Major center of culture, education and historyWhat are some ways that Europe has had a global influence throughout history?Colonialism – exploration and establishment of colonies results in long term relationship lasting until today (for better or for worse) Example – Europe and Africa – tourism is Euro dependentMigration – sources of immigrants to Euro countries, contributes to VFR tourism today both ways and heritage tourism to find where your ancestors are fromRomans – major contributions to modern Europe in traditions, law, public administration and militaryToday much of tourism in Europe is centered on historic or cultural sites Roman sites in Spain, France, UK, Italy, Romania, Germany – all tourist attractions to varying degreesVFR tourism due to forced and voluntary migrationHeritage tourism – to find where your ancestors were from
What has the EU done for tourism in Europe?Recognition of importance of the tourism industry to the economy of the EUMadrid DeclarationWatch this videohttp://www.dailymotion.com/video/xldot6_eu-plans-tourism-boost_news This has resulted in:Development or re-development projects throughout the EU of historic, cultural sites and transportation and infrastructure improvements*Creation of the Schengen Area – elimination of border crossings with a common EU/Schengen VisaCommon currency! No need to exchange currency every time you cross a border
Now, adding 2010 statistics2008 decline, and then by 2010 Europe saw a 3% growth which was a recovery but still slower than most of the rest of the worldStill uncertainty due to 2008 recessionVolcanic eruptions in Iceland in Spring 2010 which closed air space over Europe due to a cloud of ash for some time2008 – 2010 growth in arrivalsGermany – 11% Turkey – 6%But arrivals are still not at the level of 2008 and earlierUNWTO expects arrivals in Europe this year to grow but still less than peak in 2008Some things to noteCentral and Eastern Europe grew by 5% in 2010 France 0% growth in 2010UK negative growth in 2010 Spain, Italy and Greece weak growth in 2010
Current issues impacting tourismNegative population growth in many countries in Europe due to people have smaller families. But we haveImmigration from colonialism in the past and these immigrants typically have higher growth rates (results in new tourism patterns namely VFR tourism inbound and outbound)Aging population – causing similar issues to what we learned in JapanMay curtail travel to some areas and increase travel to other areasPossible increase in second home ownership generally associated with older, retired people
Not only is tourism to Europe a large and important segment of international tourists but Europeans are also a the most important source market of international tourists (travelling within Europe and to other parts of the world)Why?long vacationsLarge, affluent populationsEase of travelClose distanceEasy to get visas for many Europeans (Like US)Flights and trains are widespreadTradition of long vacations
Lecture 14 tourism in europe
TDM 458International TourismAra Pachmayer
What are some ways that Europe has hada global influence throughout history?How might this impact tourism?
EU countries (and neighbors)Eastern Europe (former USSR sphere ofinfluence)Former USSR
The richer countries inEurope• Germany• France• U.K.• Italy• Scandinavia• Benelux (Belgium,Netherlands, Luxembourg) Poorer countries• Spain• Greece• Portugal Not EU members –Switzerland, Norway,Iceland Eastern Europe…newEU members
Recognition of importance of tourism industry Madrid Declaration of 2010• Consolidated Tourism Policy – more integratedapproach• Consolidate the image and profile of Europe• Strengthen sustainable competitiveness of tourism• Maximize potential of EU financial policies to developtourism Development/re-development projects Creation of the Schengen Area Common Currency• Great benefit to tour operators and tourists alike!
Leader+European Regional Development Fund• The ERDF aims to strengthen economic andsocial cohesion in the European Union bycorrecting imbalances between its regions• InterregEuropean Social Fund• The ESF sets out to improve employment and jobopportunities in the European Union
Only for very wealthy in pre- or early-railroad era• Gardens• Spas• EducationIncrease through WWI• Passport controls broke down through WWI• Before WWI you could travel without a passport• After WWI passport needed which was notaccessible to all
Sharp increase 1950-1970s• Airline industry• Traditional resorts (Spanish islands, Riviera, BlackSea)Sharp increase 1990s• Eastern European destinations (collapse of USSRand independence)• More remote locationsChanges in tourism geography over time• Over time more people started to travel to EasternEurope
2008 - Arrivals stagnate growing by only0.3%, Expenditures declined by 1% 2010 - grew by 3% – finally some recovery, thoughexpenditures declined by .4% Northern and Western Europe hurt the worst in 2008• Netherlands declined by -8%, 10% growth in 2010!• France -3%, 0% growth in 2010• UK -2%, still negative growth in 2010 2011 Europe 1 of the fastest growing regions (+6%)• Tourism to Europe accounts for 51% of worlds arrivalsand 45% of expenditures
High in smaller states• E.g., Cyprus, Estonia, Malta High in summer home states• E.g. , Portugal, Spain Moderately high in most of Europe• 8 to 14% Low in least-developed states• Romania , Serbia, Macedonia
Negative population growthImmigration from colonialism• Results in VFR tourism both inbound andoutboundAging Population• May curtail travel to some regions and increasetravel to other regions
58% of Europeanstook at least oneholiday of fourconsecutive nightsaway from home• Close to 75% innorthern Europe
France: 39 days• Germany: 27 days• Netherlands: 25 days• Great Britain: 23 days• Canada: 20 days• United States: 12 days Accepted vacation periods, e.g.• Midsummer in Sweden, Finland, Estonia• Pentecost in Bavaria• August in Italy• July – August in France (through to La Rentrée)
More people stayingcloser to home Larger decline in‘traditional’destinations 2008 -> 2009• More people planto travel withincountry (43% >48%)• More people planto travel to non-Euro countriesNYTimes
Liberal country in the Nordic region Royal family Cottages Cross-border shopping Nature• Allemansrätten — the Right of Public Access @sweden Twitter• http://curatorsofsweden.com/about/#content• Influence on Tourism?
LakesLaplandSecond homesRelationship with Russia and EstoniaSami culture
Includes UK (Scotland, England, Wales, N.Ireland) and the Republic of Ireland• Contentious issues to say British IslesIssues• Terrorism• Separatist movements and nationalism• EUTypes of Tourism
History Issues in Tourism• Tourism Development Large developments in the coastal regions• TerrorismSeparatism
Heritage and Cultural Sites• More WHS than any other countryIssues• Low or negative population growth Rural country, agricultural, move to tourismdevelopment as unable to maintain agricultural positionwithout children to take over• Costal Development for tourism Same as SpainVenice Flooding• http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/11/12/venice-floods-photos_n_2115886.html
Role in historyEmpire and center of the worldArchipelago situationConflict with MacedoniaEconomic situationNew Markets for tourism
Small size Small populations Small economies Postage Stamp Countries TourismVery important part of the economy of mostmicrostates Countries• Andorra• Monaco• San Marino• Liechtenstein• Vatican City• SMOM – collection of buildings within a palazzo inMalta – is it even a country??
Tourism under communismCollapse of Communism (1989-1992)Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Yugoslaviaand CzechoslovakiaResulting instability, political unrest andother problems for the region• All of which creates challenges for tourism
Yugoslavia formerly the mosteconomically attractive EasternEuropean country• Not aligned with USSR (not quite as tightlycontrolled economically)• Death of strongman Tito (in 1980) put an end tostability (though signs of ethnic tension go as farback as 1970s) However....multiple ethnicities, nationalitiesand religions
War from 1990 orso on to recent(GenerallyPeaceful now) Genocide / ethniccleansing
Tourism in Eastern Europe• led to major increase in arrivals (VFR and Leisure)• Increased travel by East Europeans out of the region Countries• Hungary Lake, second home, diaspora, spa tourism• Czech Republic Heritage cities, nature, cosmopolitan and historic cityof Prague, popular with expats, diaspora tourism• Slovakia Less developed, nature-based tourism in mountainsalong border with Poland
Poland• Diaspora travel, heritage cities, holocaust• Direct flights from Chicago and other US cities toPoland on LOT airlines Albania• Underdeveloped, before and after communism Slovenia• Mountains and natural features, historic cities,closeness to Italy helps tourism Croatia• Coastal resorts, heritage cities Estonia – less expensive, WHS, well preserved, Cruises Romania• Communist heritage, Dracula tourism
Geographically and, to some extent culturally, a part of Asia and theMiddle East However, Turkey sees itself as part of Europe• Secular rule, but some degree of political repression Campaigning for admission to EU• Economic benefits• Also, Turkey and Greece historically enemies -- and Greece is part of EU• Formal applicant, but admission not likely any time soon (cultural issues,size, politics) Politically stable (authoritarian gov’t), but it’s an unstable region