The history of Tourism


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The history of Tourism

  2. 2. The History of Tourism  As seasons changed and animals migrated, people traveled to survive.  These early travelers moved on foot, they were limited to quite small geographical areas.  In this time, travel may remained a localized experience, but people by nature are interested.  Travelers climbing a mountain and crossing rivers to satisfy their own sense of adventure and curiosity as they sought a glimpse of the unknown  Phoenicians, Olmecs, early Chinese traveled for trade and military control  As civilizations became established and spread geographically, travel become necessity.
  3. 3. The Empire Era  The Empire era are started from the time of the Egyptians to the Greek and finally came to an end with the fall of the roman empire.  During this time, people began traveling in large numbers for governmental, commercial, educational and religious purpose.  As centers of governmental activities, the city-states become attractions in themselves.
  4. 4. The Empire Era Sources;
  5. 5. The Empire Era  Factors that influence people to travel during the Empire era:  Affluent population with time and money to travel  Safe and easy travel  Widely accepted currencies  Widely used languages  Legal system which protects personal safety
  6. 6. The Empire Era The Egyptians  At its peak the travel for business and pleasure flourished.  Travel to outlining cities was necessary.  Various amenities were offered to travelers.  They travelled for pleasure and festivals were held every year.  People used to travel to attend these festivals.
  7. 7. The Empire Era The Greeks:  Greeks were the first, who shaped the modern day travel.  Pleasure travel was popular.  Travel was advanced by two developments:  Currency exchange: Greek cities accepted foreign currency, making it easier for travelers.  Communication: The Greek empire covered the entire Mediterranean thus the language was widely understood.  They provided all the amenities required.
  8. 8. The Empire Era The Romans  The prosperity of the roman empire was reflected in the development of travel.  The Romans included a large group of middle class who had money and time to travel.  They built excellent roads, transportation and communication systems.  They built rest houses.
  9. 9. The Middle Ages and The Renaissance Era  The duration time for The Middle Ages (5th to 14th centuries) and the Renaissance Era(14th to 16th centuries)  Travel almost disappeared during the Middle Ages where travel became dangerous and sporadic.  The feudal system that eventually replaced Roman rule resulted in many different autonomous domains.  This breakdown in a previously organised and controlled society resulted in the fragmentation of transportation systems, currencies and languages making travel a difficult and sometimes dangerous experience.
  10. 10. The Middle Ages and The Renaissance Era  The travel situation during the Middle Ages:  Transportation and safety declined  Less acceptance of currencies and less knowledge of common languages  Some travel by crusaders to Holy Land  Marco Polo’s historic travels in the late 13th century
  11. 11. The Middle Ages and The Renaissance Era Sources;
  12. 12. The Middle Ages and The Renaissance Era  The rebirth in travel emerged slowly during the Renaissance Era (14th – 16th centuries.  The Merchants began to venture farther from their villages as the church and the kings and queen brought larger geographical areas under their control.  Trade routes slowly began to reopen as commercial activities grew and the merchants ventured into new territories  Increased interest in travel for commerce and pleasure
  13. 13. The Grand Tour Era  The Grand Tour Era (1613 to 1785 A.D.) a. Trend of luxurious travel started by wealthy English b. Developed as a status symbol and spread throughout Europe c. Goal was to experience the “civilized world” and study the arts and sciences d. These travels often lasted for several years e. Growth in travel for business reasons
  14. 14. The Mobility Era  The Mobility Era (1800-1944)  Growing economic prosperity  Increase in systems, modes, and speeds of travel (roads, railroads, steamships)  Thomas Cook developed tour packages for mass travel  Invention of automobile and airplane expanded freedom to travel
  15. 15. The Mobility Era  In 1841, Thomas Cook organised the first tour for a group of 570 to attend a temperance rally in Leicester, England.  The trip was complete with a picnic lunch and brass band  The immediate success of the first venture and the demand for more assistance in making travel arrangements led Cook into the full-time business provided travel services.  sources; homas_Cook
  16. 16. The Modern Era  The Modern Era (1945 to present)  Paid vacations introduced in the early 1900’s made leisure travel possible for working and middle classes  Millions of people were introduced to international travel during World War II  Postwar prosperity made mass ownerships of automobiles possible  Advent of jet travel shortened travel time  Time, money, safety and interest in travel led to unparalleled growth of tourism  Development of mass tourism
  17. 17. YEAR MILESTONE 01 4000BC Invention of money by Sumerians (Babylonia) 02 5th-15th century AD Dark Era of Tourism 03 AD 1763-1773 Renaissance stage of tourism 04 1820 Introduction of regular steamboat services 05 1830 First passenger train service begins 06 1841 Thomas Cook began running a special excursion train from Leicester to Loughborough (England) 07 1867 Thomas Cook introduced Hotel voucher 08 1872 Thomas Cook first organized ‘the round the world trip’ 09 1873 ‘Circular note’ was introduced by Thomas Cook 10 1888-89 The Savoy, Claridges, and Carlton hotels were opened in London
  18. 18. 11 1903 Airplane’s first flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina by the Wright brothers 12 1903 The first major hotel company-Trust Houses- opens a chain of hotels through out Britain 13 1920 Chartered flights appear in tourism 14 AD1945 IATA was established 15 1947 IUOTO was constituted 16 1950 Commercial air transportation increased and air transportation became cheaper 17 1958 Boeing 707 jet was introduced 18 1966 UFTAA was founded 19 1970 First wide-bodied jet (Boeing 747) appeared in service(capable of carrying 400 pax) 20 1975 WTO began its legal existence
  19. 19. Leisure Travel  Leisure travel was associated with the Industrial Revolution in the United Kingdom – the first European country to promote leisure time to the increasing industrial population.  Initially, this applied to the owners of the machinery of production, the economic oligarchy, the factory owners and the traders.  These comprised the new middle class.  Cox & Kings was the first official travel company to be formed in 1758
  20. 20. Leisure Travel  The British origin of this new industry is reflected in many place names.  In Nice, France, one of the first and best-established holiday resorts on the French Riviera, the long esplanade along the seafront is known to this day as the Promenade des Anglais  In many other historic resorts in continental Europe, old, well-established palace hotels have names like the Hotel Bristol, the Hotel Carlton or the Hotel Majestic – reflecting the dominance of English customers.
  21. 21. Winter Tourism  Although it is acknowledged that the Swiss were not the inventors of skiing, it is well documented that St. Moritz, Graubünden became the cradle of the developing winter tourism.  Since that year of 1865 in St. Moritz, when many brave hotel managers choose to risk opening their hotels in winter.  It was, however, only in the 1970s when winter tourism took over the lead from summer tourism in many of the Swiss ski resorts.  Even in winter, portions of up to one third of all guests (depending on the location) consist of non-skiers.
  22. 22. Mass Tourism  Mass tourism could only have developed with the improvements in technology, allowing the transport of large numbers of people in a short space of time to places of leisure interest.  So that greater numbers of people could begin to enjoy the benefits of leisure time.  In the United States, the first seaside resorts in the European style were at Atlantic City, New Jersey and Long Island, New York.
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