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California Powerpoint 1

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  1. 1. California: Part 1 Kristen Cox History 141
  2. 2. Great Expectations: Statewide Water System  1878 Drainage Act- $100,000 for irrigation, drainage, and navigation  May 14, 1901 gravity canal, Colorado flowed into the Salton skin  Second canal, October 1904, bank of Colorado across northern Mexico into Imperial Valley  Poured into valley, 360 million cubic feet per hour, flooded  Southern Pacific, stanch flooding with rocks, gravel, and clay February 10, 1907, prevented California turning into Water World  Board of Public Works (1898), Board of Water Commissioners(1903)  Develop water plans and programs  Tapping rivers: Owens for LA, Tuolumne for SF: dams, reservoirs, aqueducts  Hydroelectricity- enabled each city to serve four million residents  Damage to environment  Loss of Hetch Hetchy Valley, Tuolumne river dammed an valley filled  LA siphoned Owens River, desiccation and devastation of Owens Valley
  3. 3. Great Expectations: Architecture and Economy  New generation of architects, from Paris, Studios in US  survived earthquake and fire of April 1906, rebuild city  Domestic design for middle and upper class- Beaux Arts style (elegant)  University Culture, Stanford- idealized garden, implementations of Mediterranean, University of California at Berkley- developed Beaux Arts city of learning, classical revival  City Beautiful movement, to be implemented in SF, day before earthquake, rebuilt on O'Farrell's grid of 1847 instead  San Diego, John Nolen. As the Naples or Rio de Janeiro of N. Hemisphere  Harbor side, Italian & Spanish buildings, palms, plazas, neo Mediterranean setting of hills, sea, and sky  1900 to 1930 creation of metropolitan California: LA, SD, Southern Cali as new American scene  Job market: building trades, oil, hotel and tourist, aviation, motion pictures, fishing, Nay and Marine Corps, University jobs  Prosperity, new construction: Ambassador Hotel, Coliseum, Rose Bowl Stadium, Biltmore Hotel, Central Library of LA, California Cub, and expanding university campuses  Construction of film sets in Hollywood, rise of film industry  Unify Bay Area- Oakland Bay Bridge and Golden Gate bridge  GG across GG Strait between SF and Marin County, authorize 1930, finished 1937, icon of American civilization  Establishment of Banks, of Italy and of America  finance construction, bonds for construction projects  Farmers keep properties during Depression because of load system
  4. 4. Great Expectations: Population and Economy  White majority population  Oligarchs- older Southern California families, enjoying first-generation wealth  Babbits- newly arrived middle class; corporation executives, bankers, lawyers, doctors, real estate developers, automobile dealers  Folks- white Anglo-Saxon Protestants from Midwest, rural or small town backgrounds  Mexican American population  1920 to 1930 city of LA minority group tripled: 33,644 to 97,116  LA leading Mexican American community in the US  Meatpacking tire manufacture, auto assembly, manual jobs  African American Population  Started small, prosperous, republican  As grew lost status, encountered racial attitudes, explicit color lines
  5. 5. Making it Happen: Labor through GD, Strikes  General Strike of 1901  SF city wide strike by Teamsters Union  Formation of the Union Labor Party in San Francisco  October 1, 1910, metal trades strike, bombed headquarters of Times  Industrial Workers of the World (IWW, Wobblies)  Romantic anarchism, Marxist socialism, distrust of big shots, seize state and establish industrial utopia  1912 dock strike San Diego Authorities pulled Wobblies off trains into custody, roughed up.  August 1913 Wheatland  Bench collapsed, fighting started, deputy fired into air, gunfire broke out  IWW fled scene, impression they were responsible  July 22, 1916 bomb set off in S during Preparedness Day parade  April 30th 1919 criminal Syndicalism Act  Felony to advocate or promulgate violence to change industrial ownership of effect political changes, or belong to organization  Mexican Mutual Aid Society of Imperial Valley, May 1928  Protest wages and working conditions to President of Mexico, who protested to Pres. of US, who sent the state department official to investigate
  6. 6. Making it Happen: Labor through GD, CAWIU & ILA  Cannery and Agricultural Workers Industrial Union (CAWIU)  Used mimeograph machine, thousands of leaflets in different languages and spread with automobile, widespread organization.  Authorities conducted roundups, arrests, harassments, indictments, and trials  CAWIU strikes August 1931, November 1932, an four more in 1933  Strikers assaulted with blackjacks, night sticks, high-pressure hoses, emplacement of Army surplus machine guns  The Cotton Strike of 1933  Largest agricultural strike  Vigilantes shot strikers killed two and injured eight, became permanent group, The Associated Farmers of California Inc. • Associated Farmer fan of the Red Scare  Police raided CAWIU state headquarters. Convicted 8 to prison one to fourteen years  Released September 1937 by Third District Court of Appeal of the State of California  International Longshoremen‟s Association (ILA)  May 1934 Largest maritime strike, joined by locals in numerous cities and followed by over 13 unions  June 18 1934, employers claiming to president Communist take over  July 3rd strikers prevent exit of trucks, police fired into crowd, killed striker  July 5th “Bloody Thursday”- tear gas, guns, shot strikers, clubbed, gassed, hit with projectiles • General strike that shut down city July 15th
  7. 7. Making it Happen: Labor through GD, EPIC  End Poverty in California (EPIC) – Upton Sinclair, production for use, not profit  Influence of Franklin D. Roosevelt‟s New Deal  old age pensions $50 per month, reappearing as Social Security  $150 to 15-20 million Americans 60+ to recharge stalled economy  1937 Townsend movement  Ham „n‟ Eggs for Californians campaign booklet  $30 every Thursday to unemployed Californians over fifty  Defeated in the election of November 1938 but supported electing Downey to U.S. Senate  United Farm Workers- huelga, orchestrated by Cesar Chavez  Employers take labor for granted, pay and house workers cheaply as possible; didn‟t end  Suggested a better way
  8. 8. War and Peace: Japanese experiencing racism  Early as 1900s Japanese immigrants scapegoat, “yellow peril,” “white California” crusade  1905 Chronicle campaign to segregate Japanese children in public schools of SF  1908 Gentlemen‟s Agreement with Japan  Japanese not issue more passports to laborers US withdraw SF ordinance  1913 Alien Land Act- prohibited Jap immigrants from owning land in California  bill became law, extended with discussion of segregation 1920  California determinedly anti-Japanese, toxic level of racism  Immigration Act of 1924 prohibited immigration of Japanese  Poisoned relationship between nations  Attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941  Rounded up suspected Japanese aliens  Removal and relocation of Japanese • Executive Order 9066, War Department to remove suspicious or possibly dangerous people from military areas • February 1942, articles calling for removal of Japanese from coast, attorney general Warren wanted evacuation of all Japanese, many supporters • March 1, 1942 DeWitt (head of Western Defense Command) issued Proclamation Number One, Western half of Cali, Oregon, Washington, and southern third Arizona; Japanese to be removed. • March 18, Roosevelt, Executive Order 9102, Civilian War Relocation Authority • Establish and administer relocation camps • 110,000 Japanese behind barbed wire for next 3 years or more
  9. 9. War and Peace: War Society and Industry  SF premier military command center, pot of embarkation and supply on the Pacific Coast  Italy surrender, POW option to join Italian Service Units  Performed non combat duty for Army  1945 Italians throughout SF with US Army uniforms with Italy patch  Camp Pendleton  Marine recruiting depot in SD, purchased for training in 1942  Strong navy and military presence in SD  Ubiquitous presence of uniformed men and women in California during the war years  Zoot Suit Riots, June 1943 between young servicemen and young Mexican Americans  Mexicans now treated as enemy with Japanese in camps  June 3rd, Sailors moves on Mexican American girls, provoked brawl with Mexican American youths  June 4th, taxicabs drove sailors and marines through city • Surround zoot-suiters, pull of pants, rough up, cut hair • Press reports that zoot-suiters organizing counter attack  Naval officials put end to riot, court-martial servicemen who did not immediately return  War brought triumphs of industrial culture  Women needed to work in ship building effort  Social sophistication: pooled transportation, day care centers, equality of women, medical care, food service, banking, postal outlets, big band dances and concerts  Germany and Japan surrender May 1945 brought end of War
  10. 10. War and Peace: Building Suburbia  Population growth- 1962 most populous state in nation  During war 1.6 moved to CA, other military training there, or gone on leave there  Population gain 53% between 1940 and 1950  Physical and social infrastructure overwhelmed by influx: housing shortage and overburdened highways  Disneyland, July 1955 made utopian statement  Complex urban environments, deliberately created, incorporated regional and related cultural values, Small town living, more intimate America  Probed urban future, planned and controlled environment, paradigm for OC  Master Plan for Higher Education  Support by taxpayers, UC system vehicle for own betterment  Conceptualized itself and a higher- education utopia  Consolidated state college campuses into multiple campus CSU