INTRODUCTION TOTOURISM INDUSTRY LICDA. ESTHER CABRERA CAMPOS UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLÓGICA DE EL SALVADOR
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or businesspurposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside theirusual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes"
Tourism itself, was born in the nineteenth century as aconsequence of the Industrial Revolution, with movementswhose primary intention is recreation, leisure, culture, health,business or family relationships. These movements arecharacterized by their purpose of travel other motivated bywar, migration,conquest, trade, among others.However tourism hasclear historical backgrounds.
2000 years Before Christ, in India andMesopotamiaTravel for trade was an important feature since thebeginning of civilization. The port at Lothal was animportant centre of trade between the Indus valleycivilization and the Sumerian civilization.
600 BC and thereafterThe earliest form of leisure tourism can be traced as far back as theBabylonian and Egyptian empires. A museum of historic antiquitieswas open to the public in Babylon.The Egyptians held many religiousfestivals that attracted the devoutand many people who thronged tocities to see famous works of artsand buildings.In India, as elsewhere, kingstravelled for empire building.The Brahmins and the commonpeople travelled for religious purposes.
Old AgeIn classical Greece attached great importance to leisure and freetime is devoted to culture, entertainment, religion and sport. Themost prominent movements were those who did attend theoccasion of the Olympic Games of antiquity (the Olympics are the4 years between two consecutive games) in the city of Olympia),which came thousands of people and where mixed religion andsport. There were also religious pilgrimages
During the Roman Empire the Romans frequented hot springs (Bathsof Caracalla), were regulars in major events, such as theaters, andperforming regular trips to the coast (well known in the case of aholiday villa by the sea). These leisure trips were made possible bythree key factors:Roman Peace, developmentmajor roadscommunication and prosperitythat enabled economicallysome citizens economic and leisure issues.
Middle AgeDuring the Middle Ages is at first a setback due to the greaterconflict and economic recession accordingly. At this time there is anew type of travel, religious pilgrimages. They had already existedin ancient and classical but both Christianity and Islam wouldspread to the greater number of believers and displacementwould be greater.
They are famous expeditions from Venice to the Holy Land andpilgrimage along the Camino de Santiago (from 814 in the discovery ofthe tomb of the saint), were continuous pilgrimages across Europe,creating maps, counters and all kinds of services walkers).In the Islamic world the Hajj (( ḥaǧǧ or ḥiǧǧa,) or pilgrimage toMecca is one of the five Pillars of Islam forcing all believers to thispilgrimage at least once in life.
In 1985 the citys Old Town was designated aUNESCO World Heritage Site.
MODERN AGEThe pilgrimage continues during the Modern Age. In 1500 in RomeSome pilgrims died because of a the bubonic plague. This is the moment when thefirst accommodation hotel name (French word designating urban palaces). As thegreat personalities traveling with his entourage (increasingly numerous) it wasimpossible to accommodate everyone in the palace, so these constructs werecreated.This is also the time of the great maritime expeditions of Spanish, British andPortuguese spark curiosity and interest in travel.
In the late sixteenth century the custom of sending arises young Englisharistocrats making the grand-tour after completing their studies in order tosupplement their training and some experience. It was a long trip (3 to 5 years) tobe made by different European countries and then come the words: tourism,tourist, and so on.The Grand Tour is a journey motivated by the need for training of these youngaristocrats in the future will run their country. Knowledge "in situ" from thegreatness of Rome, Paris and Athens as well as discussions in the cafes of the greatspas, travelers should learn how to take the reins of an empire like the British.Also at this time there is a resurgence of the baths, which had declined during theMiddle Ages. Not only did they attend medical advice, but also makes fun fashionand entertainment centers such as hot springs in Bath (England). Also in thisperiod dates the discovery of mud baths as a therapeutic remedy, cold beaches(Nice, Provence) where the bathrooms were to be taken by prescription.
CONTEMPORARY AGEArguably, pleasure trips had their beginnings in the last years of this centuryand early nineteenth centuries. Major changes in society, lifestyles, industryand technology alter the morphology of the community. There are momentsin the history of exceptional change and rapidly growing. The nineteenthcentury witnessed a great economic expansion, followed by industrial andscientific revolution even greater in the second half of the twentieth century.Tourism was one of the main beneficiaries, to become the late twentiethcentury the worlds largest industry.
Begins to emerge mountain tourism or health: are built famous privatehospitals and clinics in Europe, many of them come down to us like smallboutique hotels.It is also the time of the cold beaches (Costa Azul, Canal de la mancha, etc ...).
In 1841 Thomas Cook organizedthe first package tour in history.Although it was an economicfailure is considered a resoundingsuccess in terms of precedent ofpackage tour, then realized theenormous economic opportunitiesthat could come to have thisactivity, thus creating in 1851 thefirst travel agency in the world"Thomas Cook and son”
In 1867 he invented the voucher, document that allows the use of certainhotels and prepaid servicescontracted through a travel agency.Henry Wells and William Fargo founded the travel agency "AmericanExpress" which was initially dedicated to freight and later becomes one ofthe largest agencies in the world. Introduced funding schemes and issuingtravelers checks, such as travel-check (personal money exchanged for papercurrency in general use to protect the traveler from theft or loss).
Cesar Ritz is considered the father of modern hospitality. From an early age occupied all possible positions of a hotel to become the manager of one of the best hotels of its time. Improved all services hotel, created the position of sommelier * Introduced the bathroom*sommelier (Frenchsommelier) is the wine in rooms revolutionizedexpert suggests to clientsof the great restaurantsthe appropriate wine for the management.the occasion.
The Ritz-Carlton is a brand of luxury hotels and resorts with 70 propertieslocated in many major cities in 23 countries around the world.The name of The Ritz-Carlton Hotel dates back to the Ritz Carlton Hotel Parisand London, the current name of Ritz-Carlton was created when a team offour developers, led by hotelier Horst Schulze.The name Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company LLC is now a wholly owned subsidiary ofMarriott International. The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company currently has 32,000employees.