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MMB1 Lecture 1: Introduction to Biotechnology


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MMB1 Lecture 1: Introduction to Biotechnology

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO BIOTECHNOLOGY MBB 1 Lecture 1 Definition of Terms Historical Timeline Marilen P. Balolong, 2014 (Adapated from the lectures of AVHallare)
  2. 2. LECTURE OUTLINE Important Concepts and Definitions Historical Timeline
  3. 3. LECTURE OUTLINE Important Concepts and Definitions Historical Timeline
  4. 4. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS BIOTECHNOLOGY Utilize techniques to alter the chemistry of genetic material (DNA and RNA), to introduce these into host organisms and thus change the phenotype of the host organism Deal with techniques of using live organisms or enzymes from organisms to produce products and processes useful to humans
  5. 5. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS BIOTECHNOLOGY “Any technological application that uses biological systems, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products for specific use” (The UN Convention on Biological Diversity) !
  6. 6. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS GENETIC ENGINEERING The techniques to alter the chemistry of genetic material (DNA and RNA), to introduce these into host organisms and thus change the phenotype of the host organism
  7. 7. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS RESTRICTION ENZYMES Enzymes that are used to cut DNA segment at a specific site are called restriction enzymes
  8. 8. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS EXONUCLEASES & ENDONUCLEASES Enzymes that remove nucleotides from the ends of the DNA molecule Enzymes that make cuts at specific positions within the DNA molecule
  9. 9. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS PLASMID Autonomously replicating circular extra-chromosomal DNA of any bacteria
  10. 10. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS VECTORS May be plasmid DNA or viruses that can act as vehicle to transfer the piece of DNA attached to it !
  11. 11. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS ORIGIN OF REPLICATION (ORI) A specific DNA sequence which is responsible for initiating replication is called origin of replication
  12. 12. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS PALINDROMIC NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCES The palindrome in DNA is a sequence of base pairs that reads same on the two strands when orientation of reading is kept the same
  13. 13. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS GEL ELECTROPHORESIS The technique which is used to separate fragments of DNA
  14. 14. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS TRANSFORMATION The procedure through which a piece of DNA is introduced in a host bacterium !
  15. 15. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS INSERTIONAL INACTIVATION Inserting a recombinant DNA within coding sequence of a functional gene which makes that gene inactive (unable to express) ! !
  16. 16. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS SELECTABLE MARKER A gene e n c o d i n g d e s i r a b l e information useful in identifying and eliminating non-transformants and selectively permitting the growth of the transformants ! ! !
  17. 17. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS MICRO- INJECTION A technique in which recombinant DNA is directly injected into the nucleus of an animal cell ! ! !
  18. 18. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS GENE GUN OR BIOLISTICS A method by which p l a n t cells are bombarded with high velocity micro-particles of gold or tungsten coated with DNA ! ! ! !
  19. 19. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS BIOREACTOR Vessels in which raw materials are biologically converted into specific products, individual enzymes, etc., using microbial plant, animal or human cells ! ! ! ! !
  20. 20. LECTURE OUTLINE Important Concepts and Definitions Historical Timeline
  21. 21. 8000-4000 BC MESOPOTAMIA Humans began FARMING and animal DOMESTICATION Potatoes were first cultivated for food “Selective Breeding”
  22. 22. 2000 BC Biotechnology used to leaven bread and ferment beer, using yeast (Egypt) Production of cheese, fermentation of wine begins (Sumeria, China, Egypt)
  23. 23. 500 BC First antibiotic: Moldy soybean curds (tofu) used to treat boils (China)
  24. 24. 100 AD First insecticide: powdered chrysanthemums (China)
  25. 25. 1797: FIRST VACCINATION Edward Jenner takes pus from a cowpox lesion, inserts it into an incision on a boy's arm
  26. 26. 1830-1833 1830: Proteins are discovered 1833: Discovery and isolation of first enzymes
  27. 27. 1857: PASTEUR AND HIS CONTRIBUTIONS Louis Pasteur proposes that microbes cause fermentation He later conducts experiments that support the germ theory of disease
  28. 28. 1859: CHARLES DARWIN & BIOTECHNOLOGY Charles Darwin publishes the theory of evolution by natural selection
  29. 29. 1865: THE BIRTH OF GENETICS Gregor Mendel discovers the laws of inheritance by studying flowers in his garden
  30. 30. 1915: THE PHAGES Phages were discovered: virus that infects bacteria
  31. 31. 1927: CHROMOSOMAL DEFECTS Herman Muller discovers that radiation causes defects in chromosomes
  32. 32. 1928: THE ANTIBIOTICS ERA Sir Alexander Fleming discovers the antibiotic penicillin by chance (Penicillium mold kills bacteria) 1945 Nobel Prize in Medicine (with Ernst Boris Chain and Sir Howard Walter Florey)
  33. 33. 1944: THE GENETIC INFORMATION IN DNA DNA is proven to carry genetic information by Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod and Maclyn McCarty
  34. 34. 1953: THE DNA MODEL James Watson and Francis Crick describe the double helical structure of DNA 1962 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology (with Maurice Wilkins)
  35. 35. 1955: INSULIN SEQUENCE The amino acid sequence of insulin is discovered by Frederick Sanger
  36. 36. 1958: THE SICKLE CELL DISEASE DNA is made in a test tube for the first time Sickle cell disease is shown to occur due to a change in one amino acid
  37. 37. 1966: THE GENETIC CODE The genetic code for DNA is cracked 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Marshall Nirenberg, Robert Holley and Har Gobind Khorana)
  38. 38. 1971: RESTRICTION ENZYMES Discovery of restriction enzymes that cut and splice genetic material very specifically occurs This opens the way for gene cloning
  39. 39. 1973-1976: “COPY & PASTE” Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer perfect genetic engineering techniques to cut and paste DNA using restriction enzymes (1973) sees the first expression of a human gene in bacteria (1976)
  40. 40. 1975: MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES Georges Kohler and Cesar Milstein develop the technology to produce monoclonal antibodies — highly specific, purified antibodies derived from only one clone of cells that recognize only one antigen 1984 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (with Neils Jerne)
  41. 41. 1981: TRANSGENICS The first transgenic animals are produced by transferring genes from other animals into mice The first patent for a genetically modified organism is granted — for bacteria that can break down crude oil
  42. 42. 1982: GMO INSULIN Human insulin produced in genetically modified bacteria is the first biotech drug approved by the FDA
  43. 43. 1983: PHOTOX MY GENES The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, which makes unlimited copies of genes and gene fragments, is conceived 1993 Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Kary Mullis)
  44. 44. 1986: RECOMBINANT VACCINE & ANTI-CA DRUGS First recombinant vaccine is approved for human use: hepatitis B First anti-cancer drug is produced through biotech: interferon
  45. 45. 1987-1994: GMO CROPS First approval for field tests of a genetically modified food plant: virus- resistant tomatoes Genetically modified tomatoes are sold in the U.S. for the first time (1994)
  46. 46. 1990-2002: THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT an international effort to maps all of the genes in the human genome is launched (1990) draft version of the human genome is published (2002)
  47. 47. 1997: DOLLY report the birth of Dolly, the first animal cloned from an adult cell
  48. 48. 1998: STEM CELLS Human embryonic stem cell lines are established offer hope to many because they may be able to replace diseased or dysfunctional cells
  49. 49. 2003: THE SEQUENCING OF SARS SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) virus is sequenced three weeks after its discovery
  50. 50. 2004: COPY CAT The first cloned pet — a kitten — is delivered to its owner CopyCat (or Cc for short)
  51. 51. 2006: HPV VACCINE A recombinant vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) receives FDA approval The virus causes genital warts and can cause cervical cancer
  52. 52. AND THE REST…. ….IS HISTORY!
  53. 53. QUIZ TIME….