Stress Inoculation Training
A Session ConductedA Session Conducted
ByBy
Dr. Nicholas CorreaDr. Nicholas Correa
Purpose
• Train self to cope with stressful situations
by learning more useful and positive
behavior patterns
• Similar to...
Stress Inoculation Training
• Improves resilience through effective past
experience with stressors
• Deal with stressors i...
Stress Inoculation Training
• Stress tolerance is enhanced via changing
individual’s beliefs about their
performance in st...
Phases of Training
ConceptualConceptual
Skills Development &
Practice
Skills Development &
Practice
ApplicationApplication
Conceptualization Phase
• Understand stress
• Identify effects of stress in behavioral,
emotional, physical, and psycholog...
Skills Phase
• Develop & practice a variety of stress
reduction skills
• Skills include- learning how to relax, reducing
s...
• Rehearse from less to more difficult
stressful situations
• Develop confidence to handle any
situation!
Skills Phase
Application Phase
Apply skills to specific stressful situations:
• Plan, anticipate and prepare for potential
and actual d...
Blueprint Plan
1. Learn relaxation skills
2. Identify specific stressors
3. Develop plan to respond differently
4. Write u...
Learn Relaxation Skills
• Need to learn and use new relaxation
strategies!
• Beneficial relaxation skills include- Deep
Br...
Deep Breathing
This relaxation strategy may be used
anywhere and at any time!
Good breathing provides more oxygen to
the b...
Deep Breathing
Slowly inhale through your nose. Expand
your abdomen before permitting air to fill
your lungs.
Slowly relea...
Muscle Relaxation
Goal is to relax every major muscle group,
from head to toe, through tensing and
then releasing the musc...
You may use and practice this skill sitting or laying down. Each
muscle is tensed from 5 to 10 seconds and then relaxed fo...
Muscle Relaxation
• Curl both fists, tightening biceps &
forearms (Muscle man pose). Relax…
• Wrinkle up forehead. Press y...
Muscle Relaxation
• Arch back as you take a deep breath into the
chest. Hold then relax. Take a deep breath,
pressing out ...
Identify Stressor
Tip- Be Realistic!Tip- Be Realistic!
• What is the actual specific stressor that youWhat is the actual s...
Develop Plan to Cope
• View the stressful situation as a chance to try
new skills!
Tip- Distance self from the stressor!
•...
Rehearsal
• Write down your action plan
• Take time to mentally visualize & go through
the steps to effectively implement ...
Execute Plan
• Prepare self as situation approaches
• Use breathing and relaxation techniques
• Utilize positive & constru...
Coaching
• We all talk to ourselves!
• Need to harness this self-talk and utilize in a
constructive fashion to help, and n...
General Coping Statements
• I can handle these symptoms!
• This too will pass!
• I’ll ride this through- I don’t need to l...
Coaching Statements-
Preparing to Face Stressor
• What do I have to do?
• I can develop a plan to cope!
• What I see as ne...
Dealing with the Stressor-
Coaching Self Talk
• Take 1 step at a time!
• I can handle the situation!
• Relax, I’m doing ok...
Coaching-
Managing During Stressor
• When fear occurs, pause for a moment…
• Focus on the present. What do I need to
do?
•...
Rewarding after the Plan
Positive Coaching & Self Talk
• I did it!
• It worked!
• It was not as bad as I expected…
• I can...
Evaluate Plan
• What did you do that you liked?
• What would you like to improve?
• What did you learn from the experience...
Implement Changes
• Repeat the previous steps
• Identify stressors, & develop plan
• Rehearse
• Implement
• Evaluate plan
...
My Immunization Plan
• Identify Specific Stressor___________
• Describe upsetting feeling/emotion which
you are most likel...
Stress Inoculation Plan
• What can you say to self to help cope
when you first notice that you are
becoming upset?
• What ...
Stress Immunization Plan
• What can you say to yourself to help cope
after you have dealt with the stressor?
• Highlight y...
Review
• Inoculation Training builds strength, tolerance
and confidence!
• Use relaxation strategies & coping/coaching
ski...
References
• Cognitive Behavior Modification: An
Integration. Donald Michenbaum
New York: Plenum Publishing, 1977.
More Information
• Managing Stress & Relaxation Skills
www-nehc.med.navy.mil/hp/stress
• Resiliency
www.apahelpcenter.org/...
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Stress innoculation

  1. 1. Stress Inoculation Training A Session ConductedA Session Conducted ByBy Dr. Nicholas CorreaDr. Nicholas Correa
  2. 2. Purpose • Train self to cope with stressful situations by learning more useful and positive behavior patterns • Similar to promoting disease resistance through immunizations • Shown to be effective in reducing distress and improving ability to cope with stress!
  3. 3. Stress Inoculation Training • Improves resilience through effective past experience with stressors • Deal with stressors in a gradual manner • Provides skills & opportunity to build tolerance to current & future stressors
  4. 4. Stress Inoculation Training • Stress tolerance is enhanced via changing individual’s beliefs about their performance in stressful situations and ability to deal with distress • Promotes hope, self confidence, self- control, & personal responsibility!
  5. 5. Phases of Training ConceptualConceptual Skills Development & Practice Skills Development & Practice ApplicationApplication
  6. 6. Conceptualization Phase • Understand stress • Identify effects of stress in behavioral, emotional, physical, and psychological areas • Ascertain the specific effects of stress on individual performance and productivity
  7. 7. Skills Phase • Develop & practice a variety of stress reduction skills • Skills include- learning how to relax, reducing stress through deep breathing and muscle relaxation & developing a toolbox of positive coping thoughts. • Practice skills in imagination and then in real life situations
  8. 8. • Rehearse from less to more difficult stressful situations • Develop confidence to handle any situation! Skills Phase
  9. 9. Application Phase Apply skills to specific stressful situations: • Plan, anticipate and prepare for potential and actual difficulties in personal training program • Coach thyself • Assess own progress • Follow – up plans
  10. 10. Blueprint Plan 1. Learn relaxation skills 2. Identify specific stressors 3. Develop plan to respond differently 4. Write up Plan & Practice 5. Coach self through the situation 6. Positively assess own performance 7. Plan & execute improvements
  11. 11. Learn Relaxation Skills • Need to learn and use new relaxation strategies! • Beneficial relaxation skills include- Deep Breathing & Muscle Relaxation • Practice them daily until you master techniques! • Use often until they become a quick, easy habit & you can relax deeply!
  12. 12. Deep Breathing This relaxation strategy may be used anywhere and at any time! Good breathing provides more oxygen to the blood stream that results in endorphin release. The result is deeper relaxation!
  13. 13. Deep Breathing Slowly inhale through your nose. Expand your abdomen before permitting air to fill your lungs. Slowly release the air from your abdomen and your lungs. Repeat slowly for 3 to 5 minutes. Enjoy the relaxed sensation!
  14. 14. Muscle Relaxation Goal is to relax every major muscle group, from head to toe, through tensing and then releasing the muscles. May be used in a variety of operational settings and situations with excellent success!
  15. 15. You may use and practice this skill sitting or laying down. Each muscle is tensed from 5 to 10 seconds and then relaxed for 10 to 20 seconds. If the muscle group remains tense, the exercise may be repeated for the muscle group to induce relaxation. The major muscle groups are- • arms, & hands; • head, face, shoulders; • chest, stomach & lower back • thighs, calves, buttocks and feet Practice twice daily for 10 to 15 minutes. Deep Muscle Relaxation reduces tension & is not compatible with stress. Often we are unaware of our tension and stress levels. Muscle Relaxation
  16. 16. Muscle Relaxation • Curl both fists, tightening biceps & forearms (Muscle man pose). Relax… • Wrinkle up forehead. Press your head as far back as possible, roll it clockwise in a complete circle, reverse. Now wrinkle up face muscles like a walnut- frowning, squinting eyes, pressing tongue to roof of mouth, and hunching shoulders. Relax…
  17. 17. Muscle Relaxation • Arch back as you take a deep breath into the chest. Hold then relax. Take a deep breath, pressing out the stomach. Hold & Relax… • Pull feet & toes back towards the face and tighten shins. Hold & Relax… Curl toes while tightening thighs, calves & buttocks. Relax…
  18. 18. Identify Stressor Tip- Be Realistic!Tip- Be Realistic! • What is the actual specific stressor that youWhat is the actual specific stressor that you face?face? • If more than one, then choose one to start.If more than one, then choose one to start.
  19. 19. Develop Plan to Cope • View the stressful situation as a chance to try new skills! Tip- Distance self from the stressor! • Identify stress self talk • Replace negative thoughts with positive thinking • Determine when you will use relaxation strategies
  20. 20. Rehearsal • Write down your action plan • Take time to mentally visualize & go through the steps to effectively implement my plan • Actually face your stressors and use your acquired skills and plan!
  21. 21. Execute Plan • Prepare self as situation approaches • Use breathing and relaxation techniques • Utilize positive & constructive coaching statements!
  22. 22. Coaching • We all talk to ourselves! • Need to harness this self-talk and utilize in a constructive fashion to help, and not hinder, our efforts to reduce stress and to cope with stressors! • Need to counter negative thinking & bad self talk and replace with positive talk! • Try using these coaching statements or develop ones for yourself!
  23. 23. General Coping Statements • I can handle these symptoms! • This too will pass! • I’ll ride this through- I don’t need to let this get to me • I can take all the time I need to let go and to relax… • This is not dangerous! • So what!!
  24. 24. Coaching Statements- Preparing to Face Stressor • What do I have to do? • I can develop a plan to cope! • What I see as nervous, may be readiness to deal with stressor • “Don’t worry” Worry usually does not help me at all!
  25. 25. Dealing with the Stressor- Coaching Self Talk • Take 1 step at a time! • I can handle the situation! • Relax, I’m doing okay! • Take a slow deep breath • This nervousness is what I anticipated. It is a reminder to use my relaxation strategies.
  26. 26. Coaching- Managing During Stressor • When fear occurs, pause for a moment… • Focus on the present. What do I need to do? • I cannot remove all anxiety and fear. I need to keep it manageable…
  27. 27. Rewarding after the Plan Positive Coaching & Self Talk • I did it! • It worked! • It was not as bad as I expected… • I can’t wait to tell someone • I’m improving each time I practice!
  28. 28. Evaluate Plan • What did you do that you liked? • What would you like to improve? • What did you learn from the experience? • Be kind, supportive and positive in your self-assessment!
  29. 29. Implement Changes • Repeat the previous steps • Identify stressors, & develop plan • Rehearse • Implement • Evaluate plan • Make improvements
  30. 30. My Immunization Plan • Identify Specific Stressor___________ • Describe upsetting feeling/emotion which you are most likely to experience when facing stressor?___________________ • Write down any stress producing thoughts when you encounter stressor? ________________________
  31. 31. Stress Inoculation Plan • What can you say to self to help cope when you first notice that you are becoming upset? • What can you say to yourself to help you cope while you are in the middle of dealing with the stressor?
  32. 32. Stress Immunization Plan • What can you say to yourself to help cope after you have dealt with the stressor? • Highlight your Personal Stress Immunization Plan for the identified stressor
  33. 33. Review • Inoculation Training builds strength, tolerance and confidence! • Use relaxation strategies & coping/coaching skills often! • Develop & implement Personal Plan • Revise and refine personal action plan You can learn to master stress!
  34. 34. References • Cognitive Behavior Modification: An Integration. Donald Michenbaum New York: Plenum Publishing, 1977.
  35. 35. More Information • Managing Stress & Relaxation Skills www-nehc.med.navy.mil/hp/stress • Resiliency www.apahelpcenter.org/featuredtopics/feature.ph

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