...
The Most Complete Interpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion...
etekware
 
Interpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion Batteries.pdf
Interpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion Batteries.pdfInterpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion Batteries.pdf
Interpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion Batteries.pdf
ETEK1
 
Research plan 3
Research plan 3Research plan 3
Research plan 3
Toru Hara
 
Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured (LiFePO4) catho...
Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured     (LiFePO4) catho...Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured     (LiFePO4) catho...
Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured (LiFePO4) catho...
Arun Kumar
 
Steve Sloop - OnTo Technologies (Drive Oregon EV Battery Recycling and Reuse ...
Steve Sloop - OnTo Technologies (Drive Oregon EV Battery Recycling and Reuse ...Steve Sloop - OnTo Technologies (Drive Oregon EV Battery Recycling and Reuse ...
Steve Sloop - OnTo Technologies (Drive Oregon EV Battery Recycling and Reuse ...
Forth
 
Recycling Technology For Spent Lithium-ion batteries
Recycling Technology For Spent Lithium-ion batteriesRecycling Technology For Spent Lithium-ion batteries
Recycling Technology For Spent Lithium-ion batteries
bmeshram
 
Recycling Technologies for li-ion batteries
Recycling Technologies for li-ion batteriesRecycling Technologies for li-ion batteries
Recycling Technologies for li-ion batteries
bmeshram
 
electrochem.ppt
electrochem.pptelectrochem.ppt
electrochem.ppt
ssuserd05c7d
 
Electrode material for battery in automobile
Electrode material for battery in automobileElectrode material for battery in automobile
Electrode material for battery in automobile
ayushkamalecell
 
Integration of Nanomaterial with Semiconductor.pptx
Integration of Nanomaterial with Semiconductor.pptxIntegration of Nanomaterial with Semiconductor.pptx
Integration of Nanomaterial with Semiconductor.pptx
Abhay Rajput
 
(LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, LiNixMnyCozO2 (Three (3) composite system), Li(LiwNixMnyCoz...
(LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, LiNixMnyCozO2 (Three (3) composite system), Li(LiwNixMnyCoz...(LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, LiNixMnyCozO2 (Three (3) composite system), Li(LiwNixMnyCoz...
(LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, LiNixMnyCozO2 (Three (3) composite system), Li(LiwNixMnyCoz...
Aremu Emmanuel Olugbemisola
 
Electrochemical Performance Of Pressure Tolerant Anodes For A Li-seawater Ba...
Electrochemical Performance Of  Pressure Tolerant Anodes For A Li-seawater Ba...Electrochemical Performance Of  Pressure Tolerant Anodes For A Li-seawater Ba...
Electrochemical Performance Of Pressure Tolerant Anodes For A Li-seawater Ba...
chrisrobschu
 
Nanowire battery
Nanowire batteryNanowire battery
Nanowire battery
rounak077
 
Analytical Study and Comparison of Solid and Liquid Batteries for Electric Ve...
Analytical Study and Comparison of Solid and Liquid Batteries for Electric Ve...Analytical Study and Comparison of Solid and Liquid Batteries for Electric Ve...
Analytical Study and Comparison of Solid and Liquid Batteries for Electric Ve...
United International Journal for Research & Technology
 
A scalable synthesis route for Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2, LCO)
A scalable synthesis route for Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2, LCO)A scalable synthesis route for Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2, LCO)
A scalable synthesis route for Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2, LCO)
Benzene4
 
junker_2015nurfprojectsummary
junker_2015nurfprojectsummaryjunker_2015nurfprojectsummary
junker_2015nurfprojectsummary
Michael Junker
 

Similar to A pragmatic perspective on lithium ion batteries (20)

High energy and capacity cathode material for li ion battries
High energy and capacity cathode material for li ion battriesHigh energy and capacity cathode material for li ion battries
High energy and capacity cathode material for li ion battries
 
Electrical properties of solids
Electrical properties of solidsElectrical properties of solids
Electrical properties of solids
 
Baterias LIB.ppt
Baterias LIB.pptBaterias LIB.ppt
Baterias LIB.ppt
 
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Solid Oxide Fuel CellsSolid Oxide Fuel Cells
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
 
The Most Complete Interpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion...
The Most Complete Interpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion...The Most Complete Interpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion...
The Most Complete Interpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion...
 
Interpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion Batteries.pdf
Interpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion Batteries.pdfInterpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion Batteries.pdf
Interpretation of Anode Materials Standards for Lithium-ion Batteries.pdf
 
Research plan 3
Research plan 3Research plan 3
Research plan 3
 
Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured (LiFePO4) catho...
Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured     (LiFePO4) catho...Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured     (LiFePO4) catho...
Rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on Olivine-structured (LiFePO4) catho...
 
Steve Sloop - OnTo Technologies (Drive Oregon EV Battery Recycling and Reuse ...
Steve Sloop - OnTo Technologies (Drive Oregon EV Battery Recycling and Reuse ...Steve Sloop - OnTo Technologies (Drive Oregon EV Battery Recycling and Reuse ...
Steve Sloop - OnTo Technologies (Drive Oregon EV Battery Recycling and Reuse ...
 
Recycling Technology For Spent Lithium-ion batteries
Recycling Technology For Spent Lithium-ion batteriesRecycling Technology For Spent Lithium-ion batteries
Recycling Technology For Spent Lithium-ion batteries
 
Recycling Technologies for li-ion batteries
Recycling Technologies for li-ion batteriesRecycling Technologies for li-ion batteries
Recycling Technologies for li-ion batteries
 
electrochem.ppt
electrochem.pptelectrochem.ppt
electrochem.ppt
 
Electrode material for battery in automobile
Electrode material for battery in automobileElectrode material for battery in automobile
Electrode material for battery in automobile
 
Integration of Nanomaterial with Semiconductor.pptx
Integration of Nanomaterial with Semiconductor.pptxIntegration of Nanomaterial with Semiconductor.pptx
Integration of Nanomaterial with Semiconductor.pptx
 
(LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, LiNixMnyCozO2 (Three (3) composite system), Li(LiwNixMnyCoz...
(LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, LiNixMnyCozO2 (Three (3) composite system), Li(LiwNixMnyCoz...(LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, LiNixMnyCozO2 (Three (3) composite system), Li(LiwNixMnyCoz...
(LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, LiNixMnyCozO2 (Three (3) composite system), Li(LiwNixMnyCoz...
 
Electrochemical Performance Of Pressure Tolerant Anodes For A Li-seawater Ba...
Electrochemical Performance Of  Pressure Tolerant Anodes For A Li-seawater Ba...Electrochemical Performance Of  Pressure Tolerant Anodes For A Li-seawater Ba...
Electrochemical Performance Of Pressure Tolerant Anodes For A Li-seawater Ba...
 
Nanowire battery
Nanowire batteryNanowire battery
Nanowire battery
 
Analytical Study and Comparison of Solid and Liquid Batteries for Electric Ve...
Analytical Study and Comparison of Solid and Liquid Batteries for Electric Ve...Analytical Study and Comparison of Solid and Liquid Batteries for Electric Ve...
Analytical Study and Comparison of Solid and Liquid Batteries for Electric Ve...
 
A scalable synthesis route for Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2, LCO)
A scalable synthesis route for Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2, LCO)A scalable synthesis route for Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2, LCO)
A scalable synthesis route for Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2, LCO)
 
junker_2015nurfprojectsummary
junker_2015nurfprojectsummaryjunker_2015nurfprojectsummary
junker_2015nurfprojectsummary
 

Recently uploaded

HCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAU
HCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAUHCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAU
HCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAU
panagenda
 
How to use Firebase Data Connect For Flutter
How to use Firebase Data Connect For FlutterHow to use Firebase Data Connect For Flutter
How to use Firebase Data Connect For Flutter
Daiki Mogmet Ito
 
みなさんこんにちはこれ何文字まで入るの?40文字以下不可とか本当に意味わからないけどこれ限界文字数書いてないからマジでやばい文字数いけるんじゃないの?えこ...
みなさんこんにちはこれ何文字まで入るの?40文字以下不可とか本当に意味わからないけどこれ限界文字数書いてないからマジでやばい文字数いけるんじゃないの?えこ...みなさんこんにちはこれ何文字まで入るの?40文字以下不可とか本当に意味わからないけどこれ限界文字数書いてないからマジでやばい文字数いけるんじゃないの?えこ...
みなさんこんにちはこれ何文字まで入るの?40文字以下不可とか本当に意味わからないけどこれ限界文字数書いてないからマジでやばい文字数いけるんじゃないの?えこ...
名前 です男
 
Why You Should Replace Windows 11 with Nitrux Linux 3.5.0 for enhanced perfor...
Why You Should Replace Windows 11 with Nitrux Linux 3.5.0 for enhanced perfor...Why You Should Replace Windows 11 with Nitrux Linux 3.5.0 for enhanced perfor...
Why You Should Replace Windows 11 with Nitrux Linux 3.5.0 for enhanced perfor...
SOFTTECHHUB
 
Best 20 SEO Techniques To Improve Website Visibility In SERP
Best 20 SEO Techniques To Improve Website Visibility In SERPBest 20 SEO Techniques To Improve Website Visibility In SERP
Best 20 SEO Techniques To Improve Website Visibility In SERP
Pixlogix Infotech
 
GraphSummit Singapore | Graphing Success: Revolutionising Organisational Stru...
GraphSummit Singapore | Graphing Success: Revolutionising Organisational Stru...GraphSummit Singapore | Graphing Success: Revolutionising Organisational Stru...
GraphSummit Singapore | Graphing Success: Revolutionising Organisational Stru...
Neo4j
 
GraphRAG for Life Science to increase LLM accuracy
GraphRAG for Life Science to increase LLM accuracyGraphRAG for Life Science to increase LLM accuracy
GraphRAG for Life Science to increase LLM accuracy
Tomaz Bratanic
 
Video Streaming: Then, Now, and in the Future
Video Streaming: Then, Now, and in the FutureVideo Streaming: Then, Now, and in the Future
Video Streaming: Then, Now, and in the Future
Alpen-Adria-Universität
 
Pushing the limits of ePRTC: 100ns holdover for 100 days
Pushing the limits of ePRTC: 100ns holdover for 100 daysPushing the limits of ePRTC: 100ns holdover for 100 days
Pushing the limits of ePRTC: 100ns holdover for 100 days
Adtran
 
Microsoft - Power Platform_G.Aspiotis.pdf
Microsoft - Power Platform_G.Aspiotis.pdfMicrosoft - Power Platform_G.Aspiotis.pdf
Microsoft - Power Platform_G.Aspiotis.pdf
Uni Systems S.M.S.A.
 
Removing Uninteresting Bytes in Software Fuzzing
Removing Uninteresting Bytes in Software FuzzingRemoving Uninteresting Bytes in Software Fuzzing
Removing Uninteresting Bytes in Software Fuzzing
Aftab Hussain
 
20240609 QFM020 Irresponsible AI Reading List May 2024
20240609 QFM020 Irresponsible AI Reading List May 202420240609 QFM020 Irresponsible AI Reading List May 2024
20240609 QFM020 Irresponsible AI Reading List May 2024
Matthew Sinclair
 
GraphSummit Singapore | The Future of Agility: Supercharging Digital Transfor...
GraphSummit Singapore | The Future of Agility: Supercharging Digital Transfor...GraphSummit Singapore | The Future of Agility: Supercharging Digital Transfor...
GraphSummit Singapore | The Future of Agility: Supercharging Digital Transfor...
Neo4j
 
HCL Notes and Domino License Cost Reduction in the World of DLAU
HCL Notes and Domino License Cost Reduction in the World of DLAUHCL Notes and Domino License Cost Reduction in the World of DLAU
HCL Notes and Domino License Cost Reduction in the World of DLAU
panagenda
 
Climate Impact of Software Testing at Nordic Testing Days
Climate Impact of Software Testing at Nordic Testing DaysClimate Impact of Software Testing at Nordic Testing Days
Climate Impact of Software Testing at Nordic Testing Days
Kari Kakkonen
 
20240607 QFM018 Elixir Reading List May 2024
20240607 QFM018 Elixir Reading List May 202420240607 QFM018 Elixir Reading List May 2024
20240607 QFM018 Elixir Reading List May 2024
Matthew Sinclair
 
GraphSummit Singapore | The Art of the Possible with Graph - Q2 2024
GraphSummit Singapore | The Art of the  Possible with Graph - Q2 2024GraphSummit Singapore | The Art of the  Possible with Graph - Q2 2024
GraphSummit Singapore | The Art of the Possible with Graph - Q2 2024
Neo4j
 
Let's Integrate MuleSoft RPA, COMPOSER, APM with AWS IDP along with Slack
Let's Integrate MuleSoft RPA, COMPOSER, APM with AWS IDP along with SlackLet's Integrate MuleSoft RPA, COMPOSER, APM with AWS IDP along with Slack
Let's Integrate MuleSoft RPA, COMPOSER, APM with AWS IDP along with Slack
shyamraj55
 
Presentation of the OECD Artificial Intelligence Review of Germany
Presentation of the OECD Artificial Intelligence Review of GermanyPresentation of the OECD Artificial Intelligence Review of Germany
Presentation of the OECD Artificial Intelligence Review of Germany
innovationoecd
 
“I’m still / I’m still / Chaining from the Block”
“I’m still / I’m still / Chaining from the Block”“I’m still / I’m still / Chaining from the Block”
“I’m still / I’m still / Chaining from the Block”
Claudio Di Ciccio
 

Recently uploaded (20)

HCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAU
HCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAUHCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAU
HCL Notes und Domino Lizenzkostenreduzierung in der Welt von DLAU
 
How to use Firebase Data Connect For Flutter
How to use Firebase Data Connect For FlutterHow to use Firebase Data Connect For Flutter
How to use Firebase Data Connect For Flutter
 
みなさんこんにちはこれ何文字まで入るの?40文字以下不可とか本当に意味わからないけどこれ限界文字数書いてないからマジでやばい文字数いけるんじゃないの?えこ...
みなさんこんにちはこれ何文字まで入るの?40文字以下不可とか本当に意味わからないけどこれ限界文字数書いてないからマジでやばい文字数いけるんじゃないの?えこ...みなさんこんにちはこれ何文字まで入るの?40文字以下不可とか本当に意味わからないけどこれ限界文字数書いてないからマジでやばい文字数いけるんじゃないの?えこ...
みなさんこんにちはこれ何文字まで入るの?40文字以下不可とか本当に意味わからないけどこれ限界文字数書いてないからマジでやばい文字数いけるんじゃないの?えこ...
 
Why You Should Replace Windows 11 with Nitrux Linux 3.5.0 for enhanced perfor...
Why You Should Replace Windows 11 with Nitrux Linux 3.5.0 for enhanced perfor...Why You Should Replace Windows 11 with Nitrux Linux 3.5.0 for enhanced perfor...
Why You Should Replace Windows 11 with Nitrux Linux 3.5.0 for enhanced perfor...
 
Best 20 SEO Techniques To Improve Website Visibility In SERP
Best 20 SEO Techniques To Improve Website Visibility In SERPBest 20 SEO Techniques To Improve Website Visibility In SERP
Best 20 SEO Techniques To Improve Website Visibility In SERP
 
GraphSummit Singapore | Graphing Success: Revolutionising Organisational Stru...
GraphSummit Singapore | Graphing Success: Revolutionising Organisational Stru...GraphSummit Singapore | Graphing Success: Revolutionising Organisational Stru...
GraphSummit Singapore | Graphing Success: Revolutionising Organisational Stru...
 
GraphRAG for Life Science to increase LLM accuracy
GraphRAG for Life Science to increase LLM accuracyGraphRAG for Life Science to increase LLM accuracy
GraphRAG for Life Science to increase LLM accuracy
 
Video Streaming: Then, Now, and in the Future
Video Streaming: Then, Now, and in the FutureVideo Streaming: Then, Now, and in the Future
Video Streaming: Then, Now, and in the Future
 
Pushing the limits of ePRTC: 100ns holdover for 100 days
Pushing the limits of ePRTC: 100ns holdover for 100 daysPushing the limits of ePRTC: 100ns holdover for 100 days
Pushing the limits of ePRTC: 100ns holdover for 100 days
 
Microsoft - Power Platform_G.Aspiotis.pdf
Microsoft - Power Platform_G.Aspiotis.pdfMicrosoft - Power Platform_G.Aspiotis.pdf
Microsoft - Power Platform_G.Aspiotis.pdf
 
Removing Uninteresting Bytes in Software Fuzzing
Removing Uninteresting Bytes in Software FuzzingRemoving Uninteresting Bytes in Software Fuzzing
Removing Uninteresting Bytes in Software Fuzzing
 
20240609 QFM020 Irresponsible AI Reading List May 2024
20240609 QFM020 Irresponsible AI Reading List May 202420240609 QFM020 Irresponsible AI Reading List May 2024
20240609 QFM020 Irresponsible AI Reading List May 2024
 
GraphSummit Singapore | The Future of Agility: Supercharging Digital Transfor...
GraphSummit Singapore | The Future of Agility: Supercharging Digital Transfor...GraphSummit Singapore | The Future of Agility: Supercharging Digital Transfor...
GraphSummit Singapore | The Future of Agility: Supercharging Digital Transfor...
 
HCL Notes and Domino License Cost Reduction in the World of DLAU
HCL Notes and Domino License Cost Reduction in the World of DLAUHCL Notes and Domino License Cost Reduction in the World of DLAU
HCL Notes and Domino License Cost Reduction in the World of DLAU
 
Climate Impact of Software Testing at Nordic Testing Days
Climate Impact of Software Testing at Nordic Testing DaysClimate Impact of Software Testing at Nordic Testing Days
Climate Impact of Software Testing at Nordic Testing Days
 
20240607 QFM018 Elixir Reading List May 2024
20240607 QFM018 Elixir Reading List May 202420240607 QFM018 Elixir Reading List May 2024
20240607 QFM018 Elixir Reading List May 2024
 
GraphSummit Singapore | The Art of the Possible with Graph - Q2 2024
GraphSummit Singapore | The Art of the  Possible with Graph - Q2 2024GraphSummit Singapore | The Art of the  Possible with Graph - Q2 2024
GraphSummit Singapore | The Art of the Possible with Graph - Q2 2024
 
Let's Integrate MuleSoft RPA, COMPOSER, APM with AWS IDP along with Slack
Let's Integrate MuleSoft RPA, COMPOSER, APM with AWS IDP along with SlackLet's Integrate MuleSoft RPA, COMPOSER, APM with AWS IDP along with Slack
Let's Integrate MuleSoft RPA, COMPOSER, APM with AWS IDP along with Slack
 
Presentation of the OECD Artificial Intelligence Review of Germany
Presentation of the OECD Artificial Intelligence Review of GermanyPresentation of the OECD Artificial Intelligence Review of Germany
Presentation of the OECD Artificial Intelligence Review of Germany
 
“I’m still / I’m still / Chaining from the Block”
“I’m still / I’m still / Chaining from the Block”“I’m still / I’m still / Chaining from the Block”
“I’m still / I’m still / Chaining from the Block”
 

A pragmatic perspective on lithium ion batteries

  • 1. A Pragmatic Perspective on Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs) 從實用的觀點評估鋰電池研究近期的契機 Bing Hsieh November, 2015
  • 2. $100B energy storage industry • Key Players: Japan, China, Korea, and US Does Taiwan want to become a “key” player? •In 2014, global lithium battery anode materials output totaled around 70,000 tons, concentrated in China and Japan, which together constituted over 95% of global anode materials sales volume. •Global anode materials industry is highly concentrated, with major manufacturers including Hitachi Chemical, JFE Chemical, Mitsubishi Chemical, BTR, and Ningbo Shanshan, which held a combined market share of over 80% in 2014. - Hitachi & Ningbo Shanshan: artificial graphite - BTR & Mitsubishi : natural graphite - JFE Chemical & Ningbo Shanshan in MCMB (MesoCarbon MicroBeads)
  • 3. Startups in the Bay Area Founder University Focus Amprius Yi Cui Stanford Si Anode Imprint Energy James Evans UC Berkeley ZincPoly Seeo (acquired By Bosch 博世) Nitash Balsara UC Berkeley Polymer Electrolytes BlueCurrent Nitash Balsara UC Berkeley Oligomer Electrolytes Saktis3 Ann Marie Sastry U Michigan Solid State LIBs Cambrios Angela Belcher MIT Ag Nanowires Transparent conductor C3Nano Zhenan Bao Stanford CNT transparent Conductor Carbon3D Joe Desimone U N Carolina 3D printing (business product) Ubiquitous Energy Vladimir Bulović MIT Transparent Solar Cells Does it make sense for Taiwan to invest more in energy storage technologies? If yes, Why & How?
  • 4. Cost of LIBs DOE cost target of $150/kWh in ~2030 Nissan Leaf Battery Pack @ $270/kWh In 2014
  • 5. Li+ & e- flow in LIBs • Li+ & e- flow in the same direction. • During charging Li+/e- flow from v+ to v-. • During discharging from v- to v+ electrode. (Cu)(Al) • Al (d=2.7); Cu (d=9.0) • Al: light weight; but can alloy with Li • Surface Al2O3 gives impedance. (3M has carbon coated oxide-free Al ) • Energy density α Electrode thickness • High Battery Cost: $1000/kwh
  • 6. Micrographs of Electrode Particles LiCoO2 LiCoO2 LiCoO2 LiNiO2 LiNiO2 KS4 Graphite Si NP NonPorous particles!
  • 8. Thin or thick electrode? Seeo Inc SolidEnergy System US 2014/0170524 1-28. (canceled) 29. An electrochemical cell, comprising: an anode; a semi-solid cathode including a suspension of about 40% to about 75% by volume of an active material and about 1% to about 6% by volume of a conductive material in a non-aqueous liquid electrolyte; and an ion-permeable membrane disposed between the anode and the semi-solid cathode, wherein, the semi-solid cathode has a thickness in the range of about 250 μm to about 2,000 μm, and wherein the electrochemical cell has an area specific capacity of at least 7 mAh/cm2 at a C-rate of C/4.
  • 9.
  • 11. Key Areas & Issues in LIBs • High Voltage and High Capacity Cathodes – - No stable and no electrolytes could be used. - Electrode coating has potential. - 3M, Umicore, BASF, Argonne, Hydro Quebec - S (1670mAh/g); O2 (>3300 mAh/g, light oxygen) • High Capacity Anodes – -Li (3860 mAh/g) or Si (4200 mAh/g); - Li dendrite formation vs. Si pulverization. - Electrode coating has shown potential. - Li over Si, because Si anode may not work out. - Li: SolidEnergy, Seeo. Si: Amprius and various big companies • High Voltage Electrolytes - May not be practical, - additives work may bare fruits; but can only be used for final optimization • Polymer Electrolytes - Safer, could suppress dendrite formation and enable the use of Li metal; but need to operate at 50-90oC. - Could reduce the overall cost of LIBs and enable Li-S and Li-Air technologies. - May be used as separators, binders for electrodes, especially for Si anode – An value add.
  • 12. Three Types of Cathode Materials
  • 13. John Goodenough, Not enough for Goodenough, The man who brought us the lithium-ion battery at the age of 57 has an idea for a new one at 92 http://qz.com/338767/the-man-who-brought-us-the-lithium-ion-battery-at-57-has- an-idea-for-a-new-one-at-92/ “I want to solve the problem before I throw my chips in. I’m only 92. I still have time to go.” —John Goodenough Feb 2015
  • 14. Major Strategies to Improve LIB Materials B or N doped grapheneGraphene-PNNi compositenanoparticles
  • 15. List of Important Cathode Materials voltage specific capacity (mAh/g) energy density (wh/kg) Conductivi ty Density (g/cm3) [Tapped] Surface area (m2/g) Cost ($/kg) LiFePO4 (Fiscar) LFP O 3.4 100-160 (170) 578 E-8 0.23 LiFe1/2Mn1/2PO4 O 3.4-4.1 160 (170) LiMnPO4 O 4.1 171 701 E-10 LiCoPO4 O 4.8 167 802 LiNiPO4 O 5.1 167 852 LiCoO2 (toxic) (Tesla) LCO L 3.7 120-155 (274 ) 570 E-4 25 LiMnO2 L LiNiO2 (toxic) L 135-180 (274) 13 Li(Ni16/20Co3/20Al1/20)O2 NCA L 3.8 (3-4.2) 180-200 (??) 680-760 4.45 0.5 Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 Nissan & GM NMC111 BC618 L 4.2-4.6 130-150 (272) 597 4.8 [2.69] 0.26 Li(Ni1/2Mn3/10Co2/10)O2 1/5LiCoO2*4/5(LiMn3/8Ni2/8)O2 NMC532 ?? (164) 635 Li(Ni2/5Mn2/5Co1/5)O2 1/5LiCoO2*4/5(LiMn1/2Ni1/2)O2 NMC442 BC718 ?? (155) 4.7 [2.29] 0.39 Li(Ni3/5Mn1/5Co1/5)O2 1/5LiCoO2*2/5(LiMn1/2Ni1/2)O2 NMC622 Li(Ni4/5Mn1/10Co1/10)O2 1/10LiCoO2*4/5(LiMn1/2Ni1/2)O2 NMC811 Lithium Rich Layer Oxide Li(Li1/3Mn2/3)O2*Li(Mn3/8Ni3/8Co 1/4)O2 = Li(Li, Mn, Ni, Co)O2 HE-NMC (HE-NCM) L 4.65 (5.1) ??? (250) 986 LiMn2O4 LMO S 4.3 (3.5-4.3) 100-130 (148) 500 (585) E-4 4.29 0.5 0.5 LiMn3/2Ni1/2O4 (Nissan, GM) LMNO HV-spinel S 4.7 120 (148) 651 4.45 1.3
  • 16. Energy Diagrams of LIBs Vacuum level Li = 2.9 eV 7 eV Coatings on cathode particles & Li metals can be viewed as preformed SEI layers. Working on preformed SEI layers Is more practical than trying to develop Electrolytes with higher oxidation potentials.
  • 17. Coatings on Cathodes Particles - Preformed SEI Layers • Carbon coatings: Amorphous C, Graphene, C-PANI composites • Metal oxide coatings – Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2, MgO • Metal fluoride – AlF3, LaF3 • FePO4 and FePO4-PANI • Hybrid coatings of carbon – C+Li3PO4;
  • 18. Dendrite Formation in LIBs •“Good” SEI formation allows Li+ to diffuse in and out of the anode. •“Bad” SEI does not allow the flow of Li+ in and out of the anode due to both thickness issues as well as a different chemical makeup compared to good SEI. Dendritic growth of metallic Li shorts the battery after reaching the cathode.
  • 19. Dendrite Suppressing Methods • Electrolyte additives: Alkali salts (Cs+), high LiTFSI concentrations. • Coatings on Li metal: Carbon coating • Thermal conductor coatings on separator: BN • Ionic liquids as eletrolytes. • Polymer electrolytes: block polymers, crosslinked polymers. • Pulse charging • Others
  • 20. Dendrite Formation in Li ion/Li metal Batteries Yi Cui, Stanford
  • 21. Mechanism of Dendrite Formation in Li ion/Li metal Batteries This seemingly elegant method for suppressing The growth of Li dendrite was not patented.
  • 22. Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield (SHES) Mechanism •SEI layer will form once Li metal contact liquid electrolyte. •Li ions can diffuse through SEI layer and deposit on Li surface •SHES additives (such as Cs ions) will stay outside of SEI layer •Formation and stability of SEI layer are the main factors affecting the Coulombic efficiency of Li deposition/stripping processes.
  • 23. CsPF6 prevents dendrite formation Coulombic efficiency is still low.
  • 24. Block Copolymers as Solid Electrolytes Seeo Inc. PATTERNS APLENTY These TEM images show various morphologies of polystyrene- poly(ethylene oxide) copolymers, doped with salts, that can be used in advanced batteries. Understanding the factors that control polymer structure and ionic conductivity is key to exploiting these materials. PS = red, black; PEO = green, white; salt = blue. Credit: Nitash Balsara, UC Berkeley (Founder of Seeo Inc)
  • 25. Mechanism of Dendrite Formation in Li metal Batteries Synchrotron hard X-ray microtomography experiments on symmetric lithium–polymer–lithium cells cycled at 90 °C Credit: Nitash Balsara, UC Berkeley
  • 26. Block Copolymers as Solid Electrolytes (Seeo Inc) Mw = 100K or 200K 50% triblock No homopolymers •Anionic polymers can be easily isolated in high purity •ATRP polymers have ionic and homopolymer impurities and weak ester groups. •Nitroxide Mediated Polymerization (NMP) has become the method of choice. •Too expensive. s-BuLi EO (CH2CH2O)(CH2 CH) PEG OHHO Br O Br PEG OO O Br O Br CuCl2 Me6TREN (CH2CH2O)(CH2 CH) (CH2 CH) s-BuLi EO Br Br (CH2CH2O)(CH2 CH) (CH2 CH) <50% triblock
  • 27. Block/Comb Polysiloxanes as Electrolytes Polysiloxane chain has very low Tg of -123oC D3V (CH2 CH) (Si CH3 O) s-BuLi Si O SiH CH2CH2R 1-3 (CH2 CH) (Si CH3 O) Si O Si CH2CH2RPt cat Si O SiH H R Rh Si O SiH CH2CH2R •A powerful modular synthesis of functional block copolymers. •Achieved quantitative grafting for many pendant groups. •Wide range of oligoEO groups have been incorporated into R . •Highest conductivity achieved is 1x10-4 S/cm (n = 4 is sufficient), giving an operation temperature of ~50oC. •Amphiphilic polysiloxanes remain an attractive but barely explored solid electrolyte materials. •Too expansive. (Si CH3 H O) (Si CH3 O) R R (Si CH3 O) (Si CH3 O) Si O Si CH2CH2R R = -(CH2CH2O)n-CH3 n = 3-6
  • 28. Ionic Liquids as Conductivity Enhancing Additives N NR1 R1 R3+ CF3-SO2-N--SO2CF3 X- N+ X- B- O O O O -Commercial materials not stable and did not give much improvement on conductivity. -Chemistry is straight forward, but purification was more involved. -One of the ionic liquid gave 10X improvement of conductivity of a polysiloxane electrolyte to 7 x 10-4 S/cm (4EO) X- =
  • 29. Si Anodes • Yi Cui has a monopoly in this area. See https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Z7cEWrX9U4 • Pomegranate Si micron particles • Reduced Silica • New polymer biners • Others
  • 30. Si Anodes Yi Cui -Stanford
  • 31. Si Anodes Yi Cui -Stanford
  • 32. Si NP from Reduced Silica high reversible capacity of 3105 mAh g21. In particular, reversible Li storage capacities above 1500 mAh/g were maintained after 500 cycles at a high rate of C/2.
  • 33. Conjugated Polymers as Binders for Si Anode Gao Liu -LBNL peel strength Electrode swelling Cycling Performance Rate Performance
  • 34. Non-conjugated Polymers as Binders for Si Anode Gao Liu -LBNL After 500 cycles After only 40 cycles •Lower cost materials. •Work better than conjugated polymers PVDFPoly(pyrene)
  • 35. Key Issues & Interests in LIBs • High Voltage and High Capacity Cathodes – - No stable and no electrolytes could be used. - Electrode coating has potential. - 3M, Umicore, BASF, Argonne, Hydro Quebec - S (1670mAh/g); O2 (>3300 mAh/g, light oxygen) • High Capacity Anodes – -Li (3860 mAh/g) or Si (4200 mAh/g); - Li dendrite formation vs. Si pulverization. - Electrode coating has shown potential. - Li over Si, because Si anode may not work out. - Li: SolidEnergy, Seeo. Si: Amprius and various big companies • High Voltage Electrolytes - May not be practical, - additives work may bare fruits; but can only be used for final optimization • Polymer Electrolytes - Safer, could suppress dendrite formation and enable the use of Li metal; but need to operate at 50-90oC. - Could reduce the overall cost of LIBs and enable Li-S and Li-Air technologies. - May be used as separators, binders for electrodes, especially for Si anode – An value add.
  • 36. Summary Solid polymer batteries with thin lithium metal anode is one of the best paths forward