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Introduction to e-resources
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E resources

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E resources

  2. 2. 2 INTRODUCTION An electronic resource is any information source that the library provides access to in an electronic format. The library has purchased subscriptions to many electronic information resources in order to provide you with access to them free of charge. Computers and related electronic resources have come to play a central role in education. Teachers can benefit from these resources as well, by employing a series of useful tools. Electronic resources consist of data representing numbers, text, graphics, images, maps, moving images, music, sounds, etc., and programs of instruction sets. Before the development of computer and internet technology, printed version of resources like books, journals, dictionaries, work books, etc played a significant role in teaching and learning process. Therefore, of the different e-resources knowledge, e-resources development and preservation of them has become the need of this hour for teacher education. E‐resources and e‐learning are increasingly important to all aspects, and all levels of education.
  3. 3. 3 Five Promising Uses of New Technology Of the many electronic teaching techniques that instructors have found useful, we have chosen five that we believe seem particularly likely to help significant numbers of teachers. All of these techniques demand an investment of time if they are to succeed, and your willingness to use them should be balanced carefully against other, perhaps more important, teaching priorities. But for each technique, there are both simple and complex ways of proceeding, and we will try to make clear the respective advantages and disadvantages. The five ways in which we suggest teachers consider using electronic resources involve tasks that you will usually have to perform in any case. New technologies can help you perform them better and more easily:  Administration: The routine administration of courses (advertising a class, providing copies of the syllabus, assigning discussion sections, and getting out course news) can be more efficiently handled with a course home page, electronic discussion groups, and e-mail lists. These tools can also dramatically improve the continuity and the community aspects of courses, helping students to engage with and learn from each other and even from people outside the course.  Readings/sources: The Web and CD-ROMs provide a wider variety of secondary and primary sources (including visual and audio sources) than has previously been available. With your guidance, your students can now gain access to materials that were once accessible only to experts because they were too cumbersome to reproduce for classroom use or too expensive for students to purchase. By taking their own paths through these sources, students can bring their own evidence and arguments into lectures and discussion sections, as well as write on a wider range of research topics.  Papers/presentations: Rather than performing assignments and taking exams from the teacher alone, students can perform more independent exercises in publishing, exhibit building, or assembling and presenting teaching units and other materials for their peers. A web archive of several terms' work can make the course itself an ongoing and collaborative intellectual construction.  Lectures: A computer with presentation software can provide a single tool for augmenting lectures with outlines, slides, statistical charts and tables, images, music, and even video clips. In addition to printing them as
  4. 4. 4 handouts, you can save in-class presentations in a web-compatible format for later review and discussion.  Discussion: Electronic discussion tools such as e-mail, conferencing software, and on-line chat services can seed discussion questions before the class meets, draw out your shy students, and follow up on discussions or questions on the reading between classes. For courses without face-to-face discussion sections, these tools can bring the course to life over great distances and help overcome scheduling difficulties. Web Resources A computer network of geographically distributed multiple computers connected in a manner to enable meaningful transmission and exchange of information among them. Sharing of information, sharing of resources (both hardware and software) and sharing of processing load are some of the major objectives of computer networks. Social Networking Social networking is a web based services that allow individual to create a public profile, to create a list of users with whom to share connections, and view and cross the connections with in the system. Social networking sites are varied and they incorporate new information and communicate tools such as , mobile connectivity , photos/videos/sharing and blogging social networking sites allow user to share ideas , pictures, posts ,activities ,events , and interests with people in their networks. The most commonly used social networking services are:  Facebook  LinkedIn  Twitter Facebook Facebook is a social networking service and website launched in February 4 , 2004,operated and privately owned by facebook.Inc. As of July 2011, facebook has more than 80 million active users. Faceboook was founded by Mark Zukeberg at Harvard. Facebook has affected at social life and activity of people in various ways. It allows users to continuously stay in touch with friends and relatives wherever
  5. 5. 5 they are in the world as long as there is access to internet. It can also unite people with common interest and /or beliefs through groups and other pages, and has been to reunite tots f family members and friends. LinkedIn LinkedIn is a social networking website for people in professional occupation. Founded in December 2002 and launched on May 5, 2003, it was mainly used for professional networking. The site available in 20 languages, including English, French, German etc One purpose of the site is to allow registered users to maintain a list of content details of people with whom they have some level of relationship, called “Connections”. Users can invite anyone (whether a site user or not) to become a connections. However, if the invitee selects ‘I don’t know’ or ‘spam’, this counts against the inviter. If the inviter gets too many of such responses, the accounts may be restricted or closed. Twitter Twitter is a free social networking and micro blogging service that enable its user to sent and red each other’s updates known as tweets. Tweets are text based posts of up to 140 characters displayed on the authors profile page and delivered to other users –known as followers- who have subscribed to them. The service is free over the internet, but using SMS may incur phone service Provider fee. Since its creation in 2006 by Jacky Dorsey, Twitter has gained notability and popularity worldwide. In a recent survey twitter ranked third most used social network. Use of Twitter as an Educational Tool  Promote digital literacy  Support liberal education  Fosters technological literacy  Promotes questioning and answering  Helps integrate technology into teaching and learning  Provides a method for instruction that uses technology Use of Twitter to teachers
  6. 6. 6  Promote participation  Provide reminders to students  Provide feedback immediately  Foster personalized updates Educational blogs A blog (web blog) is a type of website part of a web site. Blogs usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, description of events, or other material such as graphics of video entries are commonly displayed in reverse chronological order. Blogging is at of posting content on blog/posting comments on a someone else’s blog. Blogging allows people to interact with each other. Blogging has also become a popular search engine optimization tool. Educational blogging is blogging by students, teachers, administrators, industry experts, and other involved entities that focus primarily on the educational process and educational interest. Blogs in Teaching and Learning There are many way to use blogging in teaching and learning. An existing blog can be used to provide information and insight. They will provide examples to increase the quality of student’s blog entries. Encourages the students to create a blog for others to reflect these ideas.  Activate Motivate with blogs. Use a blog as a catalyst to generate interest in new topic. Help student see the excitement and energy that can be found in a subject.  Connect Provide a context/establish a connection. Bring relevance to the discussion by using a real world situation.Critique
  7. 7. 7  Critique Critically evaluate an idea/ perspective by using examples to support a position. Many of these examples can be found in professional blogs.  Deepen Add depth to a learning situation by providing a detailed explanation, thoughtful observation/new source that provide additional information/insight.  Expand Broaden thinking by providing an alternative perspective /different point of view.  Fresh look Use blogs to provide current immediately relevant examples.  Inform Provide primary sources /data that can help and explain already presented.  Launch Look for blogs as a place for new innovative idas.Be the first to present a new idea rather than simply commending ob the work of others. Ask questions to keep the new ideas going.  Synthesizes Bring a number of ideas together. Importance of Blogs in Education  Teacher related blogs  Helps to share useful information and tips among co – workers dispersing information to student/keeping in context with parents and also to share ideas with one another on what has worked with student and what has not.
  8. 8. 8  Helps to communicate with one another regarding any issues in education that they may be having including classroom management techniques and policies.  Act as a supportsystem for teacher where they can access ideas, tools and gain support and gain recognition from other professional in their field.  Way to communicate and enhance classroom instruction among their students. The ability for both the teacher and the student to edit context allows for study to take place outside the classroom environment  Way to post important information such as homework, important data’s, missed lessons, projects, discussions board, and other useful classroom information that is a accessible by all. Student can access this information from home/ from any other computer that is connected to the internet.  Students blogs  With the use of blogs in the classroom, students learn from one another and individually express themselves as well. In higher education, blogs are often use as reflective journals.  The use of blogs in education gives students global perspectives. Teachers from different states, countries and continents are able to collaborate on different projects and learning.  Learning through blogs allows students to take control of their own learning and steer it to their own needs.  Children’s are different, but a common thread of learning can unite them. The use of the blogs in the classroom embeds
  9. 9. 9 technological literacy in children that will help them in adulthood.  Parents blog  Teacher and parents can also use blogs in order to communicate with one another. Information can be posted for parents on special event occurring in the classroom such as field trips, celebrations and presentation.  Blogging is also a central tool for parents to find out daily assignment so that they can check up on their children and classroom expectations. Having this class clear and open communication between parents and students can ensure success.  Assisting parents on what is developmentally appropriate for their children on a blog could open communication and help parenting skill as well.  A teacher first priority is to educate their students, but educating and communicating openly with parents through blogs is a helpful tool to keep lines of communication opens between teacher and student families. Electronic Journals (E- Journals) Electronic journal are also known as E-Journals. They are scholarly journals or intellectual magazines that can be accessed via electronic transmission. Some electronic journals are online only journals. Some are online version of printed journals and some consist of the online equivalent of printed journals, but with additional online only. Most of commercial journals are subscription based or allow pay per view access. Many universities subscribe bulk to packages of electronic journals, so as to provide access to them to their students and faculty. It is generally also possible for individuals to purchase an annual subscription to a journal, via the original publisher.
  10. 10. 10 Advantages of E- Journals  Speed Articles can be put on the web as soon as they are ready without having to wait may be months for a space in a journal issue. This means that the information is much more up to date that can be achieved with paper.  Easily searchable Searchability is one of the core advantages of a digital format.  Interactive  Accessible  Added value  Inexpensive  Flexibility Disadvantage of electronic journals  Difficulty in reading computer screen The main disadvantage of digital information is the limitation of the computer monitor.  Often not included in indexing and abstracting services  Authenticity  Search engine ignore PDF files Podcasting Podcasts are basically digital audio programs that can be subscribed to and down loaded by listeners. In other words a podcast is a digital audio recording, with or without images, which instruction can use to deliver content to students in an easy asynchronous fashion. Once generated, podcasts can be disseminated online through personal websites or podcasts directories.
  11. 11. 11 Podcasting is the ability to create or listen to audio or video content either live or downloaded for later use. Podcasting involves the online publication of digital files (audio, video other formats) within a channel to which others can subscribe and obtain updates .The term ‘Podcasting’ was first mentioned by Ben Hammersly in February 2004. Benefits of podcasting in classroom Podcasting gives educators on opportunity to bridge the traditional classroom setting with progressive state of the art technologies. There are several advantages of bringing podcasting into the classroom for lectures and student assignments. These are  Podcasting is an exciting and novel means for students to take a more active role in their own learning experience. As student realizes their podcast assignments may be published online with hundreds of potential listeners through free podcast directories, their attention to the quality and detail of their assignment may improve.  Podcasting is adaptable to the students learning needs. Students can access the material whenever and as often as they would like, thereby reinforcing critical concepts or details they may have missed in the original classroom lectures.  Assignments that require students to generate, edit and publish their own podcast reinforce critical communication skill such as writing a script that will be presented in a classroom. E- Learning E- Learning is the delivery of learning; training or education program by electronic means- learning involves the use of a computer or electronic device in some way to provide training, education or learning material. E-learning means “the delivery of learning with the assistance of interactive, electronic technology, whether offline or online” E- Learning is essentially a computer and network enabled transfer of skills and knowledge- learning application and process include:
  12. 12. 12  Web based learning  Computer assisted learning  Virtual education opportunities  Digital collaboration Characteristics of E- Learning  Learning is self paced and gives students a chance to speed up or slow down as necessary  Designed around the learner  Enhances computer and internet skills  Foster greater student/instructor contact  Overall student costs are frequently less  Geographical barriers are eliminated, opening up broader education options. Web based learning It is often called online learning or E-Learning because it include online course content. Web based courses may also provide static pages such as printed courses materials. One of the values of using the wed to access course material is they wed pages may contain hyperlinks to the other parts of the web, thus enabling access to a vast amount of web base information .A “Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) OR Managed Learning Environment is all in one teaching and learning software package. Advantage of Web based learning  Ability to link resources in many different formats  Efficient way of delivering course material  Resources can be made available from any location at any time  Encourages more independent and active learning  Provides a useful source of supplementary material to conventional programmes. Disadvantages of wed based learning  Access to appropriate computer equipment can be a problem for students  The necessary infrastructure must be available and affordable
  13. 13. 13  Information can vary in quality and accuracy .So guidance and sign posting is needed  Student can feel isolated  Learners find it frustrating if they cannot access graphics, images, and video clips because of poor equipment. Electronic Commerce Electronic commerce means the use of electronic transmission medium (telecommunication) to engage in the exchange, including buying and selling of products and services requiring transportations, either physically or digitally from location to location. Potential Benefit of Electronic Commerce In order for business to invest resources to engage in electronic commerce, the benefits must exceed the costs. So benefits can businesses potentially gain from engaging in electronic commerce.  Internet and web- based electronic commerce is more affordable than traditional electronic data interchange system.  Internet and web based electronic commerce allow more business partners to be reached than with traditional EDI  Procurement processing cost can be lowered  Reduction in inventories  Lower cycle times  Better customer services  Lower sales and marketing costs Business is not the only beneficiaries of internet electronic commerce; consumers may also reap benefits from using the internet .Some benefits that consumers may expect to receive are :  Increased choice of vendor and products  Convenience from shopping at home or office  Greater amounts of information that can be accessed on demand  More competitive prices and increased price comparison capabilities  Greater customization in the delivery of services.
  14. 14. 14 E- Commerce Applications E- Commerce applications can be broadly classified into the following categories, depending upon the extent, scope and functionality of these applications:  Business to Consumer (B2C)  Business to Business (B2B)  Customer to Business (C2B)  Customer to Customer (C2C) Business to Consumer (B2C) These are those applications, which make business come closer to the customer or consumer and vice versa, in order to offer an attractive electronic market place, where products and services can be sold and purchased. This business is done by providing well designed web sites, which are like to our normal shops in the market, with the products and services to be sold, displayed with the description and price. Some of the examples of these type of E- commerce applications are shopping sites, Home banking, Entertainment services like video on demand, movies, games, etc. Educational services like wed based learning, virtual classroom, market research etc. Business to Business (B2B) Business to business electronic commerce involves “Internet – enabling” of existing relationships between two companies. Clusters of buyers, sellers, and intermediaries in already mature industries are banding together to build extranets. A business to business extranet is a secured business network of several cooperating organizations, typically operated through VAN.A well managed extranet can offer a business and the companies with whom it does business many of the benefits of an electronic data interchange system, without many of the drawbacks.
  15. 15. 15 Customer to Business (C2B In C2B model, customer interacts with information databases such as product catalogues, price information, configures the products, compare the cost, place the order and have it delivered after electronic payment process. The products like computers, books, CDs, music system and different services are purchased through E- business application. Customer to Customer (C2C) In C2C model, E- business revolves around two individual who deal with each other in their individual capacities and play a designated role as a buyer/seller, teacher/student, manager /officer, brother /sister. E –Mailing, sending E-greeting, payments, ordering and sending gifts are the c2c model application.
  16. 16. 16 CONCLUSION In a knowledge driven economy, our human capital constitute a critical success factor .The global view is that the school curriculum should equip student with the abilities and attitude to become independent and lifelong learners to meet the ever changing challenges in their future studies and careers and nature them to become socially responsible citizens. Computer technology is becoming both more useful and more cost effective for many fields of teaching. And yet only you, the teacher, can determine whether these methods will prove effective in your classroom. Whatever you decide, remember that technology complements, but does not fundamentally alter, the elements of teaching.
  17. 17. 17 REFERENCES 1. Books  Modern Trends in Educational Practices – Educational ,Evaluation ,Research ,Information and Communication Technology - Dr.T .K Mathew - Mr. Pramod Thomas George (Rain book publication- pp-151 -177)  Sure Success Series, PN Publication (pp 89-102)  Technology Assessment and Evaluation in Education - Dr. A Antony (pp 70-84) 2. Websites   
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