Additional notes parts & functions of a computer

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Additional notes parts & functions of a computer

  1. 1. Parts & Functions of a Computer
  2. 2. Functions of a Computer2
  3. 3. Binary Communication Between Hardware and Software3
  4. 4. PC Hardware Components• Outside computer case: input/output devices• Inside the case: processing and storage – CPU – most important component• Requirements of a hardware device – Method for CPU to communicate with it – Software to instruct and control it – Electricity to power it 4
  5. 5. Hardware Used for Input and Output• Connects to computer case by ports (eg, serial, parallel, USB, game, keyboard, mouse)• Popular input devices: – Keyboard – Mouse• Popular output devices: – Monitor – Printer 5
  6. 6. Ports Physical Interface between a computer and another computers or devices6
  7. 7. Input Devices7
  8. 8. Output Devices8
  9. 9. Hardware Inside the Case9
  10. 10. Motherboard Components• Processing • Communication with – CPU (most important) other devices – Chip set – Traces• Temporary storage – Expansion slots – RAM – System clock – Cache memory • Programming/setup• Electrical system data – Power supply – Flash ROM connections – CMOS setup chip10
  11. 11. The Motherboard11
  12. 12. The Motherboard (continued)12
  13. 13. The CPU13
  14. 14. The Chip Set• Controls most activities on the motherboard• Includes several device controllers – USB controller – Memory controller – IDE controller 14
  15. 15. The Chip Set (continued)15
  16. 16. Storage Devices• Temporary (primary storage, or memory) – Temporarily holds data and instructions while processing them – Faster to access than permanent storage• Permanent (secondary storage) – Data and instructions must be copied into primary storage (RAM) for processing16
  17. 17. Primary and Secondary Storage17
  18. 18. Primary Storage Devices• Memory, or RAM, located on motherboard and other circuit boards – Volatile versus nonvolatile (or ROM) memory• Types of boards that hold memory chips – SIMMs – DIMMs – RIMMs18
  19. 19. RAM Chips19
  20. 20. Types of RAM Modules20
  21. 21. Secondary Storage Devices• Hard drives• CD-ROM drives• DVD drives• Zip drives• Floppy drives21
  22. 22. Hard Drive22
  23. 23. EIDE Technology• Used by most hard drives, CD-ROM drives, and DVD drives• Can accommodate up to four EIDE devices on one system 23
  24. 24. IDE Connectors on a Motherboard24
  25. 25. IDE Connectors on a Motherboard (continued)25
  26. 26. IDE Connectors on a Motherboard26
  27. 27. Hard Drive’s Power Supply27
  28. 28. Floppy Drive Connection28
  29. 29. Floppy Drive Connection (continued)29
  30. 30. CD-ROM Drive Connection30
  31. 31. Motherboard Components Used for Communication Among Devices• The data bus – bus is a subsystem that transfers data between computer components inside a computer or between computers31
  32. 32. Data Bus32
  33. 33. System Clock Closely related to system time is process time, which is a count of the total CPU time consumed by an executing process.33
  34. 34. Clock Speed• Of motherboard – Measured in megahertz (MHz)• Of CPU – Measured in gigahertz (GHz)34
  35. 35. Expansion Slots35
  36. 36. Types of Expansion Slots36
  37. 37. Interface (Expansion) Cards37
  38. 38. Interface (Expansion) Cards (continued)38
  39. 39. The Electrical System• Power supply – Most important component of computer’s electrical system – Converts/reduces electricity to voltage the computer can handle – Runs a fan directly from electrical output voltage to cool inside of computer case 39
  40. 40. The Electrical System (continued)40
  41. 41. The Electrical System (continued)41
  42. 42. Instructions Stored on the Motherboard• ROM BIOS (most are flash ROM) – System BIOS – Startup BIOS – CMOS setup42
  43. 43. ROM BIOS Chip43
  44. 44. Motherboard Configuration Settings• CMOS chip – Stores setup (configuration) information – Powered by a battery on motherboard when power is off44
  45. 45. Summary• Introduction to hardware components of a computer system• Initial insight into how hardware works45

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