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  2. 2. The vowel inventoryFront central back high mid low The picture below show the mouth cavityspread neutral rounded and it is equivalent grid in which the tonge is moved up-down or back to utter the vowel sound
  3. 3. Articulatory diagram Organs of the speech e 1. Tongue d f a.- apico segment b a c b.- fronto segment c.- dorso segment 2. Palatal d- alveolar section e.- palatal section f- velar section
  4. 4. VOWELS VOWEL DIPHTHONGS PRODUCTION The aspects Is a speech When vowels consederer tosound produced occur in determine the vowelby human beings combinations, th features are aswhen the breath ey are called follows: flows out diphthongs, throught mouth without being Every vowel is voiced inblocked by teeth both languages; vowel tonge or lips quality are clssified as A diphthong simple and complex. starts in one Other is tongue position: position and high middle low. vowels are Area these are frontcharacterized by the moves to central or back . Muscle relative height/ another tention are tense or lax . frontness of the position or And the lip shape tonge and viceversa. spread neutral andrelaativerounding of rounded. the lips
  5. 5. SPANISH VOWEL PHONEME QUADRANT area front central backT m /i/o u high /u/n s t clg ee e n mid /e/ /o/ sp t e eosi n ti lowtio /a/ on n Spread neutral rounded Lip shape
  6. 6. ENGLISH VOWEL PHONEME QUADRANT area front central backT /iy/ /uw/ tense mo high un sg /I/ /ʊ/ cle e mid /ey/p /ə/ /ow/ /ɛ/ to esi low nti /æ/ /ɔ/ lax tio /a/ on n Spread neutral rounded Lip shape
  7. 7. FRENCH VOWEL PHONEME QUADRANT area front central back Aigue-antérieure centralisée Grave-postériuereT T mo /i/ /y/ /u/ Ferme e un high n sg Mi- d ferme u cle /e/ /ø/ /o/ e e moyennep mid /ə/ to esi R nti Mi- /ɛ/ / / /œ/ /ɔ/ /ɔ/ e /œ/ l tio ouverte low o /∝/ an /ã/ c ouverte h n é NA A Neutre NA A Spread neutral rounded Lip shape
  8. 8. Phonemic and phonetic vowel contrast. Is a single vowel articulated monophthongs without change in a quality throughout the course of a syllable.
  9. 9. SPANISH /i/ with ENGLISH /iy/ and /I/ The fronto section of the tongueSpanish rises to make contact both sides /i/ of the upper lateral teeth Tonge is positioned forward andEnglish high in the oral cavity with the /IY/ sides in contact with the teeth laterally and the tip positioned behind the lower teeth. The tonge is positined forward and slightly lower, with the sidesEnglish in contact with the teeth laterally /I/ and the tip positineed behind the lower teeth.
  10. 10. SPANISH /e/ with ENGLISH /ey/ and /ɛ/ English English /ɛ/Spanish /e/ /ey/ The tonge is The tonge is positioned positioned forward andThe dorso section of forward and high in the high in the oral cavity the tonge reaches oral cavity with it is with the sides in the borders of the sides in contact with the contact with the lateralhard palatal making lateral teeth. The lips teeth and the tip a groove between are spread and placed behind the the tongue and the retracted. lower teeth. The lips palatal. are spread and retracted.
  11. 11. The dorso section of the tongue moves upwards Spanish gently to the central area of /a/ the oral cavity the tongue remains moveless. The tongue positionedSPANISH /a/ slightly forward and low in with English the oral cavity with the / æ/ apex positioned behind theENGLISH /a/ and /æ/ lower teeth. The tonge is slightly back and low in the oral cavity English with the tip of the tonge /a/ placing behind the lower front teeth.
  12. 12. ENGLISH /ə/ The schwa is the common vowel in spoken english ant it is a quite short vowel sound in many ligtly pronounced Occurs in english but it does unstressed syllables not in spanish. inmultisyllabic words.It sometimes signified The tonge is by the positioned in the pronunciation”uh” middle of the oral cavity The schwa happens mostly as part of unstressed syllables
  13. 13. The tonge is retracted Spanish backwards the oral cavity. The /o/ postdorso section of the tongue moves up towards the soft palatale. Lips are rounded The tongue isSpanish /o/ positioned back English with in a low-med /ɔ/english /ɔ/ position with And /ow/ respect to the height. The dorso section of English the tongue is moved /ow/ backwards. The lips are rounded and protruded.
  14. 14. A diphthong DIPHTHONGS is aphonologica l group consisting of a vowel soundfollowed by ENGLISH DIPHTHONGS a non- adjacentglide within the same A diphthong is a complex vowel, made of two syllable components; a diphthong begins as one vowel and finishes as another. Happen in inital-diphthong Usually, the two components can be position, they are referred to as a nucleus and an off-glide. semiconsonants, but whenthey occur in final-diphthongposition, they are semivowels
  15. 15. ENGLISH DIPHTHONG CHART areaT Mo u front central backn s /iy/ /uw/ tenseg high cu le mid e low /a/ /ɔ/ tpo esi spread neutral rounded nti tio on n Lip shape
  16. 16. SPANISH DIPHTHONGS The vowels in spanish can be classified as eitherweak, <i.u> or strong more ann the classificaton candetermine when combinations of two or more vowels are considered to form a separated syllable/a/ /a/ /y//e/ /e/ /w//o/ /o/
  17. 17. SPANISH DIPHTHONG CHART areaTo Mn front central back ug s high /i/ /u/ cue l tense /e/ /o/ e midpo t lowsi /a/ eti n spread neutral rounded tion o n Lip shape
  18. 18. ENGLISH AND SPANISH DIPHTHONGS English and English and spanish spanish diphthong /ay/ diphthong /aw/ This diphthong production isThis diphthong production is pretty similar in both similar in both languages. languages. The picture The picture sequence show sequence show how the the tongue moves from the tongue moves from the low- low-central position to the front central position to the high-back position. The lip high-front position. The lips change their shape from change their shape fromneutra to rounded during this neutral to spread during this diphthong production. diphthong production
  19. 19. ENGLISH AND SPANISH DIPHTHONG /oy/ / /ɔy/ English /ɔy/ Spanish /oy/ The tongue moves the tongue moves from mid-low back from the midposition to high front backposition to theposition. The lips are high front.lips are rounded become rounded and become spread. spread.
  20. 20. SPANISH RISING DIPHTHONGS Is voiced,complex non adjancent glide, high front becoming low central tense/ya/ spread becoming neutral/ye/ Voiced complex-adjacent glide high front becoming low front tense spreads/yo/ Voiced. Complex-non adjacent glide high front becoming mid back tense spread bocoming rounded/yw/ Voiced complex-non adjacent glide high front bocoming mid back tense spread becoming rounded. Voiced complex-non adjacent glide high back becoming low central tense/wa/ rounded becoming neutral Voiced complex-non adjacent glide high back becoming mid front tense/we/ rounded becoming spread. Voiced complex non adjacent glide high back becoming high front tense/wy/ rounded becoming spread./wo/ Voiced complex adjacent glide high back becoming mid tense rounded.
  21. 21. SPANISH FALLING DIPHTHONGS Voiced complex non adjacent glide low central becoming high front tense neutral becoming spread/ay/ Voiced complex adjacent glide mid front becoming/ey/ high front tense spread Voiced complex non adjacent glide mid front/ew/ becoming high back tense spread becoming rounded
  22. 22. THE CONSONANT INVENTORYUsed primarily for breathing and eating secondarily for speaking constrcting airflow in the mouth at various points, we make thedistinctive sounds for human speech. The vocal tract has activeand passive articulators. They are also know as articulators and points articulation. ARTICULATORY BASIS Four principal dimiensions are considered when regarding “consonant articulation” voicing articulator and point of the articulation cavity and manner.
  23. 23. It directly deals with the VOICINGsound quality produced by the vocal cords. When vocal cords vibrated, it is said to be voiced; otherwise, it is siad to be voiceless Voiced consonants. voiceless A simple explanation of Voiceless consonants do voiced consonants is that not used the voice. Theythey used the voice. This is are percussive and hardeasy to test by putting your sounds. You can test if a finger on your throat. consonant is voiceless by putting your finger on your throat
  24. 24. ARTICULATOR AND POINT OF ARTICULATION Point the Manner ofThe articulator cavity articulation articulation It refers to the wayIs the doer of Is any part of how air flows out the It concerns the mouth during the articulation the place production of a that can be and moves where air sound. The sound reached by freely goes might be stop theenough to be through. It fricative nasal lateral articulator. It active in the can be the vibrant affricateor a is also continuant. The apeech. It is mouth or known as manner of also known nasal cavity. Major consonants as Major passive describes the Active articulator manner in which Articulator airflow is restricted.
  25. 25. CONTRAST OFPHONEMIC AND PHONETIC CONSONANT ENGLISH AND CONTRAST. SPANISH STOPS The active articulator touches the passive articulator and completely cuts of the airflow through the mouth. STOP OR English and spanish stops include: /p/ /b/ PLOSIVE /t/ /d/ /k/ /g/. If /p/ /t/ or /k/ are pronounced at the beginning of an english words a strong puff of breath will be felt. It is called aspiration HOMORGANIC This refers to sounds made at the SOUNDS same place of articulation literally, with the same organ.
  26. 26. /p-b/ production picture spanish-english bilabial oral stop/b/ voiced Voiceless /p/
  27. 27. SpanishPosition /p/ [p] I M F X XThe /p/ phonemic distribution is : partialThe /p/ phonetic distribution is: partial
  28. 28. EnglishPosition /p/ [ph ] [p] [pˈ] [p-] I X X X M X X X F X XThe /p/ phonemic distribution is: totalThe /p/ phonetic distribution is : partial, complementaryand free variation.