Korean War


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Korean War

  2. 2. Background to The Korean War
  3. 3. 1910 - 1945 <ul><li>Korea used to have some of Asia's most prominent communist groups and activists </li></ul><ul><li>These organizations worked underground to reestablish Korea's independence during Japan's occupation of the Korean Peninsula (1910-1945)   </li></ul>
  4. 4. Occupation <ul><li>In 1945 Korea was occupied by Soviet forces in the north and American forces in the south. </li></ul><ul><li>The line that was chosen to separate the two was the same one that Japan and Russia used in the early part of the 20th century. </li></ul><ul><li>It was called the 38th parallel . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Kim II Sung <ul><li>33-year-old, soviet army captain, Kim II Sung became known to be a heroic guerrilla commander. </li></ul><ul><li>In early 1946, Soviet occupying forces chose him to head the provisional government for North Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>3 weeks after the Southern Republic of Korea was made, Kim Il Sung was named premier of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea on September 9th 1948. </li></ul>
  6. 6. North Korea under Kim Il Sung <ul><li>Kim didn't want a Soviet satellite state and instead embraced Korean nationalism. The focus of which was the Korean People’s Army. Under Kim's rule: </li></ul><ul><li>Over 2 million acres of land were redistributed in under a month </li></ul><ul><li>Women were guaranteed equality under the law </li></ul><ul><li>Political action cells were formed to educate the population </li></ul><ul><li>In June of 1949 both the Soviets and Americans left the peninsula, this is when Kim's plan to unite Korea  became evident. </li></ul>
  7. 7. On the Brink of War <ul><li>South Korea obviously appeared to be faltering, but President Syngman Rhee (South Korea) unleashed a brutal campaign against suspected communists and leftists. </li></ul><ul><li>At first Kim wanted to use force, however he needed support and so he turned to Stalin for help. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin supported his invasion plan, and advised him to get support from China’s new communist leader, Mao Zedong. He did and was now on the brink of war. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Stage One: The North Attacks <ul><li>On 25 June 1950 North Korean troops invaded South Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>They cross the 38 th parallel and surround the capital Seoul. </li></ul><ul><li>The South Korean Army retreated to Pusan. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Why get involved in Korea? <ul><ul><li>By supporting North Korea we have an opportunity to confront the west and expand communism without endangering Soviet troops! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After Berlin we need a win! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By supporting South Korea we can prevent the spread of communism through Asia. South Korea will not the next Domino to fall! </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. This map is from an American magazine from 1950. This shows how much the US feared communism in the far east.
  11. 11. United Nations <ul><li>The United Nations now had to formulate a plan. Sixteen member states would provide troops under a United Nations Joint Command. It would fight with the South Korean army. </li></ul><ul><li>This United Nations force was dominated by America even to the extent of being commanded by an American general – Douglas MacArthur </li></ul>
  12. 12. Stage Two: The U.N. forces attack <ul><li>In September 1950 300,000 U.N. troops landed at Inchon. </li></ul><ul><li>260,000 of them were American. </li></ul><ul><li>They effectively cut Korea in two. </li></ul><ul><li>The North Koreans retreated north of the 38 th Parallel rather than be completely cut off. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 125,000 North Korean prisoners were taken. </li></ul><ul><li>General MacArthur boasted the U.S. troops would be “Home by Christmas” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Why did China enter the war? <ul><li>The U.N. forces crossed the 38 th parallel and invaded North Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>General MacArthur planned to ‘liberate’ North Korea from communism. </li></ul><ul><li>He took the troops to the Yalu River. This was on the Chinese border. </li></ul><ul><li>Mao had already stated that he would not tolerate American imperialist troops on its borders. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Stage Three: Chinese victories <ul><li>On the 25 th of November 200,000 Chinese soldiers attacked the U.N. troops. </li></ul><ul><li>They had modern Soviet weapons and a fanatical hatred of America. </li></ul><ul><li>On 31 December another 600,000 Chinese soldiers joined the conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>They inflicted heavy casualties and drove the U.N. troops south of the 38 th Parallel. </li></ul>
  15. 15. MacArthur’s advice: September 1950 <ul><li>Make the ultimate aim of the war the defeat of Communist China. </li></ul><ul><li>Attack the Chinese mainland to cut off supplies to the communists in North Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider using atomic bombs against China. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Stage Four: Back to the beginning! <ul><li>The Americans landed more troops and pushed the North Koreans back across the border. </li></ul><ul><li>President Truman abandoned any plans of invading North Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>He ordered troops to stop advancing and considered making peace with China. </li></ul><ul><li>MacArthur criticised this decision in a press conference. </li></ul><ul><li>Truman fired him. </li></ul>
  17. 17. A slow, agonising march to peace. <ul><li>By April 1951 the two sides had reached a stalemate. </li></ul><ul><li>200,000 Chinese soldiers died in an unsuccessful push south during April and May. </li></ul><ul><li>Peace talks began in July 1951 but no cease –fire was agreed to. </li></ul><ul><li>Between the beginning of peace talks and November 1952 over 45,000 U.S. troops were killed or wounded. </li></ul>
  18. 18. President Eisenhower <ul><li>General Eisenhower had been in command of the D-Day invasion. </li></ul><ul><li>As a Presidential candidate he promised to bring an end to the Korean War. </li></ul><ul><li>He took power in January, 1953. A formal cease-fire was signed in July. </li></ul><ul><li>10 Million people had died in the Korean War – as many as World War One </li></ul>
  19. 19. Armistice – Not a Peace Treaty <ul><li>There was an armistice signed by North Korea, China, and the UN but not by South Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>The armistice was NOT a peace treaty, just a temporary cessation of hostilities. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Korea is still split up into North Korea (communist) and South Korea (non-communist) </li></ul><ul><li>The border between the two countries has remained one of the most heavily-armed stretches of land on Earth </li></ul>