ETHICS IN BUSINESS COMMUNICATION Presented To: Prof. Hasnain Rashid Presented By: Aima Masood (0030) MCOMPunjab College Of Commerce
IMPORTANCE OF ETHICAL COMMUNICATION Learning Ethical modelsHelps you discover and make explicit your ethical positions and standards Enables you to diagnose the ethical position of your interlocutors. Provides you with a conceptual framework that will guide you towards becoming a consistent ethical business communicator.
KOHLBERGS STAGES Pre-conventional levelStage 1: The punishment and obedience orientation Stage 2: The instrumental purpose orientation Conventional level Stage 3: The "good boy-good girl" orientationStage 4: The social-order-maintaining orientation Post-conventional level Stage 5: The social-contract orientationStage 6: The universal ethical principle orientation
PRECONVENTIONAL LEVELPunishments and rewards dominate the sense of right & wrong Morality is externally controlled Rules of authority figures must be respected. Behaviour that results in punishment are bad Behaviour that results in rewards are good
STAGE 1: THE PUNISHMENT AND OBEDIENCE ORIENTATIONIgnore peoples intentions; focus on fear ofauthority and avoidance of punishments as reasons for behaving morally
STAGE 2: THE INSTRUMENTAL PURPOSE ORIENTATION Can understand that two people may have different perspectives in a situationBelieve that satisfying personal needs determines moral choice Very concrete understanding
THE CONVENTIONAL LEVEL Needs of Laws and society are the defining features. “Dont steal” because it is against the lawGood behaviour is motivated to maintain the affection and approval of friends and relativesUnderstand that standards are set for the current social system, not getting that there is self-interest involved (e.g., no such thing as a bad law)
STAGE 3: THE "GOOD BOY-GOOD GIRL" ORIENTATION Morality of interpersonal cooperation People obey rules to promote social harmonyYou will be judged for breaking the rules it isnt just the druggist who will think that you are acriminal, everyone else will and you will feel bad afterwards Justifies moral conformity
STAGE 4: THE SOCIAL-ORDER- MAINTAINING ORIENTATIONEach member of society is duty-bound to upholdrules as rules are vital for ensuring societal order
THE POSTCONVENTIONAL LEVELPersonal moral beliefs and values
STAGE 5: THE SOCIAL-CONTRACT ORIENTATION Laws and rules can be flexibleCan understand the alternatives to social order and emphasize fair procedures
STAGE 6: THE UNIVERSAL ETHICAL PRINCIPLE ORIENTATION The correct action is defined by self-chosenethical principles of conscience that are valid for all humanity, regardless of law and social agreement Values are more abstract and internal
STAGES IN ETHICAL DEVELOPMENT: LAWRENCE KOHLBERG (1973) Level Stages Orientation JustificationPre-conventional • Fear of punishment Self • Obedience to Authority; • Desire for rewards, as well Punishment avoidance as fear of punishment • Greed (Reward seeking)Conventional • Desire for approval Others/Group • Societal norms of a • Sense of duty to obey the good person law • Law & orderPost- • Regard for standard of Universal & • Truth, Fairness,conventional society: utilitarianism humankind Justice (Social • Respect for universal Contract) principles of justice & • Conscience & moral welfare rules guiding actions
INDIVIDUAL ETHICAL FRAMEWORKS A. Utilitarian Approach Focuses on whether the decision made will deliver the greatest good to the greatest number of people affected.Recognizes that decisions made by people can have both positives and negative consequences.
INDIVIDUAL ETHICAL FRAMEWORKS B. Moral Rights Approach Recognizes that human beings are born with fundamental rights and privileges. Stresses the importance of respecting andprotecting the fundamental rights of all human beings.
INDIVIDUAL ETHICAL FRAMEWORKS C. Justice ApproachFocuses on how the costs and benefits of an action are distributed and whether the distribution is fair and equitable. Three types of justice approach are:distributive, procedural, and compensatory justice.
INDIVIDUAL ETHICAL FRAMEWORKS 1. Distributive Justice Approach Rewards and punishments should be fairly distributed based on how much individuals contribute towards, or deviate from the given organizational goals.Discrimination (e.g., race, gender) is an example of the lack of distributive justice.
INDIVIDUAL ETHICAL FRAMEWORKS 2. Procedural Justice Approach The policies, rules, and procedures relating to decisions and behaviors should be applied fairly and consistently.The criterion is whether the rules and processes governing the distribution of the rewards and punishments are fair.
INDIVIDUAL ETHICAL FRAMEWORKS 3. Compensatory Justice ApproachInvolves compensating someone for a past wrong decision or action. Requires that hurt parties be compensated for past injustice.
CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CRS) Corporate social responsibility refers to: Obligations of a corporation. How it acts in terms of its own corporateinterests and profits in relation to the interests of its external stakeholders.
CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CRS) Corporate social responsibility includes concerns about:Green and environmental protection issues Community service Employment practices General corporate philanthropy
CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CRS) Effects of corporate social responsibility on organization Examples: Johnson and Johnson —Tylenol case in the 1980s Vita Soy—Soybean Contamination case in 1997The Coca-cola—The recall of drinks after poisoning of a consumer in 2006 Nike—Inappropriate labor practices in the 1990s
ETHICALLY BASED COMMUNICATION STYLE A. Utilitarian Communication Style Believes that the decision should benefit the majority.Utilitarians compare alternative options and are open and receptive to exploring different viewpoints.
ETHICALLY BASED COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES B. Moral Rights Communicating StyleThe advocates believe that decisions and actions are either right or wrong.People holding a moral rights perspective focus on analyzing or explaining why a decision or action is either right or wrong, rather than the consequences of the decision or action.
ETHICALLY BASED COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES C. Justice Communication StyleJustice advocates are interested in how and whether the costs and benefits of decisions and actions are distributed equitably.
ETHICALLY BASED COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES D. Universalist Communication Style Ethical universalism believes that ethicalprinciples are universal and should be applied to all cultures.Universalists stress on conveying universal values.
ETHICALLY BASED COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES E. Relativist Communication StyleBelieves that ethical behavior is influenced by the cultural context. When in Rome, do as Romans do.Relativists focus on the different values between cultures.
POSSIBLE ETHICAL COMMUNICATION CONFLICT Utilitarian versus Moral Rights Communication ConflictsThe utilitarians may not be interested in therights or wrongs of a decision, whereas themoral rights adherent is not interested in the pros and cons of the proposed actions.
POSSIBLE ETHICAL COMMUNICATION CONFLICT Universalistic versus Relativistic Communication Conflicts While universalists do not recognize that certain rights and traditions of a culture need to berespected, relativists fail to recognize that certain fundamental rights are applicable to all cultures.
POSSIBLE ETHICAL COMMUNICATION CONFLICT Justice Communication ConflictsCommunicators taking the justice approach have a shared perspective and a basis for successful communication. Communication conflicts can still arise among individuals holding differing views about what constitutes justice (e.g. distributive, procedural, compensatory justice)
ETHICS AND DECISION MODELS A. Rational or Classical Model The decision maker selects the best option among alternatives to reach an optimal goal. It encourages ethical communication by promoting extensive information flow and promotes an open process of communication.This method is most costly and time consuming.
ETHICS AND DECISION MODELS B. Behavioral Model The decision maker identifies one alternative at a time and selects the first satisfactory alternative identified.It is often adopted by managers who are constrained by information, costs and time. This model may carry with it a greater possibility of unethical decision making and unequal communication.
ETHICS AND DECISION MODELS C. Retroactive ModelThe decision maker chooses a favorable alternative early in the decision making process but carries it through the sequential steps of the rational decision making process with other alternatives.A favorable option is considered along with other alternatives, but a change of intention is lacking.
DEALING WITH ETHICAL DILEMMASWhen encountering ethical dilemmas in dealing with “borderline” or “gray” areasituations, individuals tend to rationalize their inappropriate behavior. The individual may believe that: their misconduct is not really illegal; or the result is in everyone’s best interests.
SUMMING UP In this whole chapter you have learned Kohlberg’s six stages of moraldevelopment, individual based ethical approaches. This knowledge will help you to align personal ethical views with written or unwritten rules of organization regarding its corporate social responsibility.