Korean War


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Brief introduction to the Korean War. Information on events leading up to the war, the war itself, and the armistice.

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Korean War

  1. 1. Set <ul><li>What are the most dangerous locations in the world today? </li></ul>
  2. 2. Set <ul><li>This is the world’s most dangerous golf course. Where do you think it’s located? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think DMZ stands for? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the DMZ? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you know about the DMZ? </li></ul>http://farm1.static.flickr.com/26/55592567_e236f1b66b.jpg?v=0
  3. 3. The Korean War 1950-1953 <ul><li>Lisa Pennington </li></ul><ul><li>Social Studies Instructional Specialist </li></ul><ul><li>Portsmouth Public Schools </li></ul><ul><li>KSW 2008 </li></ul>
  4. 4. August 1945 (Events leading to the Korean War) <ul><li>What happened in August of 1945? </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. dropped the atomic bombs on Japan, resulting in their surrender. </li></ul><ul><li>After Japan surrendered, Soviet troops began moving into Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. was appalled and did not want Korea to become a Soviet satellite state. </li></ul>http://whyfiles.org/020radiation/images/mushroom.jpg
  5. 5. August 1945 (Events leading to the Korean War) <ul><li>How did the U.S. prevent all of Korea from becoming a Soviet satellite state? (Think back to the set.) </li></ul><ul><li>The 38 th parallel was chosen to divide Korea. The Soviet Union controlled North Korea, while the U.S. controlled South Korea. </li></ul>http://www.sdpb.org/learning/Resources/etvprograms/pdf/2othExtras/MAPS/KOREA38THPARALLEL.JPG
  6. 6. Events leading up to the Korean War <ul><li>Kim Il-Sung became the leader of North Korea, which was recognized by the Soviet Union, but not by the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>After elections in 1948, Syngman Rhee became the president of South Korea, which was recognized by the U.S. </li></ul>http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/asia/koreanpn.gif
  7. 7. A Surprise Attack <ul><li>On June 25, 1950, North Korean troops crossed the 38 th parallel in a surprise attack on Seoul. They hoped to take the capital quickly. South Korea was ill prepared for the attack, and the move stunned the United States, who had no immediate plan of action. </li></ul>http://imgs.sfgate.com/c/pictures/2002/06/09/csp_korea-soldier.jpg
  8. 8. The U.S. Gets Involved <ul><li>The U.S. decided to evacuate all American civilians from Korea, and to provide military supplies to the South Korean army. </li></ul><ul><li>The South Korean army was pushed to a city called Pusan, on the southern tip of Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on reports from General MacArthur, two days after the attack the U.S. committed to providing naval and air support. </li></ul>http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/willow/korean-war1.gif Pusan
  9. 9. The U.S. Gets Involved <ul><li>By June 30 th , President Truman allowed General MacArthur to move two divisions (which consist of 10,000 to 15,000 soldiers) into South Korea. MacArthur argued that he needed ground troops because bad weather made strategic bombing difficult, and only highly trained U.S. troops could run the heavy U.S. artillery. </li></ul>http://americanhistory.si.edu/militaryhistory/img/graphics/1143_l.jpg It was during the Korean War that US troops served in the first integrated units.
  10. 10. The Incheon Invasion <ul><li>MacArthur devised a plan to capture Incheon (near Seoul) and cut off North Korea’s supply route. This plan was carried out in September of 1950. By September 27 th , the North Korean army was pushed out of Seoul and Syngman Rhee was restored to power. </li></ul>http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/h96000/h96877.jpg
  11. 11. The Incheon Invasion <ul><li>MacArthur didn’t stop there. He continued across the 38 th parallel, and by mid October captured Pyongyang, the capital of North Korea. </li></ul>http://www.warchat.org/pictures/korean_war_map.jpg
  12. 12. China Gets Involved <ul><li>China saw the movement of U.S. troops into North Korea as a threat. </li></ul><ul><li>When MacArthur sent forces into the northernmost parts of North Korea, they were surprised by attacks from Chinese soldiers. The U.S. and South Korean forces began to retreat. </li></ul>
  13. 13. China Gets Involved <ul><li>China forced the U.S. and South Korean troops back across the 38 th parallel, and then went on to capture Seoul. </li></ul><ul><li>Also around this time, the commander of ground troops in South Korea was killed in a car accident. Lt. Gen. Matthew Ridgway assumed command of the troops. </li></ul>http://www.warchat.org/pictures/korean_war_matthew_ridgway.jpg Lt. Gen. Matthew Ridgway
  14. 14. China Gets Involved <ul><li>Ridgway did a lot to raise morale of the troops and improve their situation. By March of 1951, Ridgway managed to re-gain control of Seoul. </li></ul><ul><li>Ridgway’s successes of course made MacArthur upset, as he viewed himself the expert on the situation. </li></ul>
  15. 15. MacArthur’s Dismissal <ul><li>China began to make offers for peace, which were not accepted by the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>MacArthur, acting alone, demanded that China withdraw it’s troops, or else he would invade. This was done without permission from Washington. </li></ul>
  16. 16. MacArthur’s Dismissal <ul><li>MacArthur continued to try to antagonize the Chinese, against the wishes of the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>The Joint Chiefs of Staff were afraid MacArthur would create a much larger conflict (possibly WWIII) and they decided to dismiss him. He was fired on April 11, 1951. The public did not agree with Truman, and MacArthur was welcomed home as a hero. </li></ul>http://www.trumanlibrary.org/korea/111-SC-348438.jpg General MacArthur (center) observes the Incheon invasion.
  17. 17. Negotiations and Wars End <ul><li>In April of 1951, the Chinese forces once again made a push to re-capture Seoul. They were unsuccessful. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. and South Korean forces moved across the 38 th parallel, but only slightly. They were not to pursue the communist forces. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Negotiations and Wars End <ul><li>The result was a stalemate. The U.S. would not push further into North Korea, and the communist forces could not defeat the U.S./South Korean line. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Negotiations and Wars End <ul><li>On July 8 th , peace talks began at Kaesong, a site on the 38 th parallel between the two countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting would continue during negotiations. 45% of all casualties during the Korean War took place during the peace talks. </li></ul>http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6c/Crossing_the_38th_parallel.jpg
  20. 20. Negotiations and Wars End <ul><li>Talks at Kaesong had no results, and negotiations stopped for awhile. </li></ul><ul><li>When negotiations began again in October of 1951, they moved to a new area, Panmunjom. </li></ul>Panmunjom Line dividing North & South
  21. 21. Negotiations and Wars End <ul><li>A few prisoners were exchanged in March of 1953, but negotiations still moved slowly. </li></ul><ul><li>Progress was made in June of 1953 when the two sides came to an agreement over the exchange of POW’s. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Negotiations and Wars End <ul><li>In July of 1953, the UN, China, and North Korea signed an armistice. </li></ul><ul><li>The armistice created a 2.5 mile buffer zone between North and South Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>This demilitarized zone, or DMZ, is one of the most heavily armed places in the world. </li></ul>http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/willow/korean-war4.gif DMZ
  23. 23. Negotiations and Wars End <ul><li>South Korea did not sign the armistice. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Aftermath <ul><li>The armistice left Korea divided, and the war left 4 million dead. </li></ul><ul><li>Over the past few decades, the two countries have developed very differently. </li></ul><ul><li>South Korea has flourished economically, and has a GDP that is 4 times higher than North Korea. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Aftermath <ul><li>In North Korea, Kim Il-Sung ruled until his death in 1994, when his son, Kim Jung-Il took control. </li></ul><ul><li>There is much speculation surrounding the North, as they are a very secretive country. </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. and other nations worry about North Korea’s ability to produce nuclear weapons. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Discussion Questions <ul><li>What do you think about the armistice? Do you think it was a successful plan? Why or why not? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think North and South Korea will every unify? Why or why not? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you heard anything about North or South Korea in the news lately? </li></ul>