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MPPT Based Optimal Charge Controller in PV system


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MPPT Based Optimal Charge Controller in PV system

  1. 1. Presented By Malik Sameeullah M.Tech (RES) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KURUKSHETRA 1
  2. 2. Contents             Solar PV Sector Type of Solar PV system Need of Charge Controller and MPPT Solar PV Cell: Basic model Type of Battery: features and characteristics Basic Charge controller model Buck Boost Converter MPPT model MPPT Based Optimum Controller Design Conclusion Research Work and Future Work References 2
  3. 3. Solar Power Sector  India lies in a sunny tropical belt (High      insolation) Total approximate potential annually over 5000 trillion kWh Over 70% of India’s households experience significant power cuts every year National Solar Mission and other Generation Based Incentives (GBI) are available through Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) JNNSM have a mission to install 20 GW solar PV plant by 2022 Cost of PV module, land scarcity and technological barrier is a main restriction. Current cost of production is ` 12/KWh and expected cost is ` 6/KWh by 2020 Jawahar Lal Nehru National Solar Mission Target 2010-2013 On grid PV power of 1000-2000 MW Off grid PV application 200 MW Solar collector 7 million sq. meter 2013-2017 On grid PV power of 4000-10000 MW Off grid PV application 1000 MW Solar collector 15 million sq. meter 2017-2022 On grid PV power of 22000 MW Off grid PV application 2000 MW Solar collector 20 million sq. meter 3
  4. 4. Type of Solar PV System Solar PV System Grid Connected PV Large scale production Off Grid PV System Hybrid PV System With Battery Wind-PV hybrid system (Without Battery) (e.g. for houses and industries) With Battery Without Battery Solar Lamp, Solar mobile charger etc. PV-Diesel hybrid System (Smart Grid concept) PV based Utilities (PV water Pump) 4
  5. 5. Need of Charge Controller and MPPT  Battery is a costly device and must be managed properly.  It is found if proper care is taken then life of battery increase significantly  A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries  Charge Controller take care of battery under voltage and over voltage condition  MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker) is a electronic device which maximize PV module output under varying operating condition 5
  6. 6. Solar PV Cell: Basic Model  I Dark condition V Illumination 6
  7. 7. Solar PV Diode Model Equivalent circuit of PV cell I-V curve of PV cell P-V curve of PV cell 7
  8. 8. Battery  The cell is the basic electrochemical unit in a battery, consisting of a set of positive and negative plates divided by separators, immersed in an electrolyte solution and enclosed in a case.  Nominal cell voltage is 2.1 V for lead acid battery Primary function of battery in PV system: 1. Energy storage and autonomy 2. Voltage and current stabilization 3. Supply surge current 8
  9. 9. Secondary battery types and characteristics Battery Type Cost Deep cycle Performance Maintenance Lead Antimony Low Good high Lead-Calcium open vent Low Poor Medium Lead-Calcium sealed vent Low Poor Low Lead Antimony/Calcium hybrid Medium Good Medium Gelled Medium Fair Low Absorbed glass Mat Medium Fair Low Sintered Plate High Good None Pocket Plate high good Medium Flooded Lead Acid Captive Electrolyte Lead Acid Nickel-Cadmium 9
  10. 10. Battery Parameters  Battery Capacity (Ah): It is the maximum charge storage capacity of a battery.  Battery Voltage (V): It is the terminal voltage of battery under no load condition  Depth of Discharge (DoD): This is a measure of how much energy has been withdraw from a battery.  Battery Life cycle: It is defined as number of complete charge-discharge cycle that battery can perform before it nominal capacity fall below 80% of initial value Graph between Depth of Discharge and Life cycle of batteries(data is approx.) 10
  11. 11. Factor Affecting Battery Performance  Operating voltage range  Magnitude of battery discharge current  Battery temperature during discharge  Choice of battery for particular application Ideal charging characteristics for a lead-acid battery 11
  12. 12. DC-DC Converter  Used for converting DC voltage from one level to another  It is used to convert unregulated DC into a controlled DC output  Suitable for PV system where due to change in atmospheric condition DC output change continuously  It is also a basic component of MPPT system 12
  13. 13. Topologies of DC-DC Converter Isolated type converter Grid tied system used this topologies, as isolation is required for safety reason Flyback Non-Isolated type converter Most of the DC drive used this converter. No need of transformer . Buck-Boost Half Bridge SEPIC Full Bridge Cuk 13
  14. 14. Basic Converter  It consist of switch which operate continuously to maintain output voltage Fundamental switching converter circuit 14
  15. 15. BUCK Converter • Used for step down of DC voltage BOOST Converter • Used for step up of DC voltage 15
  16. 16. BUCK-BOOST Converter  The basic principle of the buck–boost operation 1. While in the On-state, the input voltage source is directly connected to the inductor (L). This results in accumulating energy in L. In this stage, the capacitor supplies energy to the output load. 2. While in the Off-state, the inductor is connected to the output load and capacitor, so energy is transferred from L to C and R. Buck Boost Converter 16
  17. 17. Type of Charge Controller  Shunt Type Charge Controller  Series Type Charge Controller Shunt Converter  DC-DC Converter Type Charge Controller No additional losses due to switch and better regulation of battery charging Series Converter PV array DC-DC converter L O A D  MPPT Charge Controller 17
  18. 18. Maximum Power Point Tracking It consist of electronic circuit allow to collect maximum power from PV module under different condition R PV array a b’ b c c’ 18
  19. 19. Hill Climbing Method  • Hill climbing method fail environment change condition under rapid 19
  20. 20. Algorithm of Hill Climbing Method Start Set duty Yes No Yes No No  Yes 20
  21. 21. Standalone PV System  For standalone system to category of converter used, 1. Renewable side converter (RSC) and 2. Storage side converter Circuit diagram of charge controller  Inputs are actual PV voltage, PV current, battery voltage and battery current  Measurement of battery current provide additional protection again overcurrent condition 21
  22. 22. Optimal Charge Controller Logic Controller of DC-DC converter 22
  23. 23. Study of Output Response of Controller Conventional controller output Hill Climbing MPPT Method track for maximum power and for battery voltage higher than maximum limit than need to open switch Proposed scheme It always track for maximum power condition. when battery voltage or current is above the set limit than it try to push converter toward low power extraction region and provide better charging control 23
  24. 24. Conclusion  In solar PV based battery charging, MPPT algorithms are used  When the state of charge (SoC) of battery is high and system is on no-load, excess power flows into the battery  This results in low operational life of the battery  Slight variation in design of MPPT improve the charging condition of battery 24
  25. 25. Research Area and Future Work  There is number of MPPT control algorithm. Fuzzy and Neural network based MPPT algorithm are more accurate.  No of improved DC-DC converter topologies are in picture like CUK converter, Isolated converter etc.  By choosing the optimal combination of DC-DC converter and MPPT algorithm better regulation of battery is possible 25
  26. 26. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Sandeep Anand, Rajesh Singh Farswan, Bhukya Mangu, B.G. Fernades, “Optimal charging of Battery Using Solar PV in Standalone DC System,” Industrial Electronics Magazine , vol.7, no-3,pp.6 – 20, Sep 2013 Trishan Esram, and Patrick L. Chapman, “Comparison of Photovoltaic Array Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques,” IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, vol. 22, no. 2, June 2007 Tom Markvark, Luis Castaner,” Solar Cells: Material, Manufactures and operation,” Elsevier, ISBN-1856174573 Chetan Singh Solanki, “Solar Photovoltaic: Fundamentals, Technology and Applications,” Eastern Economy Edition, ISBN-9788120343863 Simon S. Ang, “Power Switching Converters,” Marcel Dekker Inc., ISBN0824796306 Paras Karki, Brijesh Adhikary, “ MATLAB/Simulink based Modeling and Simulation of Gird-connected Solar Photovoltaic System in Distribution Power Network,”Fifth International Conference on Power and Energy Systems, Kathmandu, Nepal, pp.28 - 30 October, 2013 James P. Dunlop, P. E. Florida, “Batteries and Charge Control in StandAlone Photovoltaic Systems Fundamentals and Application,” Solar Energy Center1-679, Clearlake RoadCocoa, FL 32922-5703 26
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