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The First World War
Boys and Girls! War Savings
Stamps Poster by James
Montgomery Flagg 1917-18
SSUSH 15
SSUSH15.a
• Describe the movement from U.S. neutrality to engagement in World
War I, with reference to unrestrict...
3
The First World War:
•War involving nearly all the nations of the world
•1914-1918
What?
When?
4
The First World War:
Why? Long term -
1. Alliance system
2. Imperialist
Competition
3. Stockpiling of
Weapons
Short term...
5
The First World War:
Who?
Germany
Austria-Hungary
Ottoman Empire
Bulgaria
Russia
France
Great Britain
Italy
Japan
United...
6
The First World War:
Where?
7
Why did it take so long for America to
get involved in the war?
•America was isolationist
•“Why should I get involved in...
8
The Conflicts Expands
July 28, 1914 Austria-Hungry declares
war on Serbia.
July 29th
, Serbia’s protector, Russia
began ...
9
Thinking Slide:
•Is isolationism really an option for
a country as powerful as the United
States?
10
Which side should the US pick?
•11 million German-
Americans
•Irish-Americans hated
Great Britain
•Close cultural ties
...
12
1914 – 1915 Illusions and Stalemate
Many Europeans were
excited about war
“Defend yourself against
the aggressors”
Dome...
13
1914 – 1915 Illusions and Stalemate
War would be over in a
few weeks
Ignored the length and
brutality of the American
C...
14
1914 – 1915 Illusions and Stalemate
Belief that Modern
industrial war could
not be conducted for
more than a few
months...
15
1914 – 1915 Illusions and Stalemate
“Fatal attraction of war”
Exhilarating release from
every day life
A glorious adven...
16
What did it take to get the US involved?
1. Blockades
•Britain blockaded
(stopped) all
German ships
going to America
•G...
17
What did it take to get the US involved?
1. Blockades
•In May, 1915 Germany told
Americans to stay off of British
ships...
18
What did it take to get the US involved?
1. Blockades
•Lusitania
torpedoed, sinking
with 1200
passengers and
crew (incl...
19
What did it take to get the US involved?
1. Blockades
•The US sharply
criticized Germany
for their action
•Germany agre...
20
What did it take to get the US involved?
2. Unlimited Submarine Warfare
•1917 Germany
announced
“unlimited
submarine wa...
21
What did it take to get the US involved?
3. Zimmerman Note
•US intercepted a note from Germany to Mexico,
•It promised ...
22
What did it take to get the US involved?
•Zimmerman
Note + the
sinking of 4
unarmed
American ships
led to a
declaration...
23
Thinking Slide:
•Should we tell the story of
WWI with Germany as the
“bad guy”? Explain.
24
How was the war looking for the allies?
•Russia left the war after its communist revolution in
1917
•Made it a one fron...
25
Convincing the American People
Posters - Gee!!
•How do you think this
poster helped to convince
the American people tha...
U.S. Propaganda Posters
U.S. Propaganda Posters
U.S. Propaganda Posters
U.S. Propaganda Posters
30
Convincing the American People
1. War to End All Wars
Idealism: 2 Goals For War:
2. Making the World Safe for Democracy
31
Can there be positive results from warfare?
Technological
advancements
(weapons)
Advancements in
medicine
Advancements ...
32
On the
Home Front
To strengthen the war
effort, the
American
government
expanded its
control over the
economy and
broug...
33
How did the War Affect the US?
Women
•Women filled factory jobs
•May have led 19th Ammendment after the war
(Gave women...
34
What did the US do to help?
•US provided the
food, money,
and fresh toops
needed to win
the war
American Troops March T...
35
How did the War Affect the US?
Enforcing Loyalty
•Hatred of all things German
•Ex. “Liberty Cabbage”
•Espionage Act 191...
36
How did the U.S. enforce loyalty?
• Formed the Committee on Public
Education: Rallies on popular support for
the war wi...
37
Liberty Bonds – special war bonds
sold to support the Allied cause.
- Raised about $20 billion,
Sec. of Treasury McAdoo...
38
What else is going on?
The Great Migration
African Americans to the
North, “Land of hope”
1910-1920: 1.2 million
Push f...
39
Convincing the American People
Idealism: Fourteen Points
What? President
Wilson’s Plan for after
the war
•Fourteen prom...
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
The first five points were general in nature and may be
summarized as follows:
(1) open covenants...
Fourteen Points Con’t
(6) evacuation and general restoration of conquered
territories in Russia;
(7) preservation of Belgi...
Last of the “14”
(12) Turkish control only of their own peoples and
freedom of navigation through the Dardanelles;
(13) th...
Peace Treaty: Treaty of Versailles
Germany wasn’t invited to the meeting.
Germany expected the treaty to be based on
Wilso...
Wilson had to compromise!
France wanted to totally humiliate Germany,
maybe even totally destroy them as a nation.
Italy w...
What the treaty said for
Germany…
Germany had to take full responsibility for the war
Germany had to pay for all the war d...
Treaty of Versailles
How fair was this treaty to Germany?
Which of the nations would have been the most
pleased with the o...
Post W.W.I MapPost W.W.I Map
Cause and Effects of W.W.ICause and Effects of W.W.I
ºImperialism leads to international rivalries, particularly within
Eu...
Military Casualties in World War I 1914-1918
Belgium 45,550
British Empire 942,135
France 1,368,000
Greece 23,098
Italy 68...
50
World War 1: US point of view
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World War 1: US point of view

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World War 1: US point of view

  1. 1. The First World War Boys and Girls! War Savings Stamps Poster by James Montgomery Flagg 1917-18
  2. 2. SSUSH 15 SSUSH15.a • Describe the movement from U.S. neutrality to engagement in World War I, with reference to unrestricted submarine warfare. SSUSH15.b • Explain the domestic impact of World War I, reflected by the origins of the Great Migration, and the Espionage Act and socialist Eugene Debs. SSUSH15.c • Explain Wilson's Fourteen Points, the proposed League of Nations. SSUSH15.d • Passage of the Eighteenth Amendment, establishing Prohibition, and the Nineteenth Amendment, establishing women’s suffrage. 2
  3. 3. 3 The First World War: •War involving nearly all the nations of the world •1914-1918 What? When?
  4. 4. 4 The First World War: Why? Long term - 1. Alliance system 2. Imperialist Competition 3. Stockpiling of Weapons Short term - Assassination of Franz Ferdinand of the Austro- Hungarian Empire Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria and his Wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg one hour before their deaths, June 28, 1914
  5. 5. 5 The First World War: Who? Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Russia France Great Britain Italy Japan United States (1917) Central Powers: Allies:
  6. 6. 6 The First World War: Where?
  7. 7. 7 Why did it take so long for America to get involved in the war? •America was isolationist •“Why should I get involved in someone else’s problems”
  8. 8. 8 The Conflicts Expands July 28, 1914 Austria-Hungry declares war on Serbia. July 29th , Serbia’s protector, Russia began mobilization. Germany demands that Russia stops mobilizing. France begins to ready it’s troops. Aug. 1, 1914 Germany declares war on Russia. • Schlieffen Plan • Brings Great Britain into war. Great powers divided • Central Powers • Allies Stalemate: a situation in which neither side is able to gain the advantage. Trench Warfare American Response 1/3 of American population were 1st or 2nd generation immigrants. (1/4 German American, 1/8 Irish) Most Americans opposed Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany. (autocracy) American Neutrality • Preparedness Movement • Peace Movement
  9. 9. 9 Thinking Slide: •Is isolationism really an option for a country as powerful as the United States?
  10. 10. 10 Which side should the US pick? •11 million German- Americans •Irish-Americans hated Great Britain •Close cultural ties •Shared transatlantic cables (so censored stories) •Big business loaned much $ to allies Central Powers: Allies: Nations 1914 1915 1916 Britain $594,271,863 $911,794,954 $1,526,685,102 France $159,818,924 $364,397,170 $628,851,988 Germany $344,794,276 $28,863,354 $288,899 US Exports to both sides:
  11. 11. 12 1914 – 1915 Illusions and Stalemate Many Europeans were excited about war “Defend yourself against the aggressors” Domestic differences were put aside
  12. 12. 13 1914 – 1915 Illusions and Stalemate War would be over in a few weeks Ignored the length and brutality of the American Civil War (prototype to World War I)
  13. 13. 14 1914 – 1915 Illusions and Stalemate Belief that Modern industrial war could not be conducted for more than a few months “Home by Christmas”
  14. 14. 15 1914 – 1915 Illusions and Stalemate “Fatal attraction of war” Exhilarating release from every day life A glorious adventure War would rid the nations of selfishness Spark a national re-birth based on heroism
  15. 15. 16 What did it take to get the US involved? 1. Blockades •Britain blockaded (stopped) all German ships going to America •Germany announced a submarine war around Britain Y-53 German Submarine 1916
  16. 16. 17 What did it take to get the US involved? 1. Blockades •In May, 1915 Germany told Americans to stay off of British ships •They could/would sink them
  17. 17. 18 What did it take to get the US involved? 1. Blockades •Lusitania torpedoed, sinking with 1200 passengers and crew (including 128 Americans) •Was eventually found to be carrying 4200 cases of ammunitionGerman Propaganda Justifying Lusitania sinking
  18. 18. 19 What did it take to get the US involved? 1. Blockades •The US sharply criticized Germany for their action •Germany agreed not to sink passenger ships without warning in the future Note in Bottle After Lusitania Disaster
  19. 19. 20 What did it take to get the US involved? 2. Unlimited Submarine Warfare •1917 Germany announced “unlimited submarine warfare” in the war zone Why? Otherwise their blockade would not be successful
  20. 20. 21 What did it take to get the US involved? 3. Zimmerman Note •US intercepted a note from Germany to Mexico, •It promised Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona back in return for an alliance
  21. 21. 22 What did it take to get the US involved? •Zimmerman Note + the sinking of 4 unarmed American ships led to a declaration of war
  22. 22. 23 Thinking Slide: •Should we tell the story of WWI with Germany as the “bad guy”? Explain.
  23. 23. 24 How was the war looking for the allies? •Russia left the war after its communist revolution in 1917 •Made it a one front war for Germany - all its troops could concentrate on France Not Good...
  24. 24. 25 Convincing the American People Posters - Gee!! •How do you think this poster helped to convince the American people that the war was a good idea?
  25. 25. U.S. Propaganda Posters
  26. 26. U.S. Propaganda Posters
  27. 27. U.S. Propaganda Posters
  28. 28. U.S. Propaganda Posters
  29. 29. 30 Convincing the American People 1. War to End All Wars Idealism: 2 Goals For War: 2. Making the World Safe for Democracy
  30. 30. 31 Can there be positive results from warfare? Technological advancements (weapons) Advancements in medicine Advancements in transportation
  31. 31. 32 On the Home Front To strengthen the war effort, the American government expanded its control over the economy and brought changes to American society. Many individuals who didn’t have jobs had them now. Women, Af Amers, Mexican-Americans.
  32. 32. 33 How did the War Affect the US? Women •Women filled factory jobs •May have led 19th Ammendment after the war (Gave women the right to vote) •Black soldiers still served in Segregated Units African Americans •“Great Migration” - thousands of African Americans moved North to work in factories
  33. 33. 34 What did the US do to help? •US provided the food, money, and fresh toops needed to win the war American Troops March Through London Supplies:
  34. 34. 35 How did the War Affect the US? Enforcing Loyalty •Hatred of all things German •Ex. “Liberty Cabbage” •Espionage Act 1917 & Sedition Act of 1918 punished those against the war (many labor leaders)
  35. 35. 36 How did the U.S. enforce loyalty? • Formed the Committee on Public Education: Rallies on popular support for the war with films, posters, and pamphlets. • Literacy test for immigrants: Congress passed a law forcing immigrants to prove they can read before entering the country. Law leads to nativism and increased anti- German feeling. • The Sedition Act of 1918: Makes it illegal to make “disloyal” statements about U.S. gov’t or military. • Espionage Act of 1917: Passed in response to fears that German secret agents might try to weaken American war effort. Act makes it illegal to interfere with the “DRAFT”
  36. 36. 37 Liberty Bonds – special war bonds sold to support the Allied cause. - Raised about $20 billion, Sec. of Treasury McAdoo. Price controls – system of pricing determined by the gov’t on food to prevent waste and increase production. Rationing – distributing goods to consumers in a fixed amount. Daylight Saving Time – turning clocks ahead one
  37. 37. 38 What else is going on? The Great Migration African Americans to the North, “Land of hope” 1910-1920: 1.2 million Push factors • Jim Crow & violence • Low pay jobs • Ruined crops Pull factors • Economic prosperity in North • Jobs opened (imm quotas) • Freedmen’s bureau/aid
  38. 38. 39 Convincing the American People Idealism: Fourteen Points What? President Wilson’s Plan for after the war •Fourteen promises, including freedom of the seas & a League of Nations to work for peace President Woodrow Wilson
  39. 39. Wilson’s Fourteen Points The first five points were general in nature and may be summarized as follows: (1) open covenants of peace; (2) freedom of the seas; (3) removal of economic barriers between nations as far as possible; (4) reduction of armaments to needs for domestic safety; (5) impartial adjustment of colonial claims;
  40. 40. Fourteen Points Con’t (6) evacuation and general restoration of conquered territories in Russia; (7) preservation of Belgian sovereignty; (8) settlement of the Alsace-Lorraine; (9) redrawing of Italian frontiers according to nationalities; (10) the division of Austria-Hungary in conformance
  41. 41. Last of the “14” (12) Turkish control only of their own peoples and freedom of navigation through the Dardanelles; (13) the establishment of an independent Poland with access to the sea. The last point! (14) General association of nations The League of Nations grew out of the 14th point.
  42. 42. Peace Treaty: Treaty of Versailles Germany wasn’t invited to the meeting. Germany expected the treaty to be based on Wilson’s Fourteen Points. The problem was that the “Big Four” could not agree on the terms to the treaty. French premier, Georges Clemenceau took advantage of the weakness to Wilson’s plan to demand harsh penalties for Germany.
  43. 43. Wilson had to compromise! France wanted to totally humiliate Germany, maybe even totally destroy them as a nation. Italy wanted territory it had been promised for leaving the German’s side. So, Wilson formed the grounds for the League of Nations. An organization that would join together to ensure security and peace for all members.
  44. 44. What the treaty said for Germany… Germany had to take full responsibility for the war Germany had to pay for all the war damage (reparations) Germany’s army was reduced to 100,000 men Germany could have no airforce or submarines, and was limited to six large ships Germany lost territory on all sides, including the area for Poland to be created
  45. 45. Treaty of Versailles How fair was this treaty to Germany? Which of the nations would have been the most pleased with the outcome? Explain Most importantly; think about the effects of the treaty for the future of the world. Remember that this treaty was to prevent another European war from ever breaking out again. You know what happened in 1939…..
  46. 46. Post W.W.I MapPost W.W.I Map
  47. 47. Cause and Effects of W.W.ICause and Effects of W.W.I ºImperialism leads to international rivalries, particularly within Europe. ºNationalism between and within countries intensifies. ºMilitary buildup in Europe intensifies. ºArchduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary is assassinated. ºAustria-Hungary declares war on Serbia. World War IWorld War I ºMap of Europe is redrawn. ºLeague of Nations is formed. ºUnited States economy is boosted. ºUnited States suffers post-war disillusionment.
  48. 48. Military Casualties in World War I 1914-1918 Belgium 45,550 British Empire 942,135 France 1,368,000 Greece 23,098 Italy 680,000 Japan 1,344 Montenegro 3,000 Portugal 8,145 Romania 300,000 Russia 1,700,000 Serbia 45,000 United States 116,516 0 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 1,000,000 1,200,000 1,400,000 1,600,000 1,800,000 2,000,000 Deaths Germany Russia France Aus-Hun Britain U.S. https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=y59wErqg4Xg (Crash Course)
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