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Forms of Communication

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A detailed explanation of:
verbal communication, its elements and functions
non-verbal communication, its elements and functions.

Published in: Education
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Forms of Communication

  1. 1. VVeerrbbaall && NNoonn--VVeerrbbaall PPrreesseenntteerr:: MMrrss.. SScchhaaaaffffee--MMccFFaarrllaannee
  2. 2. Verbal Communication  Section 1
  3. 3. Verbal Communication   This involves the use of speech and writing to communicate. (Lord Et. Al., 2012)  Verbal communication refers to the use of sounds and language to relay a message. It serves as a vehicle for expressing desires, ideas and concepts and is vital to the processes of learning and teaching. http://www.livestrong.com/article/150573
  4. 4. Verbal Communication  Oral/Spoken • Oral communication consists of all spoken exchanges. In oral communication, verbal feedback typically follows the initial message whether in the form of a question or comment. • Casual conversations among friends as well as political debates fall into this category.
  5. 5. Verbal Communication  Written  Another form of verbal communication which requires no speech. Written communication, while technically nonverbal, commonly falls under the umbrella of verbal communication for the use of words (language) to convey ideas.  Books, letters, email, texts, memos, magazines, newspapers and personal journals are all examples of verbal communication.
  6. 6. Verbal Communication  Formal • Meeting strangers • Within a business or legal setting. • Official corporate communications such as • meetings • speeches • conferences • letters and • Memorandums
  7. 7. Verbal Communication  IInnffoorrmmaall  Casual spoken and written exchanges.  Informal conversations between  friends,  co-workers and even strangers.  It requires a common bond; therefore, it takes place most frequently between close friends and family members.
  8. 8. Characteristics of Verbal Communication   Language is symbolic – By themselves, language elements usually have no meaning: the symbols are arbitrary(randomly selected).  Meanings are in people not in words.  Language is governed by rules  Phonological rules –govern how sounds are combined to form words  Semantic rules – define the meaning of specific words  Syntactic rules – govern the structure of the language, the way symbols can be arranged  Pragmatic rules – govern the appropriateness of words in given contexts
  9. 9. Functions of Verbal Communication  Verbal communication satisfies basic functions such as:  describing ideas  Making requests  solving problems
  10. 10. Functions of Verbal Communication  Verbal Communication shapes attitudes: attitudes towards others and ourselves. It is manifested through naming It influences our credibility It influences our status It informs issues of racism and sexism
  11. 11. Functions of Verbal Communication  Verbal Communication reflects our attitudes: Power (feelings of control) Affiliation (establishing relationships) Attraction Responsibility
  12. 12. Types of Verbal Communication  Verbal includes both spoken and written communication: Equivocal language – language that allows for the possibility of several different meanings. Relative terms – words that do not have one exact/specific definition. They gain meaning by comparison and can change depending on context. Slang – non standard words and phrases in a given language.
  13. 13. Types of Verbal Communication   Jargon – language used by personnel in a particular field.  Argot – secret language used by various groups e.g. Schoolmates, prisoners  Overly abstract language – Abstract language is used to discuss ideas. Overly abstract language leaves too much room for interpretation and hides details from others.
  14. 14. Types of Verbal Communication   Emotive language – the deliberate choice of words to elicit emotion in others. e.g. The men were killed. The innocent man was executed in cold blood in front of his two year old son.  Evasive language – language that is used to avoid a situation.
  15. 15. Non-verbal Communication  Section 2
  16. 16. Non-verbal Communication   Non-verbal communication refers to a wide array of behaviours by which we communicate messages without the use of the voice (McDermott, 2008).  Non-verbal communication is when information is transferred from sender to receiver without the use of words (Lord Et. Al., 2012).
  17. 17. Non-verbal Communication   According to McDermott, 2008 such behaviours are also termed communicative behaviours since they consistently and inevitably convey meaning.  It can be conscious and deliberate or unconscious and accidental.
  18. 18. The Characteristics of Non-verbal Communication   It exists  It has communicative value  It is primarily relational  It is ambiguous  It is culture –bound
  19. 19. Non - Verbal Communication   The most obvious non-verbal behaviours are seen in our:  Vocalics/paralanguage  Proxemics  Chronemics  Artefacts  Movement  Use of our five senses
  20. 20. Vocalics/ paralanguage
  21. 21. Non-verbal Communication  Vocalics/ Paralanguage  Refers to the use of:  volume  tone  pitch  rate of speaking to give additional meaning or emphasis to what is spoken.
  22. 22. Non-verbal Communication   Activity  Say “come here” using a variety of tone, volume and pitch to highlight different meanings.
  23. 23. Proxemics
  24. 24. Non-verbal Communication  PPrrooxxeemmiiccss  Refers to the use of space to convey an idea or image.  Our use of space or proximity is a significant indicator of how close or intimate we feel toward others.
  25. 25. Proxemics   Everyone observes the space around them, this is called personal space.  The concept of personal space is determined by cultures.  Eastern cultures: a kiss on the cheek is a common form of greeting  Western cultures: a handshake is the common form of greeting.
  26. 26. Chronemics
  27. 27. Non-verbal Communication  CChhrroonneemmiiccss  This is the use of and attitude to time which discloses information about:  our status  relationship with others  our self-concept
  28. 28. Chronemics   Being late for appointments duties and responsibilities is almost always read as a sign of  disrespect or  lack of commitment.
  29. 29. Chronemics   To be punctual suggests that one is:  focused on and committed to the task at hand,  or that one respects those with whom one is meeting.
  30. 30. Artifacts
  31. 31. Non-verbal Communication  Artifacts  The things we own, use, wear and even discard all convey messages about us:  Our preferences  Tastes  Resources  Or lack of resources
  32. 32. Movement
  33. 33. Non-verbal Communication  Movement  Posture  Gestures  Facial expressions and  Body language are perhaps the most obvious in communicating messages about our attitudes and feelings.
  34. 34. Functions of Non-verbal Communication  Section 3
  35. 35. Functions of Non-verbal Communication  Substituting  A word is replaced or substituted by an action or movements may be used to build sentences and communicate sophisticated concepts.  E.g. Traffic officers, Traffic signs
  36. 36. Come here…
  37. 37. Functions of Non-verbal Communication  RReeiinnffoorrcciinngg  The use of non-verbal communication to complement or add to our verbal sounds.  E.g. pointing and nodding head while speaking
  38. 38. Functions of Non-verbal Communication  Regulating  The use of non-verbal signs to show interest or regulate the flow of interaction.  E.g. hand signal of drivers, raising of the hand to show that you want to say something, traffic cop
  39. 39. Functions of Non-verbal Communication  CCoonnttrraaddiiccttiioonn  To change or contradict your verbal message you can display an opposite non-verbal behaviour.  E.g. Sarcasm, facial expression – bored but you nod and keep eye contact.
  40. 40. Functions of Non-verbal Communication  Managing Impressions  The creation and control of the way others perceive you by the way in which you dress, speak, walk.  The use of a car, dog, house, and jewelry to create an impression about yourself.
  41. 41. Functions of Non-verbal Communication  Establishing Relationship  Non-verbal messages are used to establish or reveal a relationship.  If, when, how and where you touch someone will communicate information about the relationship you have.
  42. 42. Further Readings   McDermott, H. (2008) CAPE Communication Studies. Pg. 158 – 163  Lord, L. et. al. (2012) CAPE Communication Studies. Pg. 130, 139-140.

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