Tourism history

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Tourism history

  1. 1. Tourism History Diploma in Applied Travel and Tourism
  2. 2. Key <ul><li>Social, cultural, economic, technological changes </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitators (enabling factors) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transport (comfortable, convenient, affordable) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of constraints (political, health & safety) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Key <ul><li>Motivators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons for travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic fulfilling a need or want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General (to travel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific (to destination x) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Early Tourism <ul><li>Nomads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food gathering, climate, trade and barter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3000BC ships on open water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1500Bc Egyptians visit pyramids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religion and curiosity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Early Tourism <ul><li>Greek and Roman Empires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Merchants (coin currency) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government administration (collect taxes) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Military (build and maintain empires) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Olympic Games 776BC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spas, festivals, sightseeing (health and pleasure) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Early Tourism <ul><li>Guide books and travel writing </li></ul><ul><li>Holidays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealthy travelled for leisure and to visit friends and relations (VFR) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Romans built roads throughout Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(50,000 miles) infrastructure </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Early Tourism <ul><li>Japanese and Chinese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leisure travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resorts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second homes </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Middle Ages <ul><li>Travel dangerous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncomfortable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Silk road from Venice to Beijing: Marco Polo </li></ul><ul><li>Holidays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holy days for leisure, festivals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Religious pilgrimages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monasteries provided hospitality </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Renaissance & 18 th Century <ul><li>Spas (health) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seaside resort </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Grand Tour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education – major cultural centres of Europe with tutor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Stage coaches </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitality </li></ul>
  10. 10. 19 th Century <ul><li>Industrial revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urbanisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Countryside attractive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest in wilderness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased wealth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced cost of travel </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 19 th Century <ul><li>Technological developments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern transport systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Railway, steamships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Railways 1820’s in England and USA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excursions for workers to seaside </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Family holidays </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Cook prepaid package holidays </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 19 th Century <ul><li>Steamships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular ferry service across english channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P&O to USA and Far East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cunard to US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Cook around the world tour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12 people, 220 days, cost was equivalent to average annual salary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1869 opening of Suez Canal </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Mid 19 th Century <ul><li>Photography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organised travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Travellers’ cheques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American Express </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bicycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guide books </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 20 th Century <ul><li>Mass tourism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased leisure time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discretionary income </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient modes of transport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor cars (decline of railway) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private ownership </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. 20 th Century <ul><li>Airlines (decline of steamship companies) </li></ul><ul><li>Health and Safety for travellers improving </li></ul><ul><li>Mass communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cinema, radio, photography, television </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post World War 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in immigration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passports, coaches, cruising </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 20 th Century <ul><li>Post World War I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1930’s depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collapse of international tourism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government limits imposed on foreign exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of all inclusive holiday entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Butlins camps </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. 20 th Century <ul><li>Post World War 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1945 first commercial trans-Atlantic flight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1950’s long haul, jet age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Boeing 707, 1958) London to New York from 18 hours to 7 hours </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disneyland opens (1955) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. 1960s – 70s <ul><li>Business Travel </li></ul><ul><li>New tourism generating countries eg. Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Special interest holidays </li></ul><ul><li>Package tours </li></ul><ul><li>Charter flights – sun seekers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UK to Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New York to Miami or Mexico </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. 60s to 70s <ul><li>New aeroplanes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>747 Jumbo Jet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concorde ( 3.5hrs London to New York) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Never commercially successful </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1969 Neil Armstrong walks on the moon </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. 1980s <ul><li>International tourism doubles in this decade </li></ul><ul><li>(what else happens) </li></ul>
  21. 21. 1990s <ul><li>Tourism 13% of world’s consumer spending </li></ul><ul><li>More freedom to travel </li></ul><ul><li>International trade promotes travel </li></ul><ul><li>Globalisation and foreign exchange </li></ul><ul><li>EU – Economic market </li></ul><ul><li>Break up of Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>Tunnel between London and France (chunnel) </li></ul>
  22. 22. 2000 - 2010 <ul><li>September 11 – Terrorist attack </li></ul><ul><li>SARS </li></ul><ul><li>Oil price skyrockets </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap travel </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq war </li></ul><ul><li>Recession </li></ul><ul><li>Natural disaster </li></ul>
  23. 23. 2009-2010 <ul><li>Recession </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>Political instability </li></ul>
  24. 24. What now? <ul><li>Political instability </li></ul><ul><li>Recession </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability – Carbon footprints </li></ul><ul><li>New technology – larger aeroplanes </li></ul><ul><li>Natural disasters - volcanoes </li></ul>

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