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Lecture 1 intro to international tourism


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Lecture 1 intro to international tourism

  1. 1. International TourismTDM 458Ara Pachmayer
  2. 2. What will we cover in this course?• For this course we will examine the primaryglobal tourism regions and destinations, as wellas the primary economic, political, social,geographical, cultural, and historical factorsassociated with each region as they affecttourism.
  3. 3. • Tourism is defined as the processes, activities,and outcomes arising from the relationshipsand the interactions among tourists, tourismsuppliers, host government, host communities,and surrounding environments that areinvolved in attracting and hosting visitorswithin domestic and international settings.• Tourism comprises the activities of personstraveling to and staying in places outside theirusual environment for not more than oneconsecutive year for leisure, business, andother purposes- UNWTO definitionTouristsTouristsProvidersProvidersHostHostCommunityCommunityWhat is tourism?
  4. 4. Basic Dimensions of Travel and Tourism• Distance: Excluding commuting to work• Distinction between local and non-local travel• Distinction between inter-regional and intra-regionaltravel• Distinction between in-bound and out-bound travel• Length of stay: Same day; Excursion; Transit; Overnight• Purpose of Visit
  5. 5. VisitorsVisitors““Visitors”Visitors”are defined as persons who travel to a place otherare defined as persons who travel to a place otherthan that in which they have their usual residence butthan that in which they have their usual residence butoutside their usual environment for a period notoutside their usual environment for a period notexceeding twelve months and whose main purposeexceeding twelve months and whose main purposeof visit is other than the exercise of an activityof visit is other than the exercise of an activityremunerated from within the place visited.remunerated from within the place visited.
  6. 6. Domestic Tourist• Movement: varies (USA: 100 miles in onedirection)• Length of stay: minimum of 24 hours - but notexceeding 12 months• Income: no remuneration• Purpose of visit: various; leads to marketsegmentation
  7. 7. International Tourist• Movement: Crossing international boundary• Duration: At least 24 hour stay• Purpose of visit: various• Income: No remuneration• Circular migration: Return to point of origin
  8. 8. Components of Tourism & TourismManagement• Natural Resources and the Environment• The Built Environment– General Infrastructure– Tourism-Specific Infrastructure• Public Sector entities• Private Sector institutions• Technology
  9. 9. Operating Sectors of the Tourism Industry• Transportation• Accommodations; Lodging• Attractions• Events, Entertainment• Outdoor Recreation• Hospitality/ Service• CVBs/ Chambers of Commerce• Tourism Offices• Marketing Intermediaries
  10. 10. Tourist DestinationHost CommunityNatural and Cultural AttractionsEventsInfrastructureSuperstructureTourism System (by Dr. Gyan Nyaupane)TouristsMotivationLeisureIncomeDemographicsExperience/OutcomesIndustryAttractionsTransportationAccommodationFood ServicesTravel/TourismServicesGlobal airlinesBus and Car rentalCruise/ferryImpacts: Economic, Environmental, Socio-culturalTransportationMarketingExternal Forces: Politics, Economy, Terrorism, NaturalDisaster
  11. 11. Tourism Resources• Divided into two categories– Natural Resources: give rise to Nature-basedTourism or Eco-tourism– Cultural or Man-made resources: give rise toCultural, Heritage and Ethnic Tourism
  12. 12. Natural Resources: Have significantgeographical dimensions• Climatic• Relief; landscape• Geological• Hydrological• Fauna• Flora• Combination of resources• Man-made components
  13. 13. Cultural, Historical and Man-MadeResources• Architecture• Museums, monuments & memorials• Culture/Traditions• Festivals/Special Events• Gastronomy• Science/Technology• Economic Activity- agriculture, etc.• Hospitality
  14. 14. Early Beginnings• Early roads- 2050 B.C. animals• The Silk Road- trade east and west• The Classical World- 2000 B.C-500C.Trade, religion,festivals, medical• Early Ships- by Phoenicians• Chinese/Asian - minister of travel-4,000 yrs ago, pilgrimage• Polynesians - dugout canoe• Europeans - Collapse of Roman Empire in the 5th C., Darkages,• The Grand Tour
  15. 15. Modern Mass tourism• Airplane• In 1911, the first US crossing by air in 82 hrs.• Early air travel was expensive and dangerous – anovelty for the rich• Airplanes competed with ships and train withluxury• After 1930s airplanes became larger, refuelingdistances longer, food service, and restrooms tomake passengers comfortable• WWII - development of the Jet Engine
  16. 16. Modern Mass Tourism• Time needed to travel from NY to Sydney– 1929 - 2 weeks– 1949 - 2 days – invention of the jet engine– 1969 - 1 day – invention of the Boeing 747– 1979 - 1 day– 1989 - 1 day– Today - 1 day– 2020 - 3 hours?? Sub-orbital flight?
  17. 17. Modern Mass TourismMass tourism appeared because of:• Increasing leisure time (more paid vacations)– Industrial age (mid - to late-1800s)-only Sunday off(60-70hrs /week)– 1920s, two-weeks vacation for workers– 1968 four “3-day weekend” in the US• Increasing income• Travel became possible for all (rich, middle class,and working class)• 1958-jet plane and “economy” class air travel
  18. 18. Modern Mass Tourism• Technological, Political, and Social events during first halfof 20thcentury created worldwide tourism business formiddle class• Development of Tourism slowed during WWI and WWII,but technology developed during time helped shapetourism today– Surplus Ships converted into Ocean Liners/CruiseShips– Advancements in Airline Technology – jet engine– Soldiers taking vacations – returning to places theywere stationed or in some cases bringing those placesback home (Vail, Colorado is one example)
  19. 19. Modern Mass tourism• Beyond the 1960s• Oil crisis- 1970s and economic recession - 1980sand again more recently in 2008• Travel and tourism were challenged by costs• Deregulation of the airline industry (late 1970s) competition, cheap tickets, more flights• Various national and international organizationsestablished to promote and manage tourism
  20. 20. International Tourism - Now• Tourism is one of the largest industries in theworld• It involves nearly a billion people travelingacross political borders each year• $1.1 Trillion Dollars in direct spending to global exporteconomy ($3 billion a day!)• 5% of global GDP, 6-7% of Global jobs• All Global Regions experienced Growth until 2008– Except W. Europe, N. America and Oceania(Stagnation)• 2010 - Global Tourism grew 6.6%, rebounding• 2011 - Global Tourism grew 4.6%