How many of your have tourism as a major? As a minor or as a component of your degree? For those of you who aren’t tourism majors, why are you interested in taking this course? Why is studying tourism important? Some reasons . . . Tourism is one of the fastest growing and largest economic sectors in the world Tourism is closely linked to development It is the main export for 1/3 of all developing countries Tourism has driven socio-economic progress in developing countries and in some cases has dramatically improved quality of life by bringing money into these economies Tourism can raise public awareness of environmental issues and human rights issues Tourism is built on bringing people together which can foster cross-cultural understanding and tolerance
The aim is for you to understand the many different regions of the world and the unique problems facing tourism development throughout the world.
What is tourism? To best define tourism we need to also consider the stakeholders involved in tourism. See the diagram, we have: Tourists, Providers and the Host Community. And I think we can also add the government here (local and national). What does each group and how might their goals differ? The tourists – What do the tourists want? experiences, relaxation, etc The providers – What do the providers want? profit (for the most part . . ) The host community – What do they want? they may want an economic boost while keep their community nice and habitable The Government - What might the local and national government want? May desire profit for the community/region but also control aspects of tourism directly and indirectly In the second definition the emphasis is on activities which would encompass really everything people might do while on a trip. Such as . . . Eating, taking trains, interacting with the community, visiting attractions, excursions and so on)
We can also further distinguish different forms of tourism Domestic tourism Inbound tourism - which is also known as export tourism Outbound tourism – which is also known as import tourism International tourism – which consists of inbound and outbound and will be our primary topic for this semester
There are many definitions of tourism but we can break it down to these basic dimensions inter-regional – encompassing more than 1 region Intra-regional – within one region So why are definitions important? Tourism has such a large impact on the world and standard definitions allow for standardized statistics which can be used in yearly comparisons. This way it is easier to see how the industry is growing (or shrinking) and also to make comparisons from place to place and country to country, etc.
Now that we ’ve defined tourism, let’s define who the tourists are! See the definition above. Visitors (tourists) generally stay overnight. Accordingly we would call day trippers, excursionists. While day trippers are important they have less of an economic impact than tourists. Why do day trippers have less of an economic impact than tourists? They don ’t stay long or stay overnight so don’t spend as much money.
Further breakdown of the Visitor. See the international section for this course.
Above are 4 key areas to consider to classify a domestic tourist Movement varies as to how this is defined country by country, but in the US we say you must be traveling at least 100 miles in one direction to be classified as a tourist. So from Tempe we could say that you are a tourist if you go to where? Flagstaff, Las Vegas, LA . . . Length of stay is at least 24 hours. Less than that and you are an excursionist. Income refers to the fact that you are not earning income from your trip. This just means that you are not getting paid where you are visiting. You can still be a business traveler but you are not earning income at the destination you are visiting. Business travelers often spend quite a bit of money while on a business trip. They also might bring their family or spend additional days at a destination. So they are an important component of the tourism industry. Purpose – varies and this leads to market segmentation. So for example, in Arizona in the winter we have mostly visitors from colder climates (one purpose of their visit would be to escape cold weather). So Arizona actively promotes our climate and winter activities to those in colder climates
Moving on to the International Tourist . . For classifying the international tourist Some things to point out * Obviously to be an international tourist you are crossing an international boundary! Duration is at least 24 hours but not exceeding 12 months Income – again this just means you aren ’t earning money at the destination or from the visit. And then we have one additional characteristic of the international tourist to consider; that is the idea of circular migration which means that you return home within the 12 month period. So you aren ’t trying to live in the country but you are going home.
Next let ’s talk about the components of the tourism system What do you think some components of the tourism system are? Basically I ’m looking for the broad things which make tourism possible. What do you think those are? (see above) More specifically . . . The Built Environment General infrastructure – What do we need for tourism here? these are things that a community likely already has. What are some examples? (roads, airports, communication networks, water treatment facilities, and so on) Tourism specific infrastructure – What are some examples of this? such as hotels, car rental agencies, attractions) Public sector Government which has tremendous impact on tourism development and we ’ll look at this more in-depth later in the semester
The operating sector is what makes tourism happen or function. What do you think this encompasses? What are some examples? (see above)
So this is an overview of the whole tourism system What we need How it all happens External forces which impact the system And impacts from tourism (which we will cover in a later learning module) Can you think of specific examples of external forces which can impact the system? Politics Economy Terrorism Natural disasters . . .
When we talk about tourism resources we can put most everything into two very broad categories Natural resources - which nature based or eco-tourism are based on Cultural or man-made resources - which cultural, heritage and ethnic tourism are based on
Some examples . . . Geological – think volcanoes, geysers, hot springs Hydrological – lakes, oceans, rivers Fauna – What is fauna? animals Flora – And then Flora is ? plants, trees, etc. Manmade components – include manmade amenities for tourists to visit a place (roads, concession stands, interpretive literature)
What are some examples of each? Architecture Museums, monuments & memorials Culture/Traditions Festivals/Special Events Gastronomy Science/Technology Economic Activity- agriculture, etc. Hospitality Let ’s look at hospitality in particular Some destinations are most well known for their hospitality. Think of when you might have traveled to a place where you heard that the locals were very hospitable and you actually found that to be true. For me some examples are Fiji and Ireland.
People have been traveling for millenia. Some inventions are the result of specific needs for travel including money and the wheel for example, both of which made travel easier and still do today obviously. Silk Road – What is the Silk Road? Major differences in travel from the earliest times until now is: Who – military, government officials, traders How- mode of transportation Why- survival, power, tax, trade, pilgrimage, leisure Some inventions are partially the result of the needs of travel including money and the wheel which both made travel easier.
So the reasons people travel has not changed much but who travels has! Romans built a massive road network to extend their power but this also helped tourism develop. Biz travlers were mainly brining resources back to their homelands. So they brought back spices and other resources and in the process extended the economic and political reach of their country. 18th century - Grand Tour - Those of you who have taken other tourism classes, what is the Grand Tour? Rich, noble youth travelling with an entourage aroudn Europe to study and become a cultured part of an elitist society. In terms of cultural travel and Leisure Travel - this was travel in the age of romanticism and it was more about the appreciation of nature and also marked the beginning of Leisure travel. In the 19 th and 20 th century there were 4 phenomena which contributed to Modern Mass Travel and allowed for more people to be able to travel. Technological progress – more mobility as a result of the steam powered engine, trains and long distance ships which led to today ’s cruise ships Legal conditions – specifically for workers. The idea of paid leave for vacations, shortened work hours and legal holidays which allowed for leisure time to actually take a vacation Socio-economic development – more purchasing power as people had more disposable income to spend on travel Environmental factors – in the late 19 th and 20 th centuries people continuously moved from rural areas to urban area for work. How do you think this shift in society may have impacted tourism? Think of the urban environment at that time. This shift made people want to leave the city to relax in a rural area. As well, urban centers also made travel much easier with the development of transportation centers (like train stations or airports later on)
Airplane – huge contribution to Modern mass tourism! Easier and faster to get places. As an alternative to the ship or train. In 1911 - can you imagine? I think today you can drive across the US faster than that. Airplanes - think Titanic and how luxurious that ship was WWII – investments were made in transportation, specifically to win the war. However the development of the jet engine dramatically impacted tourism. Plane travel was even faster and opened up more for the average citizen.
NY and Sydney are essentially at opposite ends of the world. Since 1969 technology has not shifted much as it still takes basically a day to get from one place to the other. Now With the development of the Boeing 777 long range jet now any two cities can be connected. This plane carries fewer passengers to make room for more fuel. But it still takes at least a day. During the 1980 ’s there was talk of X planes which could take off and land anywhere in the world in 3 hours. They don’t exist yet but maybe in the future.
Each dot represents a stop that an airline had to make to refuel, etc.
So in summary - Modern Mass Tourism appeared because of the above
Technological, political, and social events during the first 50 yrs of 20 th century made tourism a major worldwide business and leisure experience for the middle class 2 wars (World war 1 and 2 during this time) slowed travel but the technology developed during the wars benefited tourism such as surplus ships were converted into ocean liners Has anyone visited Vail, CO.? Vail was founded by a group of WWII soldiers who were a part of the 10th mountain division army. They trained in Colorado and were stationed in the mountain regions of Europe. These men spent a lot of time in European mountain towns and when they came home, they got investors together and turned Vail into a replica of an Austrian alpine village.
Costs - Travel and Tourism were mostly regulated by the government which determined where airlines could fly and even set prices of tickets. Deregulation in the 1970 ’s lead to competition, cheaper tickets, more flights We still feel impacts today due to the consolidation of airlines that were opened up due to deregulation. Orgs established to promote and manage tourism
Some things to point out . . Bullet point 3 - with the multipler effect the economic impact is even greater. What is the multiplier effect? You tip a waitress and that money gets spent elsewhere - also known as the ripple effect Bullet point 4 - Tourism makes up 5% . . . Which is huge! According to the UNWTO, tourism represents 1 in every 12 jobs. Making tourism one of the world’s top job creators. Bullet point 5 - what happened in 2008? The Recession! You ’ll see this come up frequently throughout the class 2010 Global tourism grew by 6.6% - this shows that tourism is a resilient industry!
Lecture 1 intro to international tourism
International TourismTDM 458Ara Pachmayer
What will we cover in this course?• For this course we will examine the primaryglobal tourism regions and destinations, as wellas the primary economic, political, social,geographical, cultural, and historical factorsassociated with each region as they affecttourism.
• Tourism is defined as the processes, activities,and outcomes arising from the relationshipsand the interactions among tourists, tourismsuppliers, host government, host communities,and surrounding environments that areinvolved in attracting and hosting visitorswithin domestic and international settings.• Tourism comprises the activities of personstraveling to and staying in places outside theirusual environment for not more than oneconsecutive year for leisure, business, andother purposes- UNWTO definitionTouristsTouristsProvidersProvidersHostHostCommunityCommunityWhat is tourism?
Basic Dimensions of Travel and Tourism• Distance: Excluding commuting to work• Distinction between local and non-local travel• Distinction between inter-regional and intra-regionaltravel• Distinction between in-bound and out-bound travel• Length of stay: Same day; Excursion; Transit; Overnight• Purpose of Visit
VisitorsVisitors““Visitors”Visitors”are defined as persons who travel to a place otherare defined as persons who travel to a place otherthan that in which they have their usual residence butthan that in which they have their usual residence butoutside their usual environment for a period notoutside their usual environment for a period notexceeding twelve months and whose main purposeexceeding twelve months and whose main purposeof visit is other than the exercise of an activityof visit is other than the exercise of an activityremunerated from within the place visited.remunerated from within the place visited.
Domestic Tourist• Movement: varies (USA: 100 miles in onedirection)• Length of stay: minimum of 24 hours - but notexceeding 12 months• Income: no remuneration• Purpose of visit: various; leads to marketsegmentation
International Tourist• Movement: Crossing international boundary• Duration: At least 24 hour stay• Purpose of visit: various• Income: No remuneration• Circular migration: Return to point of origin
Components of Tourism & TourismManagement• Natural Resources and the Environment• The Built Environment– General Infrastructure– Tourism-Specific Infrastructure• Public Sector entities• Private Sector institutions• Technology
Operating Sectors of the Tourism Industry• Transportation• Accommodations; Lodging• Attractions• Events, Entertainment• Outdoor Recreation• Hospitality/ Service• CVBs/ Chambers of Commerce• Tourism Offices• Marketing Intermediaries
Tourist DestinationHost CommunityNatural and Cultural AttractionsEventsInfrastructureSuperstructureTourism System (by Dr. Gyan Nyaupane)TouristsMotivationLeisureIncomeDemographicsExperience/OutcomesIndustryAttractionsTransportationAccommodationFood ServicesTravel/TourismServicesGlobal airlinesBus and Car rentalCruise/ferryImpacts: Economic, Environmental, Socio-culturalTransportationMarketingExternal Forces: Politics, Economy, Terrorism, NaturalDisaster
Tourism Resources• Divided into two categories– Natural Resources: give rise to Nature-basedTourism or Eco-tourism– Cultural or Man-made resources: give rise toCultural, Heritage and Ethnic Tourism
Natural Resources: Have significantgeographical dimensions• Climatic• Relief; landscape• Geological• Hydrological• Fauna• Flora• Combination of resources• Man-made components
Early Beginnings• Early roads- 2050 B.C. animals• The Silk Road- trade east and west• The Classical World- 2000 B.C-500C.Trade, religion,festivals, medical• Early Ships- by Phoenicians• Chinese/Asian - minister of travel-4,000 yrs ago, pilgrimage• Polynesians - dugout canoe• Europeans - Collapse of Roman Empire in the 5th C., Darkages,• The Grand Tour
Modern Mass tourism• Airplane• In 1911, the first US crossing by air in 82 hrs.• Early air travel was expensive and dangerous – anovelty for the rich• Airplanes competed with ships and train withluxury• After 1930s airplanes became larger, refuelingdistances longer, food service, and restrooms tomake passengers comfortable• WWII - development of the Jet Engine
Modern Mass Tourism• Time needed to travel from NY to Sydney– 1929 - 2 weeks– 1949 - 2 days – invention of the jet engine– 1969 - 1 day – invention of the Boeing 747– 1979 - 1 day– 1989 - 1 day– Today - 1 day– 2020 - 3 hours?? Sub-orbital flight?
Modern Mass TourismMass tourism appeared because of:• Increasing leisure time (more paid vacations)– Industrial age (mid - to late-1800s)-only Sunday off(60-70hrs /week)– 1920s, two-weeks vacation for workers– 1968 four “3-day weekend” in the US• Increasing income• Travel became possible for all (rich, middle class,and working class)• 1958-jet plane and “economy” class air travel
Modern Mass Tourism• Technological, Political, and Social events during first halfof 20thcentury created worldwide tourism business formiddle class• Development of Tourism slowed during WWI and WWII,but technology developed during time helped shapetourism today– Surplus Ships converted into Ocean Liners/CruiseShips– Advancements in Airline Technology – jet engine– Soldiers taking vacations – returning to places theywere stationed or in some cases bringing those placesback home (Vail, Colorado is one example)
Modern Mass tourism• Beyond the 1960s• Oil crisis- 1970s and economic recession - 1980sand again more recently in 2008• Travel and tourism were challenged by costs• Deregulation of the airline industry (late 1970s) competition, cheap tickets, more flights• Various national and international organizationsestablished to promote and manage tourism
International Tourism - Now• Tourism is one of the largest industries in theworld• It involves nearly a billion people travelingacross political borders each year• $1.1 Trillion Dollars in direct spending to global exporteconomy ($3 billion a day!)• 5% of global GDP, 6-7% of Global jobs• All Global Regions experienced Growth until 2008– Except W. Europe, N. America and Oceania(Stagnation)• 2010 - Global Tourism grew 6.6%, rebounding• 2011 - Global Tourism grew 4.6%