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  1. 1. California: Part 2 Kristen Cox History 141
  2. 2. New World: Geology and Conservation  Geology  1847 Yale founded Sheffield Scientific School, brought talented geologist to California  California Academy of Sciences, goal to survey state and collect rare and rich productions  Geological Survey, measuring heights and land formations  Mining, brought about invention of the Pelton turbine  Lester Pelton 1880 patent water turbine, multiplied power of running water  Premise for hydro electrical generation  Conservation  Transfer of Yosemite Valley to federal jurisdiction 1890  Advocated creation of national park system
  3. 3. New World: Technology  Electronics  Transcontinental phone calls, radio, television, and high speed electrons  Semiconductor- replace vacuum tube with nonmetallic solid material  Bardeen and Brattain used crystal germanium  William Shockley, Palo Alto, 1956 founded Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory  Goal to produce silicone transistor  Intel Corporation, invented microchip processor intelligence programmed via software  Jobs and Wozniak  Mission make computers available to millions of Americans  Apple I prototype  Biotechnological research  40% in the US within California  Lewrence Laboratory at Berkley, epicenter for futher nuclear research. 7 won nobel prizes.
  4. 4. New World: Fight and Astronomy  Flight- metaphor of the dream of California  James Montgomery, experiments heavier-than-air air glider  August 1883 altitude of fifteen feet, glided for six hundred feet, and safely landed  Wright brothers heavier-than-air craft December 17, 1903 in North Carolina  California capitalize on invention  January 1910, Los Angeles County Chamber of Commerce, air show  Right climate, engineering, technology, entrepreneurial sprit and capital  Names associated with aviation in California synonymous with flight itself  Astronomy- penetration of space  James Lick, died October 1876, left funs to build observatory for most powerful telescope on the planet  The Lick Observatory, mount Hamilton Santa Clara County  Turned over to University of California  The Hooker telescope, Pasadena December 1908, increased observable universe by 300 percent  George Ellery Hale, 200 inch disk upgrade of Throop Polytechnic Institute into a first rate center of scientific research
  5. 5. An Imagined Place: Film and Literature  Film  Industrialization of film production in Hollywood in the 1920’s  Reliably good weather, distance from subpoena servers with suits against producers not willing to pay what they thought was fair for licensing and reel footage fees  Americans caught glimpses of life in California  Mid 30s takeover of Germany by National Socialism  Mass emigration of talented Europeans  Southern California provided opportunities for employment in the film industry, climate, and distance from conflict  Cold War, testimonies naming produced blacklist of members of the Communist Party  High point of social commentary, dark, drama, political tensions, race, class, mistrust of separated men and women, and distrust of government sending soldiers to war  Writing, inspiration of 1940s film, with detective stories, preoccupation with California themes of nature, naturalism, and bohemia with added politicized community resistance  Simplistic relationship to nature, urban matters, with solipsistic drama of self against society  California as a emotionally empty place, bleakness, disconnect, fake promise of youth, impending doom  The Beats of 1950- anguish of postwar generation oppressed by materialism, refuge in sex, drugs, and rebellion
  6. 6. An Imagined Place: Painting, Photography, and Architecture  Painting  1920’s Landscapes in Postimpressionist style  Social Realism to California brought by the depression  Daily life, backyard bbq, suburbia, Sunday afternoon  1930’s popularity of mural, capacity for political statement  Expressive and figurative paintings flourished in 1940s  Photography, Depression brought true photographic realism. Attention turned to social turmoil  Architecture  Arts and crafts inspired style first two decades  Modernism appeared pre-World War I era, clean lines, surfaces, minimalist presentation  Characterize high end architecture  1950s postwar building boom, domestic tradition, California Ranch style
  7. 7. An Imagined Place: Music and the Outdoors  Music- shirt from conservative to the avant-garde  Sound in motion pictures, composers 1930s,  took musical modernism to new heights  Jazz orchestra, progressive modes  Fusing of pop and modernism  Intensification of country music with the migration from Dust Bowl states during the depression  Outdoor life  Middle class Californians opportunity to recreation typically for upper class  San Francisco Bay Area 1860s, German immigrants founded Olympic Club  Swimming, free public surf, rough water swimming, swimming and boating clubs  California 1907 Anglo-Hawaiian brought surfing  Affordable. Widespread, became icon of the California lifestyle  Baseball in California flourished in 1859  Mountaineering, skiing, rock climbing, windsurfing and hang gliding
  8. 8. Forging a World Society  Gold rush “world rushed in” nearly every country sent people to California, diversity  California founded on racial distinctions and repression  Disenfranchisement of blacks and Asians  Aggression against Mexican land titles  Lynching and Chinese must go crusade  Anti Japanese “white California” segregation of school children, barring from land ownership, incarceration of Japanese Americans during WWI  White “okies”, ethnic prejudice, despised in physical selves, slack-jawed and incestuous  LA emerged as one of most important centers of Jewish civilization  Anti-Semitism swept California between WWI and WWII  Early 1900 SF more foreign born residents relative to population than any other city in US  Korean immigrants, second influx of Mexicans, Filipinos, Japanese, Sikhs  Armenians, fleeing Ottoman Turkish persecution  WWII more African Americans to California to work
  9. 9. Forging a World Society  1965 Immigration and Nationality Acts- reforming immigration laws  Excluded groups now equal immigrations, favored reuniting families  Refugees from Southeast Asia and Bangladesh  Racial, ethnic, and religious covenants of exclusion in real estate  Continuing divide between blacks and whites  Watts riots of 1965  Los Angeles riots of 1992  O.J. Simpson trial of 1995  Illegal Immigration  1993 ranked one of three major problems in California; along with crime and the economy, both related to that issue  “Save Our State” Prop 187, November 1994, withdrawal of public support for undocumented Californians  Passed but never implemented, states cant regulate immigration  Create opinion, call to focus, illegals costing great deal of money
  10. 10. Forging a World Society  Affirmative action  Keeping Asian 4.0 gpa from top UC and admitting 3.0 gpa African American or Latino  1998 race and gender based preferences at UC ended  California Civil Rights Initiative, Prop 209, November 1996, outlawing affirmative action  1998 Prop 227 disestablishment of California bilingual education program, replaced with one year immersion in English language proficiency  Economy of California reliant on undocumented workers  Gov. Davis bill authorizing issuance of drivers licenses to undocumented workers  Struck opposition, repealed once Schwarzenegger became governor  Californians becoming more like each other. Common culture of California