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2018 NKS - What Should You Know About Korea?

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2018 NKS - What Should You Know About Korea? - Lecture by Dr. Jennifer Jung-Kim, UCLA

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2018 NKS - What Should You Know About Korea?

  1. 1. What Should You Know about Korea? From Edward Shultz’s “Top Ten Things to Know about Korea in the 21st Century” Extended and updated by Mary Connor 2017 Revised by Jennifer Jung-Kim 2018 Copyright 2015, 2017, 2018
  2. 2. Recommended readings ▪ Kyung Moon Hwang, A History of Korea (2016) ▪ Mary Connor, Asia in Focus: The Koreas (2009) ▪ Bruce Fulton, Modern Korean Literature: An Anthology (2006) ▪ Yi Munyol, Our Twisted Hero (1987) ▪ Linda Sue Park, When My Name Was Keoko (2002) ▪ Barbara Demick: Nothing to Envy (2010) ▪ Hyeonseo Lee, The Girl with Seven Names (2016) ▪ www.NationalKoreanStudies.com ▪ CIA World Factbook (online) ▪ Asia for Educators (Columbia University) for DBQs ▪ Teaching East Asia: Korea (2017) for lessons, articles, and additional book recommendations
  3. 3. Korean history through films YMCA Baseball (YMCA yagudan, 2002) ◦ Korea ca. 1905, appropriate for all but youngest students The Admiral: Roaring Currents (Myeongnyang, 2014) ◦ Movie about Yi Sunsin and naval victories in the Imjin Wars (1592- 1598) Ode to My Father (Gukje sijang, 2016) ◦ Shows Korean history from 1950 to the present A Taxi Driver (Taeksi unjeonsa, 2017) ◦ About the 1980 Gwangju democratization movement
  4. 4. 4 1) Korea is not small
  5. 5. Geography of Korea • ▪ Northeast Asia • ▪ Peninsula surrounded by the East Sea (not Sea of Japan), South Sea, and West Sea • ▪ Four distinct seasons with monsoonal climate • ▪ 70% of the peninsula is mountainous
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. There are more than: 51 million in Koreans in South Korea (#27); over 25 million in North Korea (#51); with about 80 million ethnic Koreans around the world 7
  8. 8. Seoul is the 16th most populated city in the world, with more than 10 million residents The city of LA has almost 4 million residents (making it #65) The Seoul metro area is the 2nd largest in the world with about 25 million people 8
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. 2) Korea is not new
  12. 12. Koreans are proud of their long history
  13. 13. Chronology of key events • ▪ Founding of Old Joseon (Dangun legend): 2333 BCE • ▪ Three Kingdoms: Goguryeo (37 BCE–668 CE), • ▪ Baekje (18 BCE–660 CE), Silla (57 BCE–668 CE) • ▪ Three Dynasties: Unified Silla (668 CE–935 CE), • ▪ Goryeo (918–1392), and Joseon (1392–1910) • ▪ Japanese Occupation: 1910–1945 • ▪ US/USSR Occupation:1945–1947/48 • ▪ Korea War: 1950–1953 • ▪ Economic Development: 1965 on • ▪ Democratization: 1987 on
  14. 14. Royal palace in Seoul
  15. 15. Sungnyemun
  16. 16. Not all of Korean history was glorious
  17. 17. Japanese Colonial Period (1910–1945) ▪ Period of “Dark Rule (1910-1919) ▪ Period of “Cultural Policy” (1919-1937) ▪ Period of war mobilization (1937-1945) ▪ Koreans became Japanese imperial subjects ▪ Assimilation (adopted Japanese names, Japanese language, Japanese religion without equal status as Japanese) ▪ Forced war mobilization (labor, military, sexual slavery)
  18. 18. Forced Shinto worship
  19. 19. Korean language banned in public and in schools
  20. 20. • Military sexual slavery of 200,000 women from Korea, China, the Philippines, and elsewhere
  21. 21. 3) Korea is the home of many inventions
  22. 22. Cheomseongdae Observatory, 7th century Silla
  23. 23. Koreans are proud of their past achievements Moveable metal print (1234 Goryeo, earlier than 1454 Gutenberg Bible)
  24. 24. Ironclad vessels: “turtle boats” used in the Imjin Wars (1592-1598, Joseon)
  25. 25. 26 4) Koreans have a passion for nature
  26. 26. Koreans have a passion for nature • ▪ Korean art, literature, leisure reveal their deep passion for nature • ▪ The importance of harmony with nature is seen in homes, palaces, and temples • ▪ Koreans appreciate their natural surroundings and are very proud of the exquisite beauty of the peninsula • ▪ Koreans have a strong aesthetic sense and it is rooted in nature
  27. 27. Korea’s scenic beauty
  28. 28. Jeju Island
  29. 29. Gyeongbok Palace, Seoul
  30. 30. Cheonggyecheon in downtown Seoul
  31. 31. 35 5) You can still see Confucianism in action on the Korean peninsula
  32. 32. The importance of education in Confucianism is woven into the fabric of Korean society The school system stresses examination grades and rankings with little room for creative thinking There is also a strong emphasis on rearing formulaically well rounded children
  33. 33. Philosophy: Confucianism • ▪ Confucianism was introduced at about the same time as Buddhism • ▪ Confucianism is about ordering government and society • ▪ Confucianism became especially important in Joseon Korea from the 17th century
  34. 34. 38 How to bow properly
  35. 35. Teachers in South Korea Gender ratio of teachers: females make up: 98.3% of kindergarten teachers 73% of elementary school teachers 63.6% of middle school teachers 40.4% of high school teachers 17.2% of university professors 39
  36. 36. Teachers in South Korea The average public school teacher with 15 years of experience made 221% of GDP as of 2007. In the US for the same level and year, the figure was 96%. Teacher pay ranges from $30,401 to a maximum of $84,529 but there are more teachers than positions. 40
  37. 37. 6) Korea is not a copy of China Although China was a historical model for Korea, Korea adapted borrowed beliefs, customs, and institutions into one that is distinctly Korean
  38. 38. Religion: Buddhism • ▪ Introduced in the 4th century, Buddhism has had an important impact on government, society, and the arts • ▪ Koreans shared in the development of Buddhism throughout Asia
  39. 39. Goryeo Tripitaka, original woodblocks carved in 11th century, destroyed by Mongols and recarved in 13th century, set of 81,258 blocks
  40. 40. Seokguram • ▪ Construction began 751 CE during Unified Silla • ▪ Represents Silla’s advanced knowledge of architecture, math, physics, religion, and art
  41. 41. Bulguk Temple • ▪ Construction began in 751, this temple blends into the rocky landscape of a forested mountain
  42. 42. Celadon • ▪ Artistry of the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392) can best be appreciated by its celadon ware • ▪ Jade green color and elegant designs are refined and uniquely distinct from Chinese designs
  43. 43. Vernacular Korean writing system (Hangeul)
  44. 44. Koreans are proud of their writing system, Hangeul • ▪ Created at the behest of King Sejong, Korea’s most celebrate king, in 1446 to promote literacy through vernacular writing • ▪ Composed of consonants, vowels, and diphthongs • ▪ Shape of characters relates to the position of one’s mouth in making a particular sound • ▪ Only 14 consonants and 10 vowels today, but it can express all sounds of spoken Korean
  45. 45. Koreans are proud of their folk art traditions • ▪ In the 18th and 19th century, new art forms emerged focusing on folk arts by and about commoners. • ▪ The tiger and magpie painting exemplifies the folk art tradition.
  46. 46. 7) The Koreas are not hermit nations Historically, Korea has had close contacts with the outside world, especially China and Japan
  47. 47. Labor protests
  48. 48. Red Devils in Berlin, 2006 FIFA World Cup
  49. 49. Koreans in America • ▪ Koreans first came to America in 1903 • ▪ Arirang parts 1 & 2 (documentary on KA history) ▪ As of 2005, there are about 1.4 million Korean Americans
  50. 50. Jim Kim, MD (World Bank President) 57
  51. 51. Michelle Rhee 58
  52. 52. The Korean Wave • The Korean Wave (Hallyu) refers to the 21st century globalization of Korean popular culture and Soft Power. • The Korean Wave encompasses music, drama, films, gaming, mobile content, animation, comics, food, cosmetics, fashion, language, and more.
  53. 53. K-pop as the gateway to Korea
  54. 54. K-pop • ▪ K-pop is a worldwide phenomenon and crosses many genres from pop to hip-hop to indie • ▪ Although the 3 big management companies (JYP, SM, and YG) once controlled the wholeBig Hit) has broken through
  55. 55. BTS (“Fake Love,” Billboard Top 100)
  56. 56. How about North Korea?
  57. 57. North Korea has ties with dozens of countries including the European Union, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia as well as Russia and the People’s Republic of China
  58. 58. 8) [South] Korea is technologically advanced
  59. 59. 71 57+ million mobile phones in South Korea
  60. 60. Hyundai Shipbuilding (South Korea)
  61. 61. How about North Korea?
  62. 62. 9) The Korean peninsula cannot be ignored
  63. 63. Korea is geopolitically important It borders China and Russia to the north Japan is about 130 miles away Seoul is 35 miles from North Korea
  64. 64. South Korea is a world leader – economically, technologically, and culturally
  65. 65. With a GDP of about $1.929 trillion (2016 estimated purchasing power parity), the South Korean economy ranks 14th worldwide. Its 2016 GDP (in terms of purchasing power parity) was about $37,900. In 2016, its exports totaled $509 billion and imports totaled $405.1 billion. 82
  66. 66. How about North Korea?
  67. 67. DPRK (2016 est) ROK (2017 est) USA (2017 est) PRC (2017 est) Japan (2017 est) ROC (2017 est) Hong Kong (2017 est) GDP PPP $40 billion $2.027 trillion $19.36 trillion $23.12 trillion $5.405 trillion $1.175 trillion $453 billion GDP per capita Est. $1,700 $39,400 $59,50 $16,60 0 $42,700 $49,800 $61,00 0 GDP sectors service, industry, agricultur e 33.5%, 41%, 25.4% (2017 est) 71%, 24.1%, 4.9% (2016 est) 80.2%, 18.9%, 0.9% 52.2%, 39.5%, 8.2% 69.3%, 29.7%, 1% 62.1%, 36%, 1.8% 92.7%, 7.2%, 0.1% Exports $2.985 billion (2016 est) $552.3 billion $1.576 trillion $2.157 trillion $683.3 billion $344.6 billion $540 billion Imports $3.752 billion (2016 est) $448.4 billion $2.352 trillion $1.731 trillion $625.7 billion $272.6 billion $561.4 billion Source: CIA World Factbook
  68. 68. 10) Koreans want to be reunified [or at least have peace?] The two Koreas have been at war since 1950 There was some thawing during the period of Sunshine Policy (1997-2007)
  69. 69. 2000 Inter-Korea Summit and Kim Dae Jung, Nobel Peace Laureate
  70. 70. Second, North-South Summit, 2007 Roh Moo-hyun and Kim Jong Il
  71. 71. South Korean President Moon Jae-in and Kim Jong Un’s sister Kim Yo Jong, 2018
  72. 72. 100 *Korean women have not been quiet and submissive
  73. 73. Queen Seondeok (r. 632-647)
  74. 74. Sin Saimdang (16th c), mother of Yulgok Yi I
  75. 75. Historically, class was more important than gender Korean women usually lived with their own natal family after marriage Korean women could marry, divorce, and remarry at will Korean women had equal responsibility and inheritance with their brothers 105
  76. 76. Yu Gwansun (1904-1920)
  77. 77. Middle-aged housewives control how the family’s money is spent and invested, so they have considerable economic power This can also mean considerable social clout 108
  78. 78. Hahn Myeong-sook, Prime Minister 2006-2007
  79. 79. Park Geun-hye, president 2013-2017
  80. 80. Jasmine Lee, National Assembly member 2012- 2016 (naturalized Filipina)
  81. 81. 114 Stay tuned… history is being made!

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