TOPIC: E – RESOURCES
CANDIDATE CODE: 19014392013
An electronic resource is any information source that the library provides access to
in an electronic format. The library has purchased subscriptions to many electronic
information resources in order to provide you with access to them free of charge.
Computers and related electronic resources have come to play a central role in
education. Teachers can benefit from these resources as well, by employing a
series of useful tools. Electronic resources consist of data representing numbers,
text, graphics, images, maps, moving images, music, sounds, etc., and programs of
instruction sets. Before the development of computer and internet technology,
printed version of resources like books, journals, dictionaries, work books, etc
played a significant role in teaching and learning process. Therefore, of the
different e-resources knowledge, e-resources development and preservation of
them has become the need of this hour for teacher education. E‐resources and
e‐learning are increasingly important to all aspects, and all levels of education.
Five Promising Uses of New Technology
Of the many electronic teaching techniques that instructors have found useful, we
have chosen five that we believe seem particularly likely to help significant
numbers of teachers. All of these techniques demand an investment of time if they
are to succeed, and your willingness to use them should be balanced carefully
against other, perhaps more important, teaching priorities. But for each technique,
there are both simple and complex ways of proceeding, and we will try to make
clear the respective advantages and disadvantages.
The five ways in which we suggest teachers consider using electronic resources
involve tasks that you will usually have to perform in any case. New technologies
can help you perform them better and more easily:
Administration: The routine administration of courses (advertising a class,
providing copies of the syllabus, assigning discussion sections, and getting
out course news) can be more efficiently handled with a course home page,
electronic discussion groups, and e-mail lists. These tools can also
dramatically improve the continuity and the community aspects of courses,
helping students to engage with and learn from each other and even from
people outside the course.
Readings/sources: The Web and CD-ROMs provide a wider variety of
secondary and primary sources (including visual and audio sources) than has
previously been available. With your guidance, your students can now gain
access to materials that were once accessible only to experts because they
were too cumbersome to reproduce for classroom use or too expensive for
students to purchase. By taking their own paths through these sources,
students can bring their own evidence and arguments into lectures and
discussion sections, as well as write on a wider range of research topics.
Papers/presentations: Rather than performing assignments and taking
exams from the teacher alone, students can perform more independent
exercises in publishing, exhibit building, or assembling and presenting
teaching units and other materials for their peers. A web archive of several
terms' work can make the course itself an ongoing and collaborative
Lectures: A computer with presentation software can provide a single tool
for augmenting lectures with outlines, slides, statistical charts and tables,
images, music, and even video clips. In addition to printing them as
handouts, you can save in-class presentations in a web-compatible format for
later review and discussion.
Discussion: Electronic discussion tools such as e-mail, conferencing
software, and on-line chat services can seed discussion questions before the
class meets, draw out your shy students, and follow up on discussions or
questions on the reading between classes. For courses without face-to-face
discussion sections, these tools can bring the course to life over great
distances and help overcome scheduling difficulties.
A computer network of geographically distributed multiple computers
connected in a manner to enable meaningful transmission and exchange of
information among them. Sharing of information, sharing of resources (both
hardware and software) and sharing of processing load are some of the major
objectives of computer networks.
Social networking is a web based services that allow individual to create a
public profile, to create a list of users with whom to share connections, and view
and cross the connections with in the system. Social networking sites are varied
and they incorporate new information and communicate tools such as , mobile
connectivity , photos/videos/sharing and blogging social networking sites allow
user to share ideas , pictures, posts ,activities ,events , and interests with people in
their networks. The most commonly used social networking services are:
Facebook is a social networking service and website launched in February 4
, 2004,operated and privately owned by facebook.Inc. As of July 2011,
facebook has more than 80 million active users. Faceboook was founded by
Mark Zukeberg at Harvard.
Facebook has affected at social life and activity of people in various ways. It
allows users to continuously stay in touch with friends and relatives wherever
they are in the world as long as there is access to internet. It can also unite
people with common interest and /or beliefs through groups and other pages,
and has been to reunite tots f family members and friends.
LinkedIn is a social networking website for people in professional
occupation. Founded in December 2002 and launched on May 5, 2003, it
was mainly used for professional networking. The site available in 20
languages, including English, French, German etc
One purpose of the site is to allow registered users to maintain a list of
content details of people with whom they have some level of relationship,
called “Connections”. Users can invite anyone (whether a site user or not) to
become a connections. However, if the invitee selects ‘I don’t know’ or
‘spam’, this counts against the inviter. If the inviter gets too many of such
responses, the accounts may be restricted or closed.
Twitter is a free social networking and micro blogging service that enable
its user to sent and red each other’s updates known as tweets. Tweets are text
based posts of up to 140 characters displayed on the authors profile page and
delivered to other users –known as followers- who have subscribed to them.
The service is free over the internet, but using SMS may incur phone service
Provider fee. Since its creation in 2006 by Jacky Dorsey, Twitter has gained
notability and popularity worldwide. In a recent survey twitter ranked third
most used social network.
Use of Twitter as an Educational Tool
Promote digital literacy
Support liberal education
Fosters technological literacy
Promotes questioning and answering
Helps integrate technology into teaching and learning
Provides a method for instruction that uses technology
Use of Twitter to teachers
Provide reminders to students
Provide feedback immediately
Foster personalized updates
A blog (web blog) is a type of website part of a web site. Blogs usually
maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, description of
events, or other material such as graphics of video entries are commonly displayed
in reverse chronological order.
Blogging is at of posting content on blog/posting comments on a someone
else’s blog. Blogging allows people to interact with each other. Blogging has also
become a popular search engine optimization tool.
Educational blogging is blogging by students, teachers, administrators,
industry experts, and other involved entities that focus primarily on the educational
process and educational interest.
Blogs in Teaching and Learning
There are many way to use blogging in teaching and learning. An existing
blog can be used to provide information and insight. They will provide examples to
increase the quality of student’s blog entries. Encourages the students to create a
blog for others to reflect these ideas.
Motivate with blogs. Use a blog as a catalyst to generate interest in
new topic. Help student see the excitement and energy that can be
found in a subject.
Provide a context/establish a connection. Bring relevance to the
discussion by using a real world situation.Critique
Critically evaluate an idea/ perspective by using examples to support a
position. Many of these examples can be found in professional blogs.
Add depth to a learning situation by providing a detailed
explanation, thoughtful observation/new source that provide
Broaden thinking by providing an alternative perspective /different
point of view.
Use blogs to provide current immediately relevant examples.
Provide primary sources /data that can help and explain already
Look for blogs as a place for new innovative idas.Be the first to
present a new idea rather than simply commending ob the work of
others. Ask questions to keep the new ideas going.
Bring a number of ideas together.
Importance of Blogs in Education
Teacher related blogs
Helps to share useful information and tips among co – workers
dispersing information to student/keeping in context with
parents and also to share ideas with one another on what has
worked with student and what has not.
Helps to communicate with one another regarding any issues in
education that they may be having including classroom
management techniques and policies.
Act as a supportsystem for teacher where they can access ideas,
tools and gain support and gain recognition from other
professional in their field.
Way to communicate and enhance classroom instruction among
their students. The ability for both the teacher and the student to
edit context allows for study to take place outside the classroom
Way to post important information such as homework,
important data’s, missed lessons, projects, discussions board,
and other useful classroom information that is a accessible by
all. Student can access this information from home/ from any
other computer that is connected to the internet.
With the use of blogs in the classroom, students learn from one
another and individually express themselves as well. In higher
education, blogs are often use as reflective journals.
The use of blogs in education gives students global
perspectives. Teachers from different states, countries and
continents are able to collaborate on different projects and
Learning through blogs allows students to take control of their
own learning and steer it to their own needs.
Children’s are different, but a common thread of learning can
unite them. The use of the blogs in the classroom embeds
technological literacy in children that will help them in
Teacher and parents can also use blogs in order to
communicate with one another. Information can be posted for
parents on special event occurring in the classroom such as
field trips, celebrations and presentation.
Blogging is also a central tool for parents to find out daily
assignment so that they can check up on their children and
classroom expectations. Having this class clear and open
communication between parents and students can ensure
Assisting parents on what is developmentally appropriate for
their children on a blog could open communication and help
parenting skill as well.
A teacher first priority is to educate their students, but
educating and communicating openly with parents through
blogs is a helpful tool to keep lines of communication opens
between teacher and student families.
Electronic Journals (E- Journals)
Electronic journal are also known as E-Journals. They are scholarly journals
or intellectual magazines that can be accessed via electronic transmission. Some
electronic journals are online only journals. Some are online version of printed
journals and some consist of the online equivalent of printed journals, but with
additional online only.
Most of commercial journals are subscription based or allow pay per view
access. Many universities subscribe bulk to packages of electronic journals, so as
to provide access to them to their students and faculty. It is generally also possible
for individuals to purchase an annual subscription to a journal, via the original
Advantages of E- Journals
Articles can be put on the web as soon as they are ready without
having to wait may be months for a space in a journal issue. This
means that the information is much more up to date that can be
achieved with paper.
Searchability is one of the core advantages of a digital format.
Disadvantage of electronic journals
Difficulty in reading computer screen
The main disadvantage of digital information is the limitation of
the computer monitor.
Often not included in indexing and abstracting services
Search engine ignore PDF files
Podcasts are basically digital audio programs that can be subscribed to and
down loaded by listeners. In other words a podcast is a digital audio recording,
with or without images, which instruction can use to deliver content to students in
an easy asynchronous fashion. Once generated, podcasts can be disseminated
online through personal websites or podcasts directories.
Podcasting is the ability to create or listen to audio or video content either
live or downloaded for later use. Podcasting involves the online publication of
digital files (audio, video other formats) within a channel to which others can
subscribe and obtain updates .The term ‘Podcasting’ was first mentioned by Ben
Hammersly in February 2004.
Benefits of podcasting in classroom
Podcasting gives educators on opportunity to bridge the traditional classroom
setting with progressive state of the art technologies. There are several advantages
of bringing podcasting into the classroom for lectures and student assignments.
Podcasting is an exciting and novel means for students to take a more active
role in their own learning experience. As student realizes their podcast
assignments may be published online with hundreds of potential listeners
through free podcast directories, their attention to the quality and detail of
their assignment may improve.
Podcasting is adaptable to the students learning needs. Students can access
the material whenever and as often as they would like, thereby reinforcing
critical concepts or details they may have missed in the original classroom
Assignments that require students to generate, edit and publish their own
podcast reinforce critical communication skill such as writing a script that
will be presented in a classroom.
E- Learning is the delivery of learning; training or education program by
electronic means- learning involves the use of a computer or electronic device in
some way to provide training, education or learning material.
E-learning means “the delivery of learning with the assistance of interactive,
electronic technology, whether offline or online”
E- Learning is essentially a computer and network enabled transfer of skills
and knowledge- learning application and process include:
Web based learning
Computer assisted learning
Virtual education opportunities
Characteristics of E- Learning
Learning is self paced and gives students a chance to speed up or slow down
Designed around the learner
Enhances computer and internet skills
Foster greater student/instructor contact
Overall student costs are frequently less
Geographical barriers are eliminated, opening up broader education options.
Web based learning
It is often called online learning or E-Learning because it include online
course content. Web based courses may also provide static pages such as printed
courses materials. One of the values of using the wed to access course material is
they wed pages may contain hyperlinks to the other parts of the web, thus enabling
access to a vast amount of web base information .A “Virtual Learning
Environment (VLE) OR Managed Learning Environment is all in one teaching
and learning software package.
Advantage of Web based learning
Ability to link resources in many different formats
Efficient way of delivering course material
Resources can be made available from any location at any time
Encourages more independent and active learning
Provides a useful source of supplementary material to conventional
Disadvantages of wed based learning
Access to appropriate computer equipment can be a problem for students
The necessary infrastructure must be available and affordable
Information can vary in quality and accuracy .So guidance and sign posting
Student can feel isolated
Learners find it frustrating if they cannot access graphics, images, and
video clips because of poor equipment.
Electronic commerce means the use of electronic transmission medium
(telecommunication) to engage in the exchange, including buying and selling of
products and services requiring transportations, either physically or digitally from
location to location.
Potential Benefit of Electronic Commerce
In order for business to invest resources to engage in electronic commerce, the
benefits must exceed the costs. So benefits can businesses potentially gain from
engaging in electronic commerce.
Internet and web- based electronic commerce is more affordable than
traditional electronic data interchange system.
Internet and web based electronic commerce allow more business partners to
be reached than with traditional EDI
Procurement processing cost can be lowered
Reduction in inventories
Lower cycle times
Better customer services
Lower sales and marketing costs
Business is not the only beneficiaries of internet electronic commerce; consumers
may also reap benefits from using the internet .Some benefits that consumers may
expect to receive are :
Increased choice of vendor and products
Convenience from shopping at home or office
Greater amounts of information that can be accessed on demand
More competitive prices and increased price comparison capabilities
Greater customization in the delivery of services.
E- Commerce Applications
E- Commerce applications can be broadly classified into the following categories,
depending upon the extent, scope and functionality of these applications:
Business to Consumer (B2C)
Business to Business (B2B)
Customer to Business (C2B)
Customer to Customer (C2C)
Business to Consumer (B2C)
These are those applications, which make business come closer to the
customer or consumer and vice versa, in order to offer an attractive electronic
market place, where products and services can be sold and purchased. This
business is done by providing well designed web sites, which are like to our
normal shops in the market, with the products and services to be sold, displayed
with the description and price. Some of the examples of these type of E- commerce
applications are shopping sites, Home banking, Entertainment services like video
on demand, movies, games, etc. Educational services like wed based learning,
virtual classroom, market research etc.
Business to Business (B2B)
Business to business electronic commerce involves “Internet – enabling” of
existing relationships between two companies. Clusters of buyers, sellers, and
intermediaries in already mature industries are banding together to build extranets.
A business to business extranet is a secured business network of several
cooperating organizations, typically operated through VAN.A well managed
extranet can offer a business and the companies with whom it does business many
of the benefits of an electronic data interchange system, without many of the
Customer to Business (C2B
In C2B model, customer interacts with information databases such as
product catalogues, price information, configures the products, compare the cost,
place the order and have it delivered after electronic payment process. The
products like computers, books, CDs, music system and different services are
purchased through E- business application.
Customer to Customer (C2C)
In C2C model, E- business revolves around two individual who deal with
each other in their individual capacities and play a designated role as a
buyer/seller, teacher/student, manager /officer, brother /sister. E –Mailing, sending
E-greeting, payments, ordering and sending gifts are the c2c model application.
In a knowledge driven economy, our human capital constitute a critical success
factor .The global view is that the school curriculum should equip student with the
abilities and attitude to become independent and lifelong learners to meet the ever
changing challenges in their future studies and careers and nature them to become
socially responsible citizens. Computer technology is becoming both more useful
and more cost effective for many fields of teaching. And yet only you, the teacher,
can determine whether these methods will prove effective in your classroom.
Whatever you decide, remember that technology complements, but does not
fundamentally alter, the elements of teaching.
Modern Trends in Educational Practices – Educational ,Evaluation
,Research ,Information and Communication Technology
- Dr.T .K Mathew
- Mr. Pramod Thomas George
(Rain book publication- pp-151 -177)
Sure Success Series, PN Publication (pp 89-102)
Technology Assessment and Evaluation in Education
- Dr. A Antony (pp 70-84)