The 1920s


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The 1920s

  1. 1. The 1920s<br />
  2. 2. The changing map of Europe in the 1920s<br />The Treaty of Versailles was eventually signed in June 1919.<br />It dealt with Germany and created the nation of Poland from Russian and German land.<br />The Polish Corridor divided Germany in two.<br />
  3. 3. The Other Treaties<br />Separate treaties were signed with Austria and Hungary.<br />The Treaty of St Germain (1919) dealt with Austria. It created the new nation of Czechoslovakia. <br />Land was also taken from Germany to form Czechoslovakia.<br />
  4. 4. Czechoslovakia<br />The creation of Czechoslovakia from German territory will cause problems in the future.<br />The areas in red indicate where the population of Czechoslovakia were ethnic Germans.<br />
  5. 5. New decade, New directions.<br />After the Treaty negotiations had been completed and the League of Nations had been formed the world’s most powerful nations will go in very different directions.<br />
  6. 6. Great Britain<br />Germany’s navy had been severely weakened by Versailles.<br />It had also lost its colonies.<br />Britain focused on managing its vast empire.<br />Many British felt that the final terms of Versailles were too harsh.<br />A British official and famous economist warned that the Treaty of Versailles was “The framework of future problems”.<br />
  7. 7. France<br />The French were worried that Germany would ignore the Treaty of Versailles and rearm.<br />As Britain lost interest in Europe the French signed a series of defence alliances:<br />Belgium (1920)<br />Poland (1921)<br />Czechoslovakia (1924)<br />They also increased the level of military spending significantly.<br />
  8. 8. Germany<br />Germans had been horrified by the Treaty of Versailles.<br />When the reparations bill was set at 6,600 Million Pounds in 1921 Germans were outraged.<br />Many people blamed the problems facing Germany after World War One on the Treaty of Versailles – and the Big Three.<br />
  9. 9. The United States<br />The United States chose not to join the League of Nations.<br />It adopted a policy of ‘Isolationism’ (not getting involved with the affairs of other countries).<br />Many Americans did not want to get dragged into Europe’s wars.<br />Others did not trust Britain and France and felt they would use American soldiers to expand their own empires.<br />A large number of Americans came from Germany ancestry and felt angry about Versailles.<br />
  10. 10. The United States’ concerns<br />
  11. 11. The Worlds’ concerns<br />
  12. 12. The Jazz Age in America<br />America had been left undamaged by World War One.<br />The United States was an immensely wealthy country and had benefited from the war.<br />While European nations had been fighting the USA had dramatically increased its exports around the world.<br />The impact of the war on Germany meant that the USA became the new world leader in the production of chemicals and other industrial products.<br />
  13. 13. The Jazz Age in America<br />The American government had even been able to lend France and Britain the money they needed to fight World War One.<br />Britain and France planned to pay this back with some of the Reparations money from Germany<br />
  14. 14. The Jazz Age in America<br />New methods of factory production made it cheaper to make everything from cars to radios to telephones.<br />The American economy boomed, creating an immense amount of wealth and a huge of range of exciting new products.<br />Although this did not actually create a large number of new jobs most Americans felt they were living through golden times.<br />
  15. 15. The Jazz Age in America<br />Number of millionaires<br />1914: 7,000<br /> 1928: 35,000<br />Number of Model T Fords produced:<br />1900: 4000<br />1929: 4.8 million.<br />Average worker’s annual wage<br />1919: $1,158<br />1927: $1,304.<br />
  16. 16. Most white Americans felt that they had something to celebrate.<br />Fashions, dances and popular bands changed at a whirlwind pace.<br />Talking motion pictures arrived in 1927 and astounded audiences.<br />Dancehalls spilled out into the streets in the major cities.<br />Jazz musicians from the southern states headed to Chicago, New York and Kansas to play to the crowds.<br />The Jazz Age had begun.<br />
  17. 17. Black Americans still suffered due to segregation and prejudice.<br />As immigrants left war-torn Europe looking for opportunity they encountered hatred and prejudice.<br />The group most targeted for discrimination and abuse were African Americans – especially in the south.<br />Membership of organisations like the Ku Klux Klan soared.<br />The 1920s was also known as the AGE OF INTOLERANCE<br />
  18. 18. The Prohibition Era.<br />Between 1920 and 1933 it was illegal to make or sell alcohol in the United States.<br />The Prohibition movement (which wanted alcohol banned) claimed that drinking led to families breaking up, violence, madness and even communism.<br />During the war drinking was seen as unpatriotic (partly because many of the large breweries were owned by German companies).<br />
  19. 19. The Gangster Era.<br />In the major cities gangsters supplied alcohol illegally, often having fierce turf wars to control territory.<br />Al Capone is suspected of killing at least 300 men so he could gain control of Chicago’s illegal alcohol trade.<br />He was a hugely popular figure in Chicago and was famous for his generosity (often giving $100 tips to waiters or giving away cars to guests at parties).<br />Corrupt officials (including Mayors, Police Chiefs and FBI agents) made it possible for organised crime to make over $2 billion….<br />
  20. 20. 1923: Germany stops payments<br />The German government had borrowed money from industry to pay for the war.<br />The German government was unwilling to raise taxes to pay the reparations (you can imagine how the German people would have reacted to that!!!)<br />In 1921 Germany paid the first instalment of 50 million pounds in gold, wood and coal.<br />In 1922 nothing was paid. Germany claimed that the payment would cripple their economy.<br />
  21. 21. If you were France what would you do?<br />France had borrowed heavily from the United States.<br />Of the ‘Big Three’ it had been devastated the most.<br />What do you think France should do?<br />Invade Germany by itself.<br />Go to the League of Nations to resolve the issue and agree to accept their decision.<br />Ask Britain to take action with France.<br />Ask the United States to write off the money France owed it – after all the USA was a very wealthy nation.<br />Ignore it and hope that reparations payments will start again when Germany recovers.<br />
  22. 22. What France did.<br />The Ruhr was a major industrial area of Germany.<br />It contained a wealth of resources like coal and steel.<br />It produced a lot of machinery and industrial equipment.<br />
  23. 23. Invasion of the Ruhr.<br />The French sent troops into the Ruhr.<br />They warned Germany that they would occupy the territory until reparations were paid. <br />In the meantime they would take the value of the reparations in coal, steel, tractors and any other equipment they needed.<br />
  24. 24. The German response<br />The German workers went on strike and refused to work.<br />Germans in the Ruhr hated how they were harassed by French officers. <br />For example, many described being forced to walk in the gutters so the French troops would not have to share a pavement with them.<br />Cartoonists and newspapers condemned the French.<br />
  25. 25. 1923: Hyperinflation<br />The Ruhr made a lot of Germany products.<br />Without the Ruhr the government was unable to cover the costs of running a country.<br />The German government ‘solved’ this problem by simply printing more money.<br />This just reduced the value of money (making it worthless).<br />Businesses raised the prices of products so they could get enough of the now worthless currency to cover their expenses.<br />This lead to a rapid increase in prices – HYPERINFLATION.<br />
  26. 26. 1923: Hyperinflation<br />Imagine buying a $1.00 soft drink in Germany<br />Jan 1923 (RUHR invaded)<br />$1<br />July 1923 <br />$69.65<br />Nov 1923<br />$260 682 226<br />
  27. 27. 1923: Hyperinflation<br />
  28. 28. How was this resolved?THE DAWES PLAN (1924)<br />General Dawes (US Politician)<br />His plan:<br />Lent money to Germany to help them pay reparations.<br />Gave Germany longer to pay.<br />WHY DID AMERICA CARE?<br />
  29. 29. A GREAT BIG MONEY-GO-ROUNDTHE DAWES PLAN (1924)<br />Because the money lent to Germany would eventually get paid back to America!<br />
  30. 30. This was also supported by theTHE YOUNG PLAN (1929)<br />The YOUNG PLAN (developed by an American banker).<br />Reduced the reparations amount from 6,600 million pounds to 2000 million pounds.<br />Germany had until 1988 to pay it back!<br />
  31. 31. The real reason France left the RuhrTHE LOCARNO PACT(1925)<br />Germany, France, Belgium, Britain and Italy signed it.<br />Germany agreed to accept its western border with France and Belgium as final.<br />Fireworks and Church bells went off in France.<br />French troops left the Ruhr.<br />Germany was allowed to join the League of Nations in 1926.<br />
  32. 32. Evaluate the 1920s<br />Which do you feel is the MOST accurate statement?<br />By the end of the 1920s a second World War is:<br />Less likely.<br />More likely.<br />Write down ONE point to support you point of view.<br />