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History of tourism - European and beyond


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History of tourism - European and beyond

  1. 1. History of Tourism European and beyond
  2. 2. Earliest Tourism  Greeks/Romans  Pilgrimages  Development of Spas:  Bath/Leamington Spa/Harrogate Rome
  3. 3. Technological Developments  The age of steam and rail  Early Thomas Cook tours  Creation of demand for accommodation at rail termini leading to hotel construction
  4. 4. Social change in Victorian Society  Sea bathing  More importance of the family and going on holiday with family  Development of ‘resorts’ in Europe (eg Monte Carlo)  Desire to escape every day restricted moral environment  Establishment of ‘day trip’
  5. 5. Steamships  Led by growth in worldwide trade  Establishment of P & O shipping line  Opening of Suez Canal in 1869 enables routes to India & beyond
  6. 6. Late 19th century developments  Desire for healthier outdoor life  Development of bicycle  Money Orders & Travellers Cheques developed by Amex in USA  Increased interest in photography as a hobby  Invention of guidebooks (Baedeker)
  7. 7. Early 20th century developments  Ongoing expansion of travel for pleasure  Increased wealth, curiosity and outgoing attitudes  Increasing ease of movement  World War 1(WW1) led to introduction of passports  Post WW1 led to large scale migration boosting international travel  New forms of mass communication (cinema, radio then tv)  Increased use of private motor cars for travel  Decline in rail travel
  8. 8. After World War 2 (WW2)  Advances in aircraft technology  Surplus aircraft after the war ended  Commercial jet services started in early 1950’s  Charter Air Services started in 1950 – to Corsica  Boeing 707 jets introduced in 1968 – air travel for everybody!  Demise of ocean liners by 1957  By 1960’s mass market package tours were launched  Re-emergence of holidays by car as cars became affordable  Mid 1960’s cruise lines introduced fly cruises
  9. 9. 1960’s to 1980’s  Changing social patterns  Introduction of special interest holidays  People provided with annual paid leave  Rise in popularity of self-catering holidays  Annual family holidays became a habit
  10. 10. 1980’s to 1990’s  Increasing prosperity and declining inflation  Availability of money  Late 1980’s civil unrest around the world slowed tourism growth (eg Iraq, Iran, Fiji, Israel, Sri Lanka)  Crash of New York stock market in 1987 had detrimental effect on world tourism
  11. 11. End of 1990’s  By 1990 world spending on tourism equaled 13% of worlds’ consumer spending  1993 the European Community (12 nations) removed border controls resulting in free flow of goods/people  1995 Middle East had dramatic increase in tourism  1990-2000 international tourism grew at 4.4% per annum despite Gulf War, break up of Yugoslavia and Asian financial crisis
  12. 12. 2000 onwards  9/11 attacks in USA in 2001 led to dramatic drops in travel  Personal safety concerns  Foot + Mouth outbreaks  NZ perceived safer resulting in 6.9% increase in international visitor arrivals  A return to confidence by 2002, but impacted by:  SARS  Avian Flu  Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq  Terrorist bombings in London, Bali, Mombasa  Because of these global events, 2002/3 saw international tourism fall back -1.5%  2004 confidence and growth returned