COMMUNICATION SKILLS WEEK 5 Verbal & Non-verbal Communication ORAL & WRITTEN COMMUNICATIONCLASSIFICATION OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION BY WARDAH AZHAR
Difference betweenVerbal Communication Nonverbal Communication• Verbal communication is • Nonverbal communication is more immediate than verbal best suited to convey communication, but its meaning specific information, and is is typically more better suited to ambiguous, notwithstanding the fact that certain forms of communication through nonverbal communication, such technology over long as the use of the eyes, can convey distances. emotions more effectively than words can. Some technological means of communication, such as film, can effectively convey many forms of nonverbal communication.
Difference between Verbal Communication & Non-Verbal Communication• The differences between verbal and non-verbal communication is minimal. Verbal and non-verbal communication share something extraordinarily in common. Both reveal emotion. Verbal communication can be conveyed in a somber, happy, unhappy, angry, informative or loving mood or attitude, through words. Non-verbal communication can express the same sentiments through gestures, facial expression and physical actions.• A picture is said to be worth a thousand words. This is a form of visual and individual non-verbal communication. Each individual, who is staring at a beautiful piece of art work, will feel the picture speaks to them, in the form of non-verbal communication.
When a lovers quarrel erupts and one partnergives the other the "silent treatment," this alsois a form of non-verbal communication. Itsends a silent message; I am so angry, hurt, orupset, "I am not speaking or communicatingwith you."When an infant cries, it is verbalcommunication. However the parent orcaregiver may not exactly figure out what theinfants problem is, but can discern quitequickly, baby is communicating "Im unhappyor uncomfortable, hungry, lonely or fearful."Although a smile is non-verbal communication,universally everyone knows what message it isusually conveying. One may not understandthe language of another, however a smile isstill a welcoming form of non-verbalcommunication.
It is the same with weeping, although we may notknow why a person of a different language iscrying, unless we know first-hand theproblem, however we know from the personssadness they are communicating non-verbal physicalor emotionalpain, disappointment, anguish, grief, fear or loss.Verbal communication is straight-forward. Youinstantly know what the other person is thinking andvoicing. Verbal communication means conveying amessage directly from one human to another.However, just like non-verbalcommunication, emotion will accompany the verbalcommunication.When sign language is used, it is a form of non-verbal communication. Yet, the communicationbecomes just as understood, as verbal, provided thelistener understands sign language.Body language is a non-verbal form ofcommunication. While speaking verbally toanother, a persons stance says much in a non-verbalway. The folding of the arms can communicatedistance, disbelief, defiance or annoyance. A foldingof the hands from fingertip to fingertip can indicateconfidence.
Facial expression revelas much through non-verbal communication. Frowns can indicatedisappointment or anger. When a personseyes "appear to light up" this indicates non-verbal communication indicating the person ishappy to see you or happy or that the personhas been surprised in a good way. Downcasteyes can reveal sadness in non-verbalcommunication.Verbal and non-verbal communication are bestwhen used together. Without expressionaccompanying verbal communication, we canbecome bored or lose interest in what we arehearing. Gesturing is another way tocommunicate non-verbally. Gestures help getthe speakers point across, both verbally andnon-verbally.When we smile as we communicateverbally, we display friendliness and/orhappiness and can be assured the listener willbetter pay attention. Conclusion is, both formsof communication are needed to best expresswhat is on our minds and hearts.
Oral Communication• Oral communication implies communication through mouth. It includes individuals conversing with each other, be it direct conversation or telephonic conversation. Speeches, presentations, discussions are all forms of oral communication. Oral communication is generally recommended when the communication matter is of temporary kind or where a direct interaction is required. Face to face communication (meetings, lectures, conferences, interviews, etc.) is significant so as to build a rapport and trust.
Advantages of Oral Communication• There is high level of understanding and transparency in oral communication as it is interpersonal.• There is no element of rigidity in oral communication. There is flexibility for allowing changes in the decisions previously taken.• The feedback is spontaneous in case of oral communication. Thus, decisions can be made quickly without any delay.• Oral communication is not only time saving, but it also saves upon money and efforts.• Oral communication is best in case of problem resolution. The conflicts, disputes and many issues/differences can be put to an end by talking them over.• Oral communication is an essential for teamwork and group energy.• Oral communication promotes a receptive and encouraging morale among organizational employees.• Oral communication can be best used to transfer private and confidential information/matter.
Disadvantages of Oral Communication• Relying only on oral communication may not be sufficient as business communication is formal and very organized.• Oral communication is less authentic than written communication as they are informal and not as organized as written communication.• Oral communication is time-saving as far as daily interactions are concerned, but in case of meetings, long speeches consume lot of time and are unproductive at times.• Oral communications are not easy to maintain and thus they are unsteady.• There may be misunderstandings as the information is not complete and may lack essentials.• It requires attentiveness and great receptivity on part of the receivers/audience.• Oral communication (such as speeches) is not frequently used as legal records except in investigation work
Written Communication - Meaning• Written communication has great significance in today’s business world. It is an innovative activity of the mind. Effective written communication is essential for preparing worthy promotional materials for business development. Speech came before writing. But writing is more unique and formal than speech. Effective writing involves careful choice of words, their organization in correct order in sentences formation as well as cohesive composition of sentences. Also, writing is more valid and reliable than speech. But while speech is spontaneous, writing causes delay and takes time as feedback is not immediate.
Advantages of Written Communication• Written communication helps in laying down apparent principles, policies and rules for running of an organization.• It is a permanent means of communication. Thus, it is useful where record maintenance is required.• It assists in proper delegation of responsibilities. While in case of oral communication, it is impossible to fix and delegate responsibilities on the grounds of speech as it can be taken back by the speaker or he may refuse to acknowledge.• Written communication is more precise and explicit.• Effective written communication develops and enhances an organization’s image.• It provides ready records and references.• Legal defenses can depend upon written communication as it provides valid records.
Disadvantages of Written Communication• Written communication does not save upon the costs. It costs huge in terms of stationery and the manpower employed in writing/typing and delivering letters.• Also, if the receivers of the written message are separated by distance and if they need to clear their doubts, the response is not spontaneous.• Written communication is time-consuming as the feedback is not immediate. The encoding and sending of message takes time.• Effective written communication requires great skills and competencies in language and vocabulary use. Poor writing skills and quality have a negative impact on organization’s reputation.• Too much paper work and e-mails burden is involved.
CLASSIFICATION OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION• 1. Facial Expression• 2. Gestures• 3. Paralinguistic Features• 4. Body Language and Posture• 5. Proxemics• 6. Eye Gaze• 7. Haptics• 8. Appearance
CLASSIFICATION OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION• 1. Facial Expression • 2. Gestures• Facial expressions are • Deliberate movements and responsible for a huge signals are an important way proportion of nonverbal to communicate meaning communication. Consider how without words. Common much information can be gestures include conveyed with a smile or a waving, pointing, and using frown. While nonverbal fingers to indicate numeric communication and behavior amounts. Other gestures are can vary dramatically between arbitrary and related to cultures, the facial expressions culture. for happiness, sadness, anger and fear are similar throughout the world.
CLASSIFICATION OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION• 3. Paralinguistics • 4. Body Language and Posture• Paralinguistics refers to vocal • Posture and movement can also communication that is separate convey a great deal on from actual language. This information. Research on body includes factors such as tone of language has grown significantly voice, loudness, inflection and since the 1970s, but popular pitch. Consider the powerful media have focused on the over- effect that tone of voice can have interpretation of defensive on the meaning of a sentence. postures, arm-crossing, and leg- When said in a strong tone of crossing, especially after the voice, listeners might interpret publication of Julius Fasts book approval and enthusiasm. The Body Language. While these same words said in a hesitant nonverbal behaviors can indicate tone of voice might convey feelings and attitudes, research disapproval and a lack of interest. suggests that body language is far more subtle and less definitive that previously believed.
CLASSIFICATION OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION• 5. Proxemics • 6. Eye Gaze• People often refer to their need for • Looking, staring and blinking can also "personal space," which is also an be important nonverbal behaviors. important type of nonverbal When people encounter people or communication. The amount of things that they like, the rate of distance we need and the amount of blinking increases and pupils dilate. space we perceive as belonging to us Looking at another person can is influenced by a number of factors indicate a range of including social norms, situational emotions, including hostility, interest factors, personality characteristics and attraction. and level of familiarity. For example, the amount of personal space needed when having a casual conversation with another person usually varies between 18 inches to four feet. On the other hand, the personal distance needed when speaking to a crowd of people is around 10 to 12 feet.
CLASSIFICATION OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION• 7. Haptics • 8. Appearance• Communicating through touch is • Our choice of another important nonverbal color, clothing, hairstyles and other behavior. There has been a factors affecting appearance are also substantial amount of research on considered a means of nonverbal the importance of touch in infancy communication. Research on color and early childhood. Harry Harlows psychology has demonstrated that classic monkey study demonstrated different colors can evoke different how the deprivation of touch and moods. Appearance can also alter contact impedes development. Baby physiological reactions, judgments monkeys raised by wire mothers and interpretations. Just think of all experienced permanent deficits in the subtle judgments you quickly behavior and social interaction. make about someone based on his or Touch can be used to communicate her appearance. These first affection, familiarity, sympathy and impressions are important, which is other emotions. why experts suggest that job seekers dress appropriately for interviews with potential employers.