1920s

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Introduction to the 1920s. Created for my VCE History class.

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1920s

  1. 1. 1920’S The Roaring Twenties
  2. 2. Aims Understand the relationship between cultural  expression and;  Political,  Social, and  Economic developments. In your assignment you will   Describe the work of a artist or cultural group from the 1920s.  Explain how they connect with the social and political times.
  3. 3. Films set in the 1920s Bullets Over Broadway (1994)  Chaplin (1992)  The Cat's Meow (2001)  The Mummy (1999)  Cabaret (1972)  The Untouchables (1987) 
  4. 4. The 1920s This was a time of growth, modernity, and  optimism. It was known as;  The Jazz Age  The Golden Age  The Good Times Decade
  5. 5. Trends in the 1920s Mass production  Mass media  Massive fame/celebrity  New morality  New music, movies and dances. 
  6. 6. Homework Find one person famous in the 1920s.  Post the following information to the Red  Space Rocket forum by Friday September 5.  Name  Dateof Birth  What they were famous for.
  7. 7. Define What is morality?  Give five example of media from 2008.  What does it mean to be famous? 
  8. 8. After The War The Great War had just  ended. June 1919 - Treaty of  Versailles signed.  Severe penalties for Germany.  Army limited to 100,000 men, lost all territories, pay reparations.
  9. 9. In Australia The soldiers came home  and people hoped life would go back to normal. Big spending on roads and  infrastructure.  Governmentsborrowed money from Britain to pay for this.
  10. 10. In America “Return to normalcy”  Isolationist view for America.   Wanted to keep to themselves “The chief business of the  American people is business.”
  11. 11. Great Wealth The 1920s was a time when many people in  America did well. Some were left out.   Some farmers  Migrants  African Americans
  12. 12. Culture New music including  Jazz. New fashions including  the flapper fashion. New dances such as  the Charleston. New movies in colour  and with sound. New roles for women  especially in the workplace.
  13. 13. The Economy New technologies from  the war. Building boom.  Industrial growth.  Many could buy homes,  cars and appliances. Personal and government  debt.  Buy now, pay later.
  14. 14. Politics Tariffs introduced in many countries to protect  manufacturing and farms. Suspicion of unions and socialism.  Increase in Xenophobia.   Fear of foreigners.
  15. 15. Questions What is xenophobia?  What is socialism?  What does a tariff do to the price of something  imported?
  16. 16. Cars became affordable and popular Henry Ford sold 15 million Model T Fords by  1927. Businesses such as petrol stations, motels  and making oil all boomed.
  17. 17. Prohibition Prohibition of alcohol   The Volstead Act. 1919.  32,000 speakeasies in New York in the 1920s.  Drinking cocktails popular in upper classes.  Prohibition repealed in December 1933.
  18. 18. Side Effects of Prohibition Organised Crime  Bootlegging  Gangs  Al Capone   Famous gangster  Known as “Scarface”.  Convicted 1931 of tax evasion.
  19. 19. Al Capone
  20. 20. Activity Write 2 of your own newspaper headlines  about activities associated with Prohibition.
  21. 21. Jazz Americans bought more than 100 million  records in 1927. More than 100 “territory” bands toured the  country playing at dances.  The Deluxe Melody Boys  Jesse Stone's Blue Serenaders  Walter Page and his Blue Devils.  Andy Kirk's Clouds of Joy
  22. 22. Activity Name your own 1920s style band.   Your Name + Adjective + Noun
  23. 23. Reactions to Jazz In small town America jazz  was an annoyance and made morals loose. Encouraged violence,  drunkenness and sexual activity. Professor Henry Van Dyck  of Princeton University.  “it is not music at all. It is merely an irritation of the nerves of hearing”
  24. 24. A Jazz Dance In Australia
  25. 25. Activity (in your workbook) What music is considered  dangerous to morals today?  Give example of genres and artists.  What are behaviour do critics claim this music encourages?  How much does this have in common with the reaction to jazz?
  26. 26. Famous composers and musicians Louis Armstrong  Irving Berlin  George Gershwin  Duke Ellington  Jelly Roll Morton  Al Jolson 
  27. 27. Louis Armstrong
  28. 28. Duke Ellington
  29. 29. George Gershwin
  30. 30. Irving Berlin
  31. 31. Dancing – The Charleston Popular in jazz clubs.  Vigorous and sexual  Believed to have originated with African  Americans.
  32. 32. The Charleston
  33. 33. Fashion and Flappers Flapper behaviour. The  archetypal flapper; A young women  Dances in clubs at night.  Smoked cigarettes.  Rode bicycles and drove cars.  Drank alcohol openly.  Cut her hair “boyishly” and dyed it black.
  34. 34. The Flapper Look
  35. 35. Flapper Fashion The “bob” haircut was popular.  Didn’t wear corsets or pantaloons.  Dresses were straight and loose.  Arms were bare.  Waistline dropped to the hips.  Rayon stockings were held up with  garter belts. Skirt lines were sometimes almost up  to the knee. A round hat called a cloche.  Wore make up, previously worn only  by actresses and prostitutes.
  36. 36. Activity Draw a flapper.   Labelwhich elements of flapper fashion are in fashion now.
  37. 37. The Movies Come Alive Mass production and improvements in  technology meant that more movies were made and more people saw them. This meant that films starts became nationally and internationally famous.
  38. 38. The Movies Come Alive Movie actors were very famous, adored and  well paid. Famous actors included   Rudolph Valentino  Fatty Arbuckle  Charlie Chaplin  Buster Keaton  Mary Pickford  Douglas Fairbanks  Lon Chaney
  39. 39. Rudolph Valentino
  40. 40. Buster Keaton
  41. 41. Charlie Chaplin
  42. 42. Mary Pickford
  43. 43. Fatty Arbuckle
  44. 44. Films popular in Australia Fears that family life was  being eroded. Most films silent, the first talky,  The Jazz Singer, shown in Australia in 1929. Influx of American films in the  1920 effectively killed Australian cinema industry.
  45. 45. Radio very popular in Australia The Wireless was very  popular.  First regular broadcasts in 1923.  Listeners paid a licence to listen.  290,000 issued by 1929.  Broadcasting licences managed by the Postmaster-General’s Department.  Australian Broadcasting Corporation created in
  46. 46. Sportsmen were Stars in America “Big Five” sporting icons of the Roaring  Twenties  Babe Ruth (baseball)  Jack Dempsey (boxing)  Red Grange (college football)  Bill Tilden (tennis)  Bobby Jones (golf)
  47. 47. Babe Ruth
  48. 48. Jack Dempsey
  49. 49. Focus: Jack Dempsey Jack Dempsey   Heavyweight boxer  Held the title from 1919 – 1926  His record  83 Fights  62 Wins  50 KOs  6 Losses  9 Draws
  50. 50. Cultural and Political clash Tradition versus Modern life.  The Scopes Monkey trial   Also known as the Monkey Trial  Conflict between evolutionists and creationists but also rural and urban America.
  51. 51. In Australia Australia experienced many of the same  trends as America.
  52. 52. Popular Sports in Australia Football  Cricket  Boxing  Horse racing  Running  Cycling  Wrestling  Attending sport was not expensive. 
  53. 53. Politics: Changes for Women Changes for women   Women in the workforce under pressure to go back to the home once the war was over.  1920: Mrs Mary Rodgers becomes Australia’s first female councillor.  1921: Edith Cowan elected to West Australian House of Representatives.  Pushed through legislation to allow women to work in the legal profession.  1922: Melbourne: The Industrial Court of Appeal rejects concept of equal pay for women
  54. 54. Flight in Australia Record-setting pilots were  heroes.  Ross and Keith Smith  Bert Hinkler  Charles Kingsford Smith QANTAS begins  passenger service in 1922. The Flying Doctor started  in 1928.
  55. 55. Charles Kingsford Smith
  56. 56. Focus: Charles Kingsford Smith Born 1897  Earned his wings with the Royal Flying Corp in  1917. Worked as a stunt flyer or barnstormer in the USA  before returning to Australia. Made the first Trans-Pacific flight from California  to Brisbane in 1928. Flew over the Tasman Sea to New Zealand  Non-stop from Melbourne to Perth.  Won the England to Australia flying race in 1930. 
  57. 57. Economy: Money in Australia Weekly wages in 1929   Bricklayer$12.50  Shop assistant $9.00, women $5.80  Nurse $4.80 Prices in 1929   Butter 24c for 500 grams  Petrol 4.1 cents per litre.  Rent for a four bedroom house $2.00
  58. 58. Activity Estimate the 2008 value of;   The weekly wages for a bricklayer  500 grams of butter  1 litre of petrol  Weekly rent for a four bedroom house.
  59. 59. Cars in Australia Cars became more popular  75 thousand cars in 1920   230 thousand cars in 1925  540 thousand cars in 1929 Activity  Produce a column graph for car ownership in these  years.
  60. 60. Cars in Australia Local production  Ford started making cars in Geelong in  1925. General Motors started in Australia in  1926. Cars were still expensive.  The smallest car, the Austin 7, cost  more than the average wage for a whole year. Activity  How does your social life and general  life change when you have a car? Name five things in full sentences. 
  61. 61. Politics in Australia 1927: Federal Parliament sits for the first time  in Canberra, the nation’s capital.  Parliamentopened by the Duke of York (later King George VI)  There were 15,000 invited guests.  Canberra has just 6,000 residents in 1927. Nationalist PM Stanley Bruce 1923 to 1929. 
  62. 62. The 20s in Germany Germany fails to make war reparation  payments. The French and the Belgians take the Ruhr  region. The German Government advocated and  funds passive resistance.  Prints money to cover this.  This lead to hyperinflation.
  63. 63. Hyperinflation People with mortgages saw their debt wiped  out. Middle class people with savings found them  without value. Old people found their pensions worthless.  This makes the economy and society  unstable.
  64. 64. Social Changes in Germany Women, Gender and Sex   Increase in prostitution.  Gender bending common in theatre and cabaret.  Women smoked and wore trousers.  Flappers were common Really decadent society.  Indoor bathrooms. 
  65. 65. Hitler’s Early Efforts Hitler attempts to seize power in Bavaria in  1923.  Gets only five years in prison for his treason.
  66. 66. Activity Give an example from the 1920s of each of  these trends  Mass production  Mass media  Massive fame/celebrity  New morality  New music, movies and dances.

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