MMB1 Lecture 1: Introduction to Biotechnology

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MMB1 Lecture 1: Introduction to Biotechnology

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO BIOTECHNOLOGY MBB 1 Lecture 1 Definition of Terms Historical Timeline Marilen P. Balolong, 2014 (Adapated from the lectures of AVHallare)
  2. 2. LECTURE OUTLINE Important Concepts and Definitions Historical Timeline
  3. 3. LECTURE OUTLINE Important Concepts and Definitions Historical Timeline
  4. 4. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS BIOTECHNOLOGY Utilize techniques to alter the chemistry of genetic material (DNA and RNA), to introduce these into host organisms and thus change the phenotype of the host organism Deal with techniques of using live organisms or enzymes from organisms to produce products and processes useful to humans
  5. 5. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS BIOTECHNOLOGY “Any technological application that uses biological systems, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products for specific use” (The UN Convention on Biological Diversity) !
  6. 6. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS GENETIC ENGINEERING The techniques to alter the chemistry of genetic material (DNA and RNA), to introduce these into host organisms and thus change the phenotype of the host organism www.scienceclarified.com
  7. 7. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS RESTRICTION ENZYMES Enzymes that are used to cut DNA segment at a specific site are called restriction enzymes www.gizmodo.co.uk
  8. 8. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS EXONUCLEASES & ENDONUCLEASES Enzymes that remove nucleotides from the ends of the DNA molecule Enzymes that make cuts at specific positions within the DNA molecule www.fastbleep.com www.fastbleep.com
  9. 9. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS PLASMID Autonomously replicating circular extra-chromosomal DNA of any bacteria en.wikipedia.org
  10. 10. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS VECTORS May be plasmid DNA or viruses that can act as vehicle to transfer the piece of DNA attached to it ! en.wikipedia.org
  11. 11. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS ORIGIN OF REPLICATION (ORI) A specific DNA sequence which is responsible for initiating replication is called origin of replication en.wikipedia.org
  12. 12. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS PALINDROMIC NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCES The palindrome in DNA is a sequence of base pairs that reads same on the two strands when orientation of reading is kept the same europeisnotdead.com www.funnyjunk.com www.promega.com
  13. 13. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS GEL ELECTROPHORESIS The technique which is used to separate fragments of DNA en.wikipedia.org
  14. 14. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS TRANSFORMATION The procedure through which a piece of DNA is introduced in a host bacterium ! www.boundless.com
  15. 15. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS INSERTIONAL INACTIVATION Inserting a recombinant DNA within coding sequence of a functional gene which makes that gene inactive (unable to express) ! ! www.discoverbiotech.com
  16. 16. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS SELECTABLE MARKER A gene e n c o d i n g d e s i r a b l e information useful in identifying and eliminating non-transformants and selectively permitting the growth of the transformants ! ! ! www.isaaa.org
  17. 17. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS MICRO- INJECTION A technique in which recombinant DNA is directly injected into the nucleus of an animal cell ! ! ! www.gfmer.ch
  18. 18. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS GENE GUN OR BIOLISTICS A method by which p l a n t cells are bombarded with high velocity micro-particles of gold or tungsten coated with DNA ! ! ! ! naturalnewsblog.blogspot.com
  19. 19. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS BIOREACTOR Vessels in which raw materials are biologically converted into specific products, individual enzymes, etc., using microbial plant, animal or human cells ! ! ! ! ! www.iaibiopharma.com
  20. 20. LECTURE OUTLINE Important Concepts and Definitions Historical Timeline
  21. 21. 8000-4000 BC MESOPOTAMIA Humans began FARMING and animal DOMESTICATION Potatoes were first cultivated for food “Selective Breeding” www.world-class-education.org
  22. 22. 2000 BC Biotechnology used to leaven bread and ferment beer, using yeast (Egypt) Production of cheese, fermentation of wine begins (Sumeria, China, Egypt) dfwnl.com
  23. 23. 500 BC First antibiotic: Moldy soybean curds (tofu) used to treat boils (China) www.haaretz.com
  24. 24. 100 AD First insecticide: powdered chrysanthemums (China) www.21food.com
  25. 25. 1797: FIRST VACCINATION Edward Jenner takes pus from a cowpox lesion, inserts it into an incision on a boy's arm www.medelita.com
  26. 26. 1830-1833 1830: Proteins are discovered 1833: Discovery and isolation of first enzymes beautifulproteins.blogspot.com
  27. 27. 1857: PASTEUR AND HIS CONTRIBUTIONS Louis Pasteur proposes that microbes cause fermentation He later conducts experiments that support the germ theory of disease www.sciencemuseum.org.uk
  28. 28. 1859: CHARLES DARWIN & BIOTECHNOLOGY Charles Darwin publishes the theory of evolution by natural selection www.abc.net.au
  29. 29. 1865: THE BIRTH OF GENETICS Gregor Mendel discovers the laws of inheritance by studying flowers in his garden historiadenuestroperuydelmundo.blogspot.com
  30. 30. 1915: THE PHAGES Phages were discovered: virus that infects bacteria en.wikipedia.org
  31. 31. 1927: CHROMOSOMAL DEFECTS Herman Muller discovers that radiation causes defects in chromosomes en.wikipedia.org
  32. 32. 1928: THE ANTIBIOTICS ERA Sir Alexander Fleming discovers the antibiotic penicillin by chance (Penicillium mold kills bacteria) 1945 Nobel Prize in Medicine (with Ernst Boris Chain and Sir Howard Walter Florey) www.biografiasyvidas.com
  33. 33. 1944: THE GENETIC INFORMATION IN DNA DNA is proven to carry genetic information by Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod and Maclyn McCarty fos.cmb.ac.lk
  34. 34. 1953: THE DNA MODEL James Watson and Francis Crick describe the double helical structure of DNA 1962 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology (with Maurice Wilkins) medicine150.mdhs.unimelb.edu.au
  35. 35. 1955: INSULIN SEQUENCE The amino acid sequence of insulin is discovered by Frederick Sanger www.bio.davidson.edu
  36. 36. 1958: THE SICKLE CELL DISEASE DNA is made in a test tube for the first time Sickle cell disease is shown to occur due to a change in one amino acid www.nhs.uk
  37. 37. 1966: THE GENETIC CODE audioboo.fm The genetic code for DNA is cracked 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Marshall Nirenberg, Robert Holley and Har Gobind Khorana)
  38. 38. 1971: RESTRICTION ENZYMES Discovery of restriction enzymes that cut and splice genetic material very specifically occurs This opens the way for gene cloning www.simzymes.com
  39. 39. 1973-1976: “COPY & PASTE” Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer perfect genetic engineering techniques to cut and paste DNA using restriction enzymes (1973) sees the first expression of a human gene in bacteria (1976) www.businesshistory.com childofthecornx.livejournal.com
  40. 40. 1975: MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES Georges Kohler and Cesar Milstein develop the technology to produce monoclonal antibodies — highly specific, purified antibodies derived from only one clone of cells that recognize only one antigen 1984 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (with Neils Jerne) iiad.tamu.edu
  41. 41. 1981: TRANSGENICS The first transgenic animals are produced by transferring genes from other animals into mice The first patent for a genetically modified organism is granted — for bacteria that can break down crude oil uvo.nichd.nih.gov
  42. 42. 1982: GMO INSULIN Human insulin produced in genetically modified bacteria is the first biotech drug approved by the FDA www.sedico.net www.wonderwhizkids.com
  43. 43. 1983: PHOTOX MY GENES The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, which makes unlimited copies of genes and gene fragments, is conceived 1993 Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Kary Mullis) smkx.bzu.edu.cn
  44. 44. 1986: RECOMBINANT VACCINE & ANTI-CA DRUGS First recombinant vaccine is approved for human use: hepatitis B First anti-cancer drug is produced through biotech: interferon www.freewtc.com www.ecvv.com
  45. 45. 1987-1994: GMO CROPS First approval for field tests of a genetically modified food plant: virus- resistant tomatoes Genetically modified tomatoes are sold in the U.S. for the first time (1994) www.genengnews.com
  46. 46. 1990-2002: THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT an international effort to maps all of the genes in the human genome is launched (1990) draft version of the human genome is published (2002) bioethics.georgetown.edu
  47. 47. 1997: DOLLY report the birth of Dolly, the first animal cloned from an adult cell
  48. 48. 1998: STEM CELLS Human embryonic stem cell lines are established offer hope to many because they may be able to replace diseased or dysfunctional cells
  49. 49. 2003: THE SEQUENCING OF SARS SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) virus is sequenced three weeks after its discovery news.bbc.co.uk
  50. 50. 2004: COPY CAT www.mun.ca The first cloned pet — a kitten — is delivered to its owner CopyCat (or Cc for short)
  51. 51. 2006: HPV VACCINE A recombinant vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) receives FDA approval The virus causes genital warts and can cause cervical cancer powerpointparadise.com
  52. 52. AND THE REST…. ….IS HISTORY!
  53. 53. QUIZ TIME…. www.happyschool.com.au
  54. 54. NEXT MEETING… LEVELLING OFF!!!

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