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Housing & Ventilation

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Housing Standards with proper ventilation means and methods

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Housing & Ventilation

  1. 1. Dr R.K Ludam Dept Of Community Medicine V.S.S.M.C.H Burla Housing And Ventilation
  2. 2. Housing  “Housing “ in modern concept includes not only the physical structure providing shelter but also the immediate surroundings and the related community services and facilities.  It may be defined as-” all places in which a group of people reside and pursue their life goals; the size of settlement varies from a single family to millions of people.  The immediate surroundings of residential building are often referred as neighborhood
  3. 3.  WHO expert group (1961) on public health aspects of housing prefers to use the term ;residential environment’ Social Goals Of Housing-: a) Shelter b) Family Life c) Access to community facilities d) Family participation in community life e) Economic Stability
  4. 4.  The Implementation of social goals in housing requires that govt. should- - Introduce social housing schemes - Establish both minimum and maximum standard - Create financial and fiscal institutions geared to helping low income people obtain credit for building and improving their house.
  5. 5. Criteria for healthful housing-:  Healthful housing provides physical protection and shelter  Provides adequately for cooking,eating,washing,and excretory functions  Is designed,constructed,mantained and used in a manner such as to prevent the spread of communicable diseases  Provides for protection from hazards of exposure to noise and pollution  Is free from unsafe physical arrangements due to construction or mantainance,and from toxic or harmful materials
  6. 6. Housing Standard-:  Social and economic characteristics such as family income, family size and composition, standard of living,lifestyle,stage in life cycle, education and cultural factors are taken into account.  Because of cultural diversity and other factors such as climate and social traditions, standard of housing varies from country to country and from region to region.  In short-there cannot be rigid, uniform standards  The standards in India are those recommended by the EHC(1947)
  7. 7.  Site-: - should be elevated from its surroundings - should have an independent access to a street of adequate width - should be away from breeding places of mosquito and flies - should be away from nuisances such as dust,smoke,smell,excessive noise, and traffic. - should be in pleasant surrounding - soil should be dry and safe for founding the structure and should be well drained. - The sub-soil water should be below 1o feet
  8. 8.  Set Back-: -It is the open space all around the house which allows proper ventilation and lightening - In rural areas it is recommended that the built-up area should not exceed one third of total area. - In urban areas it is allowed upto two-third of total area. - The set back should be such that there is no obstruction of lighting and ventilation. - e.g.
  9. 9.  Floor-: -Should be Pucca and satisfy the following criteria-: - should be impermeable ,so that easy to clean and dry - must be smooth and free from cracks and crevices to prevent the breeding of insects and harbourage of dust - it should be damp-proof - the height of the plinth should be 2-3 feet(0.6 t o 1 mtr)  Walls-: - reasonably strong - should have a low heat capacity - weather resistance - unsuitable for harbor of rats and vermin
  10. 10.  Roof-: -Should not be less than 10 feet (3 mtr) in the absence of air-conditioning for comfort. - should have a low heat transmittance co-efficient  Rooms-: - should not be less than two,atleast one of them can be closed for security - the other may be open on one side if that side is a private courtyard - No. should be increased as per the family members  Floor Area-: - should be at least 120 sq ft for more than one person and at least 100 sq ft for single person - floor area per person should not be less than 50 sq mtr
  11. 11.  Cubic Space-:at least 500 c.ft per capita preferably 1000 c.ft  Windows-: every living room should be provided with atleast 2 windows and one of them should open directly on to an open space - the windows should be placed at a height of more than 3 feet(1 m) above the ground in living rooms - windows area should be 1/5th of the floor area doors and windows combined should have 2/5th the floor area.
  12. 12.  Lighting-:the daylight factor should exceed 1 % over half the floor area.  Kitchen-: Must have a separate kitchen - Must be protected against dust and smoke, adequately lighted, provided with water supply, provided with a sink for washing utensils and fitted with arrangements for proper drainage  Privy-: A sanitary privy is a must for every house, belonging exclusively to it and readily accessible.  Garbage and refuse-:Should be removed from the dwelling at least daily and disposed of in a sanitary manner
  13. 13.  Bathing and Washing-: house should have facility for bathing and washing belonging exclusively to it and providing proper privacy  Water Supply-: House should have a safe and adequate water supply available at all times. RURAL HOUSING-: Minimum standard suggested-: - There should be at least two living rooms - Ample verandah space may be provided - The build-up area should not exceed one-third of total area - There should be a separate kitchen with a paved sink or platform for washing utensils
  14. 14.  The house should be provided with a sanitary latrine  The window area should be at least 10% of the floor area  There should be a sanitary well or a tube well within a quarter of a ample from the house  It is insanitary to keep cattle and livestock in dwelling house. Cattle sheds should be at least 25 feet away from dwelling houses. A cattle shed should be open on all sides an area 8ft×4ft is sufficient for each head of cattle  There should be adequate arrangement for the disposal of waste water, refuse and garbage.
  15. 15. Housing and Health - Poor housing is associated with the following health conditions-:  Respiratory Infection  Skin infection  Rat infestation  Arthropods  Accidents  Morbidity and Mortality  Psychological effects
  16. 16. Overcrowding  It refers to the situation in which more people and living within a single dwelling than there is space for, so that movement is restricted, privacy secluded, hygiene impossible rest and sleep difficult.  Overcrowding is a health problem in human dwelling.  It may promote the spread of respiratory infections such as TB,Influenza and Diphtheria.
  17. 17. Public Policy  House site and construction assistance  Indira Awas Yojna (IAY)-: Introduced in central sector in 1985-86 as part of the rural landless employment guarantee programme. -one room, one kitchen attached with latrine, bathroom and a smokeless chullah. -----------------XXXXX-------------------
  18. 18. VENTILATION
  19. 19.  It not only means the replacement of vitiated air by a supply of fresh outdoor air but also control of the quality of incoming air with regard to its temperature, humidity and purity with a view to provide a thermal environment that is comfortable and free from risk of infection.  Standards Of Ventilation-: Most of the standards of ventilation have been based on the efficiency of ventilation in removing body odour. 1) Cubic Space-: minimal fresh air supply ranging from ‘300’ to ‘3000' c.ft. per hour per person - De Chaumont advocated a fresh air supply of 3000 c.ft per person per hour.
  20. 20. 2) Air Change-: Air change is more important than the cubic space requirement. - It is recommended that in the living rooms, there should be 2 to 3 air changes in one hour; in work rooms and assemblies 4 to 6 air changes.  If the air is changed more frequently. i.e. More than 6 times in one hour, it is likely to produce a draught and should be avoided.  The number of air changes per hour is calculated by dividing the total hourly air supply to the room by the cubic capacity of the room  a space of 1,000 to 1,200 c.ft. per person is quite sufficient.
  21. 21. 3)Floor space-:Floor space per person is even more important than cubic space. - The optimum floor space requirements per person vary from 50 to 100 sq.ft. Types Of Ventilation-: 1. Natural Ventilation-: Natural ventilation is the simplest system of ventilating small dwellings, schools and offices.  A)The Wind-: The wind is an active force in ventilation. - when it blows through a room, it is called perflation. - When there is an obstruction, it bypasses and exerts a suction action at its tail end - this is called
  22. 22. B) DIFFUSION : Air passes through the smallest openings or spaces by diffusion. - This is a slow process and therefore, is not relied upon as the sole means of ventilation. C) INEQUALITY OF TEMPERATURE : Air flows from high density to low density - The greater the temperature difference between outside and inside air, the greater the velocity of the incoming air These properties of air are utilised to best advantage by the proper location of windows, doors,ventilaiors and skylights. The chief drawback of natural ventilation is that it is not possible to regulate the velocity
  23. 23.  Mechanical Ventilation-: - Types-: 1) Exhaust ventilation (2) Plenum ventilation 3) Balanced ventilation (4) Air conditioning. 1)Exhaust Ventilation-: In this system, air is extracted or exhausted to the outside by exhaust fans driven by electricity. - As air is exhausted, a vacuum is created which induces fresh air to enter the room through windows, doors and other inlets. - Exhaust ventilation is generally provided in large halls and auditoria for removal of vitiated air. - The exhaust fans are housed in apertures in the external walls, high up near the roof which facilitate
  24. 24. 2)PLENUM VENTILATION-: In this system, fresh air is blown into the room by centrifugal fans so as to create a positive pressure, and displace the vitiated air. Plenum or propulsion - plenum is used for supplying air to air-conditioned buildings and factories. - Air is delivered through ducts at desired points. 3) BALANCED VENTILATION-: This is a combination of the exhaust and plenum systems of ventilation. - The blowing fan must balance the exhaust fan.
  25. 25.  4) AIR CONDITIONING -: Air conditioning is defined as "the simultaneous control of all”( i.e.- temperature, humidity, air movement, distribution, dust, bacteria, odours and toxic gases, most of which affect in greater or lesser degree the human health and comfort.) - Air conditioning is popular in large institutions, hospitals, industries and dwellings. - Its use in operation theatres is of particular value in control of pathogenic organisms in the air. - Large institutions or hospitals often install central air conditioning system for entire building - Where the temperature difference is large between outside atmosphere and air conditioned room, "transition room" is sometimes provided.

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