LINGUISTICSStaff:         Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tung Thanh Nguyen         The Department of English         HCMC University of ...
PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY
1. PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY1.1 Segmental        Phonemes              Vowels                         - Tongue height       ...
Sound system in English                    Sound system (44)     Consonants (24)                Vowels (20)               ...
.
ConsonantsChart of English consonant phonemes                             Place of articulation                           ...
Fig. Bilabial articulation   Fig. Alveolar articulation
Fig. Velar articulation
Plosives or stops (/p, b, t, d, k, g/): The air passage iscompletely closed (or stopped). The closure or stop isthen sudde...
Nasals (/m, n, ŋ/): The mouth is completely closed atsome point, but the soft palate is lowered so that the airis free to ...
Fig. Sub-divisions of the tongue
Fig. Tongue position for i: and æ
Vowels           front     central      back    high    i:                   u:                                ʊ      ...
1. English Front VowelsTongue position: It is only the front part of the tongue that israised or lowered to produce the f...
2. English Central Vowels   Tongue position: the middle part of the tongue is used. Height of the tongue: Mid position: ...
3. English Back VowelsTongue position: the back part of the tongue is raised orlowered.Height of the tongue:     + Lowes...
. Allophones Allophones are variants of phonemes that occurin speech.Reasons: the way a phoneme is pronounced isconditio...
RULES FOR ENGLISH CONSONANT ALLOPHONES  1. Initial voiceless stops are aspirated. [h]         pie [phai]          tea [thi...
4. Approximants /w, r, j/ and the lateral /l/ are devoiced.when they occur after initial /p, t, k/. [o]           ̥   play...
7. Voiced stops and affricate /b, d, g, dʒ/ are voiceless.    when syllable initial, except when immediately    preceded b...
9. The lateral /l/ becomes syllabic [.] at the end of a word .when immediately after a consonant.        ̍    ̩paddle [phæ...
12. The lateral /l/ is velarized when after a vowel orbefore a consonant at the end of a word. [ɫ ]      well [weɫ]       ...
Syntagmatic relationshippre-       initial   post-     VOWEL pre-    final    post-   post-   post-initial              in...
Topics in phonological contrastive studies:According to Lado, three types of questions can    be asked about individual so...
Aspects of connected speech1. RHYTHMEnglish: stress-timed rhythm  stressed syllablestend to occur at relatively regular i...
2. ASSIMILATION A significant difference in natural connectedspeech is the way that sound belonging to oneword can cause ...
1. Assimilation of place of articulation alveolar t becomes p before a bilabial consonant:      + that person  ðæp      ...
2. Assimilation of manner of articulation A final plosive becomes a fricative or nasal:      + that side  ðæs      + goo...
3. Assimilation of voice     + cats     + jumps     + Pat’s     + dogs     + runs     + pams
3. ELISION Loss of weak vowel after p, t, k       + potato, tomato, canary, perhaps, today        ph       th      kh    ...
Questions1. What are the criteria for classifying Englishconsonants? Give examples for illustration.2. What is assimilatio...
5. Write the English words represented in thetranscriptions below:6. What is elision in English? Give examples.7. State th...
11. What is liaison in the English language? State thetypes of liaison and give examples for illustration.12. Give narrow ...
16. Give the phonetic transcription of the followingsentence: Mrs. Margaret and her husband are leaving forHong Kong tomor...
20. What often happens to the voiceless alveolar stop /t/when it is followed by the nasal sound /n/? Give twoexamples of t...
1. What are the criteria for classifying Englishconsonants? Give examples for illustration.Criteria:1. Voicing2. Manner of...
1. VoicingVoiceless p t k f θ s ʃ      tʃ                       h Voiced        b d   v ð z ʒ dʒ   m n ŋ   w r j   l      ...
2. Manner of articulation1 Plosives/stops: 6          p b t d k g2 Fricatives: 9             fvθðszʃ ʒh3 Affricates       ...
3. Place of articulation 1   Bilabial              p b m w 2   Labio-dental             f v 3   Interdental              θ...
2. What is assimilation in the English language? Statethe types of assimilation with examples for illustration. Definition...
There are three types of assimilation:1. Assimilation of place2. Assimilation of manner3. Assimilation of voiceTwo words a...
1. Assimilation of placeExamples:1. length /ŋ/  /n/2. congress /n/  /ŋ/3. that person /t/  /p/4. quite good /t/  /k/5....
1. Assimilation of placeExamples:1. length /ŋ/  /n/ (velar  alveolar)2. congress /n/  /ŋ/ (alveolar  velar)3. that per...
.
2. Assimilation of mannerExamples1. that side /t/  /s/2. good night /d/  /n/3. in the /ð/  / n/4. get them /ð/  /t/5. ...
2. Assimilation of mannerAssimilation of manner is much less noticeableand is only found in the most rapid speech.Examples...
3. Assimilation of voiceAssimilation of voice is found but only in alimited way. Regressive assimilation is foundacross wo...
word/           without        assimilation        trigger         type of change  combination      assimilation  (Lancash...
3. What is the difference between the monophthongsand diphthongs in the English language? Give examplesfor illustration. A...
4. What is a phoneme? How many phonemes are therein the English language? How many types are they oftendivided into? Give ...
Sound system in English                    Sound system (44)     Consonants (24)                Vowels (20)               ...
5. Write the English words represented in thetranscriptions below: 1. a. /kɜ:nəl/        b. /sɜ:fɪs/        c. /pɜ:pəs/ d....
6. What is elision in English? Give examples. Elision means under circumstances in speaking sounds disappear. Phonological...
Possibilities of elision:1. Loss of weak vowels // or // after /p/, /t/, /k/      potato      /phtheɪthəʊ/      perhaps   ...
3. Avoidance of complex consonant clusters     George the Sixth’s throne/ks θr/     acts /ks/     looked back /k b/     sc...
word/combination                no elision                   elision        asked                       [ɑːskt]           ...
7. State the differences between affricatives and fricatives in English in terms of manner of production.Affricates (/tʃ, ...
8. Copy these words to your test paper and mark theirstress(es). Economically referee impact (noun) consecutive opportunit...
9. What makes an English plosive different from anEnglish fricative? Give examples for illustration. Plosives or stops (/p...
10. What are the criteria for classifying English vowels?Give examples for illustration. Vowels may be classified accordin...
Vowels           front     central      back    high    i:                   u:                                ʊ      ...
11. What is liaison in the English language? State thetypes of liaison and give examples for illustration. Definition: Lia...
1. Link consonant with vowel1.1 The words ending in /p, t, k, b, d, g/ andfollowed by a word beginning with a vowel:      ...
2. Link vowel with vowel2.1 Introduce /r/ between two vowels      Here is      Formula A      Papa isn’t here2.2 Link the ...
12. Give narrow transcription of the following sentence: They demanded that the health-insurance negotiation start on Tues...
13. What does “manner of articulation” refer to? Describe in brief the manner of articulation in producing stops and affri...
14. State the functions of intonation in English. Definition: The primary function of intonation is to convey the meaning ...
Falling tone: It gives the feeling of ‘finality’ ofthe end of the sentence or of ‘definiteness.Rising tone: This tone conv...
Falling1. Statement or declarative sentence       This is the end of the news.       Have you seen Jane? - No.2. Command...
Rising1. Yes-no question in statement form: He’s gone?2. Yes-no question in question form: Is it over?3. ‘More to follow...
Falling-rising1. Uncertainty or doubt:       You may be right. –Really?2. Requesting:       Can I borrow your car?3. R...
Rising-falling1. In alternative questions:       He’s a teacher of Mathematics or Physics?2. To convey rather strong fee...
15. What is the difference between the voiced andvoiceless consonants in the English language? Giveyour examples for illus...
16. Give the phonetic transcription of the followingsentences: 1. They have seen that interesting film for years. 2. Mrs. ...
17. Define the patterns of simplification in informalspoken English. Give two examples of each.
18. What does a “distinctive feature” refer to?What is the distinctive feature between the twosounds /p/ and /b/ in Englis...
19. What is the difference between fortis and lenis consonants in English? Give examples.              Labio-   Dental    ...
20. What often happens to the voiceless alveolar stop /t/when it is followed by the nasal sound /n/? Give twoexamples of t...
23. What is a minimal pair? Give two examples forillustration. A minimal pair is a pair of two forms that are identical in...
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Linguistics hanoi university

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Linguistics hanoi university

  1. 1. LINGUISTICSStaff: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tung Thanh Nguyen The Department of English HCMC University of Education March 2013
  2. 2. PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY
  3. 3. 1. PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY1.1 Segmental Phonemes Vowels - Tongue height - Frontness or backness - Lip-rounding Consonants - Place of articulation - Manner of articulation - Voice Allophones1.2 Suprasegmental - Syllable - Stress - Aspects of connected speech (rhythm, assimilation, elision, linking) - Intonation
  4. 4. Sound system in English Sound system (44) Consonants (24) Vowels (20) Monophthongs Diphthongs (12) (8) p b t d k g i: ɪ e æ ɪə eə ʊə f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒh ɜ: ə ʌ eɪ aɪ ɔɪ tʃ dʒ m n ŋ u: ʊ ɔ: ɒ ɑ: əʊ aʊ l w r j
  5. 5. .
  6. 6. ConsonantsChart of English consonant phonemes Place of articulation Bilabial Labio- Dental Alveolar Palato-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal dental (Post- alveolar) Plosive p b t d kg Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ hMannerof Affricate tʃ dʒarticulation Nasal m n ŋ Lateral l Approximant w r j (Roach, 1991, p. 62)
  7. 7. Fig. Bilabial articulation Fig. Alveolar articulation
  8. 8. Fig. Velar articulation
  9. 9. Plosives or stops (/p, b, t, d, k, g/): The air passage iscompletely closed (or stopped). The closure or stop isthen suddenly released; the air escapes with anexplosive sound.Fricatives (/f, v, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, h/): The air passage isnarrowed at some point to such degree that the airforcing its way past the obstruction produces audiblefriction.Affricates: (/tʃ, dʒ/): A kind of plosive in which therelease of the stop is immediately followed by thecorresponding fricative. Affricates are represented bydiagraphs (2 letters) in a phonetic transcription: the firstindicates the stop, the second the fricative glide afterstop.
  10. 10. Nasals (/m, n, ŋ/): The mouth is completely closed atsome point, but the soft palate is lowered so that the airis free to flow out through the nose.Lateral (/l/): The centre of the mouth passage isobstructed by the tongue, but the air is free to pass roundboth sides of the tongue. The soft palate is raised.Semi-vowels or approximants: (/w, j, r/): They arephonetically like vowels but phonologically likeconsonants. From the phonetic point if view, thearticulation of /j/ is practically the same as that of a frontclose vowel /i:/, but is very short. In the same way /w/ isclosely similar to /u:/.
  11. 11. Fig. Sub-divisions of the tongue
  12. 12. Fig. Tongue position for i: and æ
  13. 13. Vowels front central back high  i:  u:  ʊ ɪ  ɔ: mid  e ɜ: ə ʌ ɒ  ɑ: low æ spread/unrounded rounded
  14. 14. 1. English Front VowelsTongue position: It is only the front part of the tongue that israised or lowered to produce the front vowels.Height of the tongue:+ When the tongue is close to the palate and the air passage isnarrow: /i:/ and /ɪ/+ When the tongue is very low and the air passage is verywide: /æ/+ When the tongue is half between its high and lowposition: /e/Shape of the lips: spread.Length: /i:/ & /æ/ longer than /ɪ/ & /e/Muscle tension: /i:/ & /æ/: tense; /ɪ/ & /e/: relaxed
  15. 15. 2. English Central Vowels Tongue position: the middle part of the tongue is used. Height of the tongue: Mid position: /ɜ:/, /ə/ & /ʌ/ Shape of the lips: unrounded Length: /ɜ:/ long & /ə/ short Muscle tension: /ɜ:/: tense; /ə/ & /ʌ/: relaxed
  16. 16. 3. English Back VowelsTongue position: the back part of the tongue is raised orlowered.Height of the tongue: + Lowest position: /ɒ/ & /ɑ: / + Highest position: /ʊ/ & /u:/ + Mid position: /ɔ:/  Shape of the lips: rounded for /ʊ/, /u:/, /ɔ:/  Length: /u:/ & /ɔ:/ longer than /ʊ/ & /ɒ/  Muscle tension: /u:/ & /ɔ:/: tense; /ʊ/ & /ɒ/: relaxed
  17. 17. . Allophones Allophones are variants of phonemes that occurin speech.Reasons: the way a phoneme is pronounced isconditioned by the sounds around it or by itsposition in the word. For example: /t/ [th] tea /t/ [to] stay [ t̪ ] get there
  18. 18. RULES FOR ENGLISH CONSONANT ALLOPHONES 1. Initial voiceless stops are aspirated. [h] pie [phai] tea [thi:] key [khi:] 2. Voiceless stops are unaspirated after /s/ at the beginning of a syllable. [o] stay [st˚ei] sky [sk˚ai] speak [sp˚i:k] 3. Stops are unexploded when they occur before another stop. [o] apt [æp˚t] rubbed [rʌb˚d] looked [luk˚t] stopped [stɔp˚t]
  19. 19. 4. Approximants /w, r, j/ and the lateral /l/ are devoiced.when they occur after initial /p, t, k/. [o] ̥ play [plei] ̥ queen [kwi:n] ̥ twin [twi:n]5. Voiceless stops become glottal stop plus voicelessstops when they are syllable final and after a vowel. tip /tiʔ/ kick /kiʔ/ pit /piʔ/6. Voiced obstruents (stops and fricatives: /b, d, g, v, ʒ,z/) are devoiced when they occur at the end of anutterance or before a voiceless sound. [--o] ̥ improve /impru:v/ big /biɡ̥/ ̥ add two /ædtu:/
  20. 20. 7. Voiced stops and affricate /b, d, g, dʒ/ are voiceless. when syllable initial, except when immediately preceded by a voiced sound. [--o] dog /d̥ɔɡ/ big dog 8. /n/ becomes syllabic [.] at the end of a word when immediately after obstruents (stops + fricatives). garden /̍ɡɑdn/ ̩ ̍ ̩ ̍ ̩ listen /lisn/ reason /ri:zn/ Notes: /n/ does not become syllabic after /m, n, tʃ/ e.g. question /kwestʃən/ salmon /sæmən/ ̍ ̍
  21. 21. 9. The lateral /l/ becomes syllabic [.] at the end of a word .when immediately after a consonant. ̍ ̩paddle [phædl] castle [khɑ:sl] ̍ ̩ noble [nəʊbl] ̍ ̩Note: /l/ does not become syllabic after /dʒ/ and /tʃ/. satchel [sætʃəl] ̍ angel [eindʒəl] ̍10. Alveolars become dentalized [ ̪ ] before dentals.eighth [eitθ] tenth [thenθ] wealth [welθ] get there [ɡetðeə] ̪ ̪ ̪ ̪11. Velar stops become more front as the following vowelin the same syllable becomes more front. [+ ] [+] [-] [-] cat [khæt] get cook good
  22. 22. 12. The lateral /l/ is velarized when after a vowel orbefore a consonant at the end of a word. [ɫ ] well [weɫ] dealt [di:ɫt]13. Vowels become shorter before voicelessconsonants in the same syllable. ̌ neat [ni:t] pace get back14. Vowels become nasalized before nasals [ ͂ ] song [sɔ͂ŋ] ban [bæn] ͂
  23. 23. Syntagmatic relationshippre- initial post- VOWEL pre- final post- post- post-initial initial final final final final 1 2 3 ONSET CODApre- initial post- VOWEL pre- final post- post- post-initial initial final final final final 1 2 3‘fifths’ fɪ - f θ s -‘prompts’ prɒ m p t s -‘sixths’ sɪ - k s θ s‘texts’ te - k s t s (Roach, 1991, p. 72)
  24. 24. Topics in phonological contrastive studies:According to Lado, three types of questions can be asked about individual sounds compared in isolation:(1) Does the native language have a phonologically similar phoneme?(2) Are the variants of the phonemes similar in both languages?(3) Are the phonemes and their variants similarly distributed? (as cited in Krzeszowski, 1990, p. 52)
  25. 25. Aspects of connected speech1. RHYTHMEnglish: stress-timed rhythm  stressed syllablestend to occur at relatively regular intervals1 2 3 4 5Walk down the path to the end of the canal
  26. 26. 2. ASSIMILATION A significant difference in natural connectedspeech is the way that sound belonging to oneword can cause changes in sounds belonging toneighbouring words More likely to be found in rapid, casual speechand less likely in slow, careful speech Assimilation of (1) place of articulation (2) manner of articulation (3) voicing
  27. 27. 1. Assimilation of place of articulation alveolar t becomes p before a bilabial consonant: + that person  ðæp + light blue  laɪp + meat pie  mi:p t becomes k before a velar consonant: + that case  ðæk + bright colour  braɪk + quite good  kwaɪk
  28. 28. 2. Assimilation of manner of articulation A final plosive becomes a fricative or nasal: + that side  ðæs + good night  gʊn A word-initial ð follows a plosive or nasal atthe end of a preceding words: + in the ɪn ðə  ɪnnə + get them get ðəm  gettəm + read these ri:d ði:z  ri:ddi:z
  29. 29. 3. Assimilation of voice + cats + jumps + Pat’s + dogs + runs + pams
  30. 30. 3. ELISION Loss of weak vowel after p, t, k + potato, tomato, canary, perhaps, today ph th kh ph th Weak vowel + n, l, or r becomes syllabic consonant + tonight tnaɪt, police pli:s, correct krekt Avoidance of complex consonant clusters + George the Sixth’s throne sɪksθrəʊn In clusters of three plosives or two plosives plus africative, the middle plosive may disappear: + acts æks; looked back lʊk bæk; scripts skrɪps Loss of final v in ‘of’ before consonants: lots of them,waste of money Contractions of grammatical words
  31. 31. Questions1. What are the criteria for classifying Englishconsonants? Give examples for illustration.2. What is assimilation in the English language? Statethe types of assimilation with examples for illustration.3. What is the difference between the monophthongs anddiphthongs in the English language? Give examples forillustration.4. What is a phoneme? How many phonemes are there inthe English language? How many types are they oftendivided into? Give examples of each type.
  32. 32. 5. Write the English words represented in thetranscriptions below:6. What is elision in English? Give examples.7. State the differences between affricatives andfricatives in English in terms of manner of production.8. Copy these words to your test paper and mark theirstress(es).Economically referee impact (noun) consecutiveopportunity obstacle hello legitimate circuit helicopter9. What makes an English plosive different from anEnglish fricative? Give examples for illustration.10. What are the criteria for classifying English vowels?Give examples for illustration.
  33. 33. 11. What is liaison in the English language? State thetypes of liaison and give examples for illustration.12. Give narrow transcription of the following sentence:They demanded that the health-insurance negotiationstart on Tuesday.13. What does “manner of articulation” refer to?Describe in brief the manner of articulation in producingstops and affricates. Give one or two examples of each.14. State the functions of intonation in English.15. What is the difference between the voiced andvoiceless consonants in the English language? Give yourexamples for illustration.
  34. 34. 16. Give the phonetic transcription of the followingsentence: Mrs. Margaret and her husband are leaving forHong Kong tomorrow.They have seen that interesting film for years.17. Define the patterns of simplification in informalspoken English. Give two examples of each.18. What does a “distinctive feature” refer to? What isthe distinctive feature between the two sounds /p/ and /b/in English?19. What is the difference between fortis and lenisconsonants in English? Give examples.
  35. 35. 20. What often happens to the voiceless alveolar stop /t/when it is followed by the nasal sound /n/? Give twoexamples of the phenomenon.21. There are two mistakes in the following sentencewhich gives the definition of a diphthong. Copy thesentence to your test paper, circle and correct themistakes.A diphthong is a pure vowel sound consisting of onevowel elements, pronounced so as to form a singlesyllable.23. What is a minimal pair in English? Give at least 3examples for illustration.
  36. 36. 1. What are the criteria for classifying Englishconsonants? Give examples for illustration.Criteria:1. Voicing2. Manner of articulation3. Place of articulation
  37. 37. 1. VoicingVoiceless p t k f θ s ʃ tʃ h Voiced b d v ð z ʒ dʒ m n ŋ w r j l g
  38. 38. 2. Manner of articulation1 Plosives/stops: 6 p b t d k g2 Fricatives: 9 fvθðszʃ ʒh3 Affricates tʃ dʒ4 Nasals mnŋ5 Lateral l6 Semi-vowels / wjr approximants
  39. 39. 3. Place of articulation 1 Bilabial p b m w 2 Labio-dental f v 3 Interdental θ ð 4 Alveolar t d s z n l 5 Alveo-palatal ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ 6 Palatal j 7 Velar k g ŋ 8 Glottal h
  40. 40. 2. What is assimilation in the English language? Statethe types of assimilation with examples for illustration. Definition: Assimilation may be defined as a phonetic process in which one speech sound is changed to become resemble or identical with a neighbouring soud. Examples: news /z/ but in newspaper /s/ butter /t/  /d/
  41. 41. There are three types of assimilation:1. Assimilation of place2. Assimilation of manner3. Assimilation of voiceTwo words are combined; the first ends with asingle consonant (Cf); the second starts with aconsonant (Ci ). Cf CiRegressive assimilation: Cf is affected by CiProgressive assimilation: Ci is affected by Cf
  42. 42. 1. Assimilation of placeExamples:1. length /ŋ/  /n/2. congress /n/  /ŋ/3. that person /t/  /p/4. quite good /t/  /k/5. this shoe /s/  /ʃ /6. those years /z/  / ʒ /
  43. 43. 1. Assimilation of placeExamples:1. length /ŋ/  /n/ (velar  alveolar)2. congress /n/  /ŋ/ (alveolar  velar)3. that person /t/  /p/ (alveolar  bilabial)4. quite good /t/  /k/ (alveolar  velar)5. this shoe /s/  /ʃ / (alveolar  palato-alveolar)6. those years /z/  / ʒ / (alveolar  palato-alveolar
  44. 44. .
  45. 45. 2. Assimilation of mannerExamples1. that side /t/  /s/2. good night /d/  /n/3. in the /ð/  / n/4. get them /ð/  /t/5. read these /ð/  /d/
  46. 46. 2. Assimilation of mannerAssimilation of manner is much less noticeableand is only found in the most rapid speech.Examples1. that side /t/  /s/ (plosive  fricative)2. good night /d/  /n/ (plosive  nasal)3. in the /ð/  / n/ (fricative  nasal)4. get them /ð/  /t/ (fricative  plosive)5. read these /ð/  /d/ (fricative  plosive)
  47. 47. 3. Assimilation of voiceAssimilation of voice is found but only in alimited way. Regressive assimilation is foundacross word boundary.Examplesnews /z/ newspaper /s/north /θ/ northern /ð/have /v/ have to /f/it /t/ It is /d/good /d/ Good girl /g/
  48. 48. word/ without assimilation trigger type of change combination assimilation (Lancashire) alveolar plosive [hɒt|pɒt] [hɒppɒt] bilabial plosive hotpot ⇒ bilabial plosive alveolar fricative palato-alveolar apprenticeship [əpɹɛntɪs|ʃɪp] [əpɹɛntɪʃʃɪp] ⇒ palato-alveolar fricative fricative alveolar plosive good bye [gʊd|baɪ] [gəbbaɪ] bilabial plosive ⇒ bilabial plosive alveolar plosive good point [gʊd|pɔɪnt] [gəbpɔɪnt] bilabial plosive ⇒ bilabial plosive alveolar plosive good night [gʊd|naɪt] [gənnaɪt] alveolar nasal ⇒ alveolar nasal alveolar nasal ⇒ ten points [tɛn|pɔɪnts] [tɛmpɔɪnts] bilabial plosive bilabial nasal alveolar nasal ⇒ thin coat [θɪn|kəʊt] [θɪŋkəʊt] velar plosive velar nasal labio-dental give me [gɪv|miː] [gɪmmi] bilabial nasal fricative ⇒ bilabial nasalhttp://www9.english.cityu.edu.hk/martin_weisser/phonetics/connect/assimilation.html
  49. 49. 3. What is the difference between the monophthongsand diphthongs in the English language? Give examplesfor illustration. A diphthong is a combination of two vowels produced within one syllable. The first element is stronger and much longer than the second element, so the loudness of the sound decreases.
  50. 50. 4. What is a phoneme? How many phonemes are therein the English language? How many types are they oftendivided into? Give examples of each type. Definition: The phoneme is the smallest segment of speech sound that can make a difference in meaning among forms. /sɪn/ and /sɪŋ/ /n/ and /ŋ/ contrast in the same emvironment, so /n/ and /ŋ/ are two different phonemes.
  51. 51. Sound system in English Sound system (44) Consonants (24) Vowels (20) Monophthongs Diphthongs (12) (8) p b t d k g i: ɪ e æ ɪə eə ʊə f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒh ɜ: ə ʌ eɪ aɪ ɔɪ tʃ dʒ m n ŋ u: ʊ ɔ: ɒ ɑ: əʊ aʊ l w r j
  52. 52. 5. Write the English words represented in thetranscriptions below: 1. a. /kɜ:nəl/ b. /sɜ:fɪs/ c. /pɜ:pəs/ d. /saɪkaɪətrɪ/ e. /prəʊtəkɒl/ f. /ʌvn/ g. /nɒkaʊt/ h. /lepəd/ 2. a. /medsn/ b. /weɪ/ c. /gædʒɪt/ d. /leʒə/ e. /nɒb/ f. /lɔ:fl/ g. / wɔ:/ h. /eksɪt/
  53. 53. 6. What is elision in English? Give examples. Elision means under circumstances in speaking sounds disappear. Phonologically speaking, in certain circumstances a phoneme may be realised as zero, or have zero realisation, or be deleted. Elision is typical of rapid, casual speech. So, elision is the omission or slurring over of a vowel or a consonant when we are speaking quickly.
  54. 54. Possibilities of elision:1. Loss of weak vowels // or // after /p/, /t/, /k/ potato /phtheɪthəʊ/ perhaps /phhæps/ tomorrow /thmɒrəʊ/ today /thdeɪ/ canary /khneərɪ/2. Weak vowel + /n/, /l/, or /r/ becomes a syllabicconsonant tonight /thnaɪt/ police /phlɪs/ correct /khrekt/
  55. 55. 3. Avoidance of complex consonant clusters George the Sixth’s throne/ks θr/ acts /ks/ looked back /k b/ scripts /ps/4. Loss of /v/ and /l/ before consonants lots of them /ts ə(v)/ waste of money /t ə(v)/ all right /ɔ: (l) r/5. In contractions I had  I’d It is  It’s She has  She’s do not  don’t We are we’re
  56. 56. word/combination no elision elision asked [ɑːskt] [ɑːst] lecture [ˈlɛktʃə] [ˈlɛkʃə] desktop [ˈdɛskˌtɒp] [ˈdɛsˌtɒp] hard disk [ˌhɑː dˈdɪsk] [ˌhɑːˈdɪsk] kept quiet [ˌkɛptˈkwaɪət] [ˌkɛpˈkwaɪət] kept calling [ˌkɛptˈkoːlɪŋ] [ˌkɛpˈkoːlɪŋ] kept talking [ˌkɛptˈtoːkɪŋ] [ˌkɛpˈtoːkɪŋ] at least twice [əˌtliːstˈtwaɪs] [əˌtliːsˈtwaɪs] straight towards [ˌstɹeɪtˈtʊwoːdz] [ˌstɹeɪˈtəwoːdz] next to [ˈnɛkstˌtʊ] [ˈnɛksˌtə] want to [ˈwɒn t ˌtʊ] [ˈwɒnˌtə] or [ˈwɒnə]seemed not to notice [ˈsiːmdˌnɒttəˈnəʊtɪs] [ˈsiːmˌnɒtəˈnəʊtɪs] for the first time [foːðəˌfɜːstˈtaɪm] [fəðəˌfɜːsˈtaɪm]http://www9.english.cityu.edu.hk/martin_weisser/phonetics/connect/elision.html
  57. 57. 7. State the differences between affricatives and fricatives in English in terms of manner of production.Affricates (/tʃ, dʒ/): A kind of plosive in which the releaseof the stop is immediately followed by the correspondingfricative (the fricative formed at the same place in themouth as the stop). Affricates are represented by diagraphs(2 letters) in a phonetic transcription; the first indicates thestop, the second the fricative glide after the stop)Fricatives (/f, v, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, h/): The air passage isnarrowed at some point to such degree that the air forcingits way past the obstruction produces audible friction.
  58. 58. 8. Copy these words to your test paper and mark theirstress(es). Economically referee impact (noun) consecutive opportunity obstacle hello legitimate circuit helicopter
  59. 59. 9. What makes an English plosive different from anEnglish fricative? Give examples for illustration. Plosives or stops (/p, b, t, d, k, g/): The air passage is completely closed (or stopped). The closure or stop is then suddenly released; the air escapes with an explosive sound. Fricatives (/f, v, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, h/): The air passage is narrowed at some point to such degree that the air forcing its way past the obstruction produces audible friction.
  60. 60. 10. What are the criteria for classifying English vowels?Give examples for illustration. Vowels may be classified according to the following principles: 1. Positions of the tongue 2. The height of the tongue 3. Lip positions 4. The length of the sounds 5. Muscle tension
  61. 61. Vowels front central back high  i:  u:  ʊ ɪ  ɔ: mid  e ɜ: ə ʌ ɒ  ɑ: low æ spread/unrounded rounded
  62. 62. 11. What is liaison in the English language? State thetypes of liaison and give examples for illustration. Definition: Liaison or linking is the linking of the final sound of a word with the initial sound of the following word for the convenience of speaking. There are two types of liaison: 1. Link consonant with vowel 2. Link vowel with vowel
  63. 63. 1. Link consonant with vowel1.1 The words ending in /p, t, k, b, d, g/ andfollowed by a word beginning with a vowel: Drop it in this box. A big umbrella Red and white1.2 Link /f, v, s, z, ʃ, tʃ, dʒ, θ/ to a vowelfollowing them I want to move into a flat with my friend. The bus is coming.
  64. 64. 2. Link vowel with vowel2.1 Introduce /r/ between two vowels Here is Formula A Papa isn’t here2.2 Link the words ending in /ɪ/ or /i:/ to a vowelfollowing by using the sound /j/ Very interesting Mary and I are2.3 Link the words ending in /ʊ/ or /u:/ to avowel following by using the sound /w/ b/c it isthe closest consonant to /u:/ I couldn’t do it Who is it? It’s difficult to do it.
  65. 65. 12. Give narrow transcription of the following sentence: They demanded that the health-insurance negotiation start on Tuesday.
  66. 66. 13. What does “manner of articulation” refer to? Describe in brief the manner of articulation in producing stops and affricates. Give one or two examples of each.Stops or plosives (/p, b, t, d, k, g/): The air passage iscompletely closed (or stopped). The closure or stop is thensuddenly released; the air escapes with an explosive sound.Affricates (/tʃ, dʒ/): A kind of plosive in which the releaseof the stop is immediately followed by the correspondingfricative (the fricative formed at the same place in themouth as the stop). Affricates are represented by diagraphs(2 letters) in a phonetic transcription; the first indicates thestop, the second the fricative glide after the stop)
  67. 67. 14. State the functions of intonation in English. Definition: The primary function of intonation is to convey the meaning and attitude of the speaker Forms in intonation: Five tones: Falling  Rising  Falling-rising  Rising-falling   Level
  68. 68. Falling tone: It gives the feeling of ‘finality’ ofthe end of the sentence or of ‘definiteness.Rising tone: This tone conveys an impression thatsomething more is to follow or invitation tocontinue.Falling-rising tone: The tone is used to describeas ‘limited agreement’ or ‘response withreservation’.Rising-falling: used in alternative questionsLevel tone: It conveys the feeling of sayingsomething routine, uninteresting, or boring.
  69. 69. Falling1. Statement or declarative sentence This is the end of the news. Have you seen Jane? - No.2. Command Go to your room.3. Wh-questions Who’s your friend?4. Tag-question: Doctor Boyle is very good, isn’t he? (Thespeaker is certain and expects the other person to agree.)5. Correcting: - Her birthday is on the tenth of December. - No, it’s on the fifth of December.
  70. 70. Rising1. Yes-no question in statement form: He’s gone?2. Yes-no question in question form: Is it over?3. ‘More to follow’: I phoned them right away (andthey agreed to come).4. Encouraging: It won’t hurt.5. Listing: What time are the busses? 7 o’clock, seven thirty and eight6. Impatient: Why not get a car?7. Echo question: The speaker repeat sth said by anotherperson while he thinks what to reply. - Have you got any postcards? -Postcards? Yes, they are in the drawers with the envelopes
  71. 71. Falling-rising1. Uncertainty or doubt: You may be right. –Really?2. Requesting: Can I borrow your car?3. Reservation: Will the children go?4. Polite phrases: Excuse me?5. Correcting: - Our English teacher is Jay Frazer. - No. It isn’t Jay Frazer. It’s May Frazer.
  72. 72. Rising-falling1. In alternative questions: He’s a teacher of Mathematics or Physics?2. To convey rather strong feelings of approval,disapproval or surprise: - You wouldn’t do an awful thing like that, would you? - No.
  73. 73. 15. What is the difference between the voiced andvoiceless consonants in the English language? Giveyour examples for illustration. Consonants are: Voiced: when the vocal words are brought together and voicing begins Voiceless: the vocal words are separated and voicing ceases.Voiceless p t k f θ s ʃ tʃ h Voiced b d v ð s ʒ dʒ m n ŋ w r j l g
  74. 74. 16. Give the phonetic transcription of the followingsentences: 1. They have seen that interesting film for years. 2. Mrs. Margaret and her husband are leaving for Hong Kong tomorrow.
  75. 75. 17. Define the patterns of simplification in informalspoken English. Give two examples of each.
  76. 76. 18. What does a “distinctive feature” refer to?What is the distinctive feature between the twosounds /p/ and /b/ in English?Distinctive feature between the two sounds /p/and /b/ in English: voice
  77. 77. 19. What is the difference between fortis and lenis consonants in English? Give examples. Labio- Dental Alveola Alveo- Glottal dental r palatal Fortis f θ s ʃ h (voiceles) Lenis v ð z ʒ (voiced)With the exception of the glottal, each place of articulationhas a pair of phonemes; one is fortis, and one lenis.The fortis fricatives are said to be articulated with greaterforce than the lenis, and their friction noise is louder.The fortis fricatives have the effect of shortening apreceding vowel as do fortis plosives
  78. 78. 20. What often happens to the voiceless alveolar stop /t/when it is followed by the nasal sound /n/? Give twoexamples of the phenomenon. The voiceless alveolar stop becomes a glottal stop (or glottalized) when it is followed by the nasal sound /n/ beaten fatten /fæʔn/ /t/ becomes /ʔ/ before /n/ kitten button mitten
  79. 79. 23. What is a minimal pair? Give two examples forillustration. A minimal pair is a pair of two forms that are identical in every way except for one sound segment that occurs at the same place in the sequence. laugh /lɑ:f/calf /kɑ:f/ it /ɪt/ eat / i:t/ mink /mɪŋk sink /sɪŋk/ tan /tæn/ pan /pæn/
  80. 80. . p

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