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  1. 1. The “Iron Curtain” <ul><li>1945, Stalin disallows free and open elections in Poland and left a pro-Soviet, communist government in charge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Countries dependant upon and dominated by the Soviet Union </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly in Eastern Europe </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1946, Winston Churchill, “Iron Curtain” speech </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>p. 609 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. The Cold War Begins <ul><li>Truman Doctrine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Containment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Devised by George F. Kennan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effort to block the Soviets’ attempts to spread their influence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contain communism and disallow its spread to new territories </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1947 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asked for $400 million dollars in economic and military aid for Greece and Turkey to stop Communist takeovers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Marshall Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Europe in economic chaos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>June 1947, Secretary of State George C. Marshall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. program for reconstruction of post-WWII Europe through massive aid to former enemy and allied nations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nations that accepted aid had to remove trade barriers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt to avoid depression (WWI) and communist takeovers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1952, Western Europe was recovering ($17 billion) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chart p. 610 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cold War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State of hostility short of direct military confrontation that developed between the U.S. and Soviet Union between 1945-1989 </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Reunification Attempts in Germany <ul><li>1948 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S., U.K., and France decided to unify three western zones (including western zones of Berlin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soviets cut off western Berlin from West Germany </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Berlin Airlift </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May, 1949 blockade lifted </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>April 4, 1949 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defensive military alliance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ten Western European nations and U.S. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belgium, Denmark, France, U.K., Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Buildup to Korean War <ul><li>National Security Act, 1947 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Defense </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent peacetime draft, 1948 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National Security Council </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NSC-68, 1949 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed Soviet’s plans for worldwide domination and encouraged buildup of nation’s military </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>China fell to communism, 1949 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mao Tse-Tung and Joseph Stalin sign a pact linking the two nations into one communist bloc, 1950 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Korea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had been Japanese colony until end of WWII (1945) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese troops north of the 38 th parallel surrendered to Soviets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese troops south of the 38 th parallel surrendered to Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two governments established (1948, Soviets & Americans left) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. The Korean War– “The Forgotten War” <ul><li>June 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplied by Soviets and Chinese </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Truman sought United Nations Security Council help </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security Council & U.S. Congress authorized “police action” of military force to liberate South Korea (war not officially declared) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General Douglas MacArthur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commanded U.S., U.N., and South Korean troops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counterattack pushed North Koreans past 38 th parallel, September 1950 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese push MacArthur back across 38 th parallel, November 1950 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MacArthur wanted reinforcements and to extend the war into China </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MacArthur vs. Truman </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MacArthur removed, April 1951 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>July 1953, armistice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demilitarized Zone established </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Eisenhower <ul><li>Dwight D. Eisenhower, president 1953-1961 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed Earl Warren (former governor of CA) as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, 1953 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Warren Court turned out to be one of the most liberal in history </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brown v. Board of Education (1954) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thurgood Marshall (NAACP lawyer, first AA on Supreme Court) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>14 th Amendment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Separate facilities were inherently unequal” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rosa Parks, 1955 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bus boycott, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., 1956 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Little Rock 9, 1957 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>John Foster Dulles (SOS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brinkmanship  U.S. would force aggressor nations to the brink of nuclear war and thus force them to back down in wake of U.S. superiority </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ massive retaliation,” arms race, & MAD </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle East </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. support for Israel </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eisenhower Doctrine  U.S. would defend Middle East against any attack by a communist country </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postwar Economic Boom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer spending more than the 1920’s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle class, suburbs, and Interstate Highway Act </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baby Boom </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 9. JFK <ul><li>John F. Kennedy, president 1961-1963 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All four presidential debates televised (first time) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuba </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fidel Castro, 1959 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bay of Pigs, April 1961 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CIA operatives and Cuban exiles captured immediately </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev, Berlin Wall 1961 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cuban Missile Crisis, October 1962 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Castro and Khrushchev formed alliance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. spy plane found Soviet medium and long-range nuclear missiles in Cuba </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Naval blockade of Cuba </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ We are eyeball to eyeball and the other fellow just blinked” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Khrushchev offered to remove missiles in exchange for U.S. promise never to invade Cuba and U.S. removal of missiles from Turkey </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Frontier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic policy promising equality, employment, and aid to the poor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Race to the Moon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feb. 20, 1962 John Glenn orbited the earth three times </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>July 20, 1969 Neil Armstrong became first person to set foot on moon </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assassination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>November 22, 1963 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dallas, Texas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lee Harvey Oswald </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Killed by Jack Ruby </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Warren Commission  Oswald acted on his own </li></ul></ul></ul>