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    1. 1. Similarities of Nuclear Weapons & Chemical Weapons
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Chemical warfare agents use poisons that kill, injure, or incapacitate. CW agents can be gases or liquids or, more commonly, dispersed as aerosols. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear weapons derive their destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission . As a result, even a nuclear weapon with a small yield is significantly more powerful than the largest conventional explosive , and a single weapon is capable of destroying an entire city . </li></ul>
    3. 3. Chemical weapons status 2005
    4. 4. Nuclear weapons status 2006
    5. 5. Classes of CW agents <ul><li>Lethal </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve agents </li></ul><ul><li>Blood agents </li></ul><ul><li>Blister agents </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary agents </li></ul><ul><li>Non lethal </li></ul><ul><li>Incapacitating agents </li></ul><ul><li>Riot control agents </li></ul>
    6. 6. Classes of NWs <ul><li>The atom bomb; energy is released by fission of large atomic nuclei. </li></ul><ul><li>The hydrogen bomb; energy is released by fusion of small atomic nuclei. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Introduction Nuclear weapons
    8. 8. The 3 schedule of controlled substances <ul><li>Schedule 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule 3 </li></ul>
    9. 9. Fission reactions <ul><li>Releases energy as: </li></ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul><ul><li>Blast </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Uranium-235 </li></ul><ul><li>Plutonium-239 </li></ul>
    10. 10. Effects of Nuclear Explosions Low Yield (<100 kt) High Yield (>1 Mt) Thermal Radiation 35% 45% Blast Wave 60% 50% Ionizing Radiatio 5% 5% (80% gamma, 20% neutrons)
    11. 11. Overview of Immediate Effects NW <ul><li>The three categories of immediate effects are : blast, thermal radiation ( heat ) , and prompt ionizing or nuclear radiation . Their relative importance varies with the yield of the bomb . At low yields, all three can be significant sources of injury . With an explosive yield of about 2.5 kt, the three effects are roughly equal . All are capable of inflicting fatal injuries at a range of 1 km . </li></ul>
    12. 13. Overview of Delayed Effects NW <ul><li>Radioactive Contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Effects on the Atmosphere and Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Harm to the Ozone Layer </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Winter </li></ul>
    13. 14. The nuclear chain health effects <ul><li>Mining </li></ul><ul><li>Processing and Enrichment </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear power </li></ul><ul><li>Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Health effects on workers </li></ul><ul><li>Health effects on neighbours </li></ul><ul><li>Community health effects </li></ul>
    14. 15. The Heat <ul><li>• Direct effect: </li></ul><ul><li>Flashburns on </li></ul><ul><li>exposed skin </li></ul><ul><li>from erythema to </li></ul><ul><li>total nihilation </li></ul><ul><li>Keloide scars </li></ul><ul><li>• Indirect effect: </li></ul><ul><li>Massfires causing </li></ul><ul><li>” ordinary” burns </li></ul>
    15. 16. Blastwave <ul><li>• Direct impact: </li></ul><ul><li>Fractures, crushing of internal </li></ul><ul><li>organs, skinwounds, damage to the </li></ul><ul><li>inner ear </li></ul><ul><li>• Indirect: </li></ul><ul><li>Flying debris (glass) and buildings </li></ul><ul><li>collapsing </li></ul>
    16. 17. Radiation <ul><li>• Damages DNA directly: chain braking, base deletion indirectly; free radicals an genomic instability </li></ul><ul><li>• Activation of protooncogens and inactivation of cellrepair system-> abnorm cellgrowth (cancer) or celldeath </li></ul>
    17. 18. Initial effects of Radiation <ul><li>Tissues with high cell turnover are most affected Radiation Sickness: </li></ul><ul><li>2-6 Gy : Blood producing organs </li></ul><ul><li>Anemia, bleeding and prone to infections </li></ul><ul><li>6-20 Gy : The gastrointestinal system </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea, diarrhoea and dehydration </li></ul><ul><li>20 Gy : The central nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>ataxia, seizures, coma and death </li></ul>
    18. 19. Effects of Radiation • Epilation Loss of hair • Purpura Skin bleeding • Ulceration in oral cavity and throat
    19. 20. Radioactive fallout <ul><li>Long-term effects of radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation is transferred to other materials </li></ul><ul><li>Strontium-90: Resembles Ca2+ deposited in bone and teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Cesium-137: Resembles K+, deposited in cells and tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Iodine-131 deposited in thyroidea </li></ul>
    20. 21. Long term effects <ul><li>Increased likelihood of cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Birth defects including long limbs, brain damage, conjoint stillborn twins, </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic damage </li></ul><ul><li>PTSD and depression </li></ul>
    21. 22. Damages in pregnancy NW <ul><li>Increase of: </li></ul><ul><li>Neonatal death </li></ul><ul><li>Accidental abortions </li></ul><ul><li>Microcephali </li></ul><ul><li>Mental retardation </li></ul><ul><li>Cataract of the eye </li></ul><ul><li>The fetus is most vulnerable </li></ul><ul><li>in the 8th to 15th week </li></ul>
    22. 23. Cancer NW <ul><li>• Increased risk of almost all types of cancer </li></ul><ul><li>• Especially cancers of the thyroid,breast, lung, stomach and large bowel </li></ul><ul><li>• Age at exponation very important for increase in risk </li></ul>
    23. 24. Plants <ul><li>Lack of chlorophyl </li></ul><ul><li>Deformed leaf pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Thick, flat, hollow stems </li></ul><ul><li>Missing reproductive parts </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormally </li></ul><ul><li>large </li></ul>
    24. 25. Animals <ul><li>Many insects disapeared </li></ul><ul><li>for years </li></ul>
    25. 26. Risk of terrorism (new challenge to industry)
    26. 27. Transportation risks <ul><li>Uranium oxide spills </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel rod spills </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactive waste risks </li></ul>
    27. 28. Triage in the area <ul><li>Amount of wounded and casualties </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation zone </li></ul><ul><li>Resources: equipment, medicines, personal </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Water Supplies </li></ul>
    28. 29. Introduction Chemical weapons
    29. 30. Means of delivery <ul><li>The CWs can be used through different means of delivery: </li></ul><ul><li>Bomb </li></ul><ul><li>Rocket </li></ul><ul><li>Missile </li></ul><ul><li>Artillery </li></ul><ul><li>Mortar and mine </li></ul>
    30. 31. Roots of entry for CW agents <ul><li>Inhalation through lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Ingestion by mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Injection through punctured wound </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption on skin </li></ul>
    31. 32. The effects of CW <ul><li>Most nerve agents have fatal consequences (due to severe poisoning) and cause short term damage to the environment and human body, but there is no evidence of long term consequences (but may cause neurotoxicity). </li></ul>
    32. 33. The effects of CW <ul><li>Due to the effect that Mustard gas has on DNA, long-term health problems appear in: </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory organs </li></ul><ul><li>Eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul><ul><li>(immune system disorders, psychological disorders, genetic disorders, cancers and psychological effects ) </li></ul>
    33. 34. Clinical effects of exposure to nerve agents <ul><li>It occurs in 3 stages </li></ul><ul><li>Acute cholinergic phase </li></ul><ul><li>The intermediate syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed poluneuropathy </li></ul><ul><li>( other effects: genotoxic and carcinogenic, mutagenicity, teratogeniciyy, pregnancy, immune system, metabolic function, cardiac events) </li></ul>
    34. 35. Clinical effects of exposure to mustard gas <ul><li>20-60 min post exposure: </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea, retching, vomiting, smarting of the eyes </li></ul><ul><li>2-6h: </li></ul><ul><li>nausea, fatigue, headache, inflammation of the eye </li></ul><ul><li>6-48h: </li></ul><ul><li>erythema of the skin, itching </li></ul>
    35. 36. Clinical effects of exposure to mustard gas <ul><li>Psychological </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Local effects </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent blindness </li></ul><ul><li>Visual impairment </li></ul><ul><li>Scarring of the skin </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity to MG </li></ul><ul><li>Carcinogenic effects </li></ul>
    36. 37. Psychological impact of CWs <ul><li>Many survivors are suffering from significant psychological disorders including PTSD. Contributing factors to this effect may be related to the horrendous deaths experienced by victims heavily exposed to CWs. </li></ul>
    37. 38. CWs and environment <ul><li>Mustard in munitions often had toxic additives to: </li></ul><ul><li>Raise the viscosity </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the freezing point </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>And the toxic wastes last for many years!! </li></ul>
    38. 39. CWs and environment <ul><li>Nerve agents </li></ul><ul><li>Mustard gas </li></ul>