fonologia: vocales del ingles viviana socasi


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fonologia: vocales del ingles viviana socasi

  1. 1. The vowel inventoryFront central back The picture below show the mouth cavity and it is high equivalent grid in mid which the tonge is moved up-down or low back to utter the vowel soundspread neutral rounded
  2. 2. Articulatory diagram Organs of the e speech d f 1. Tongue b a.- apico segment a c b.- fronto segment c.- dorso segment 2. Palatal d- alveolar section e.- palatal section f- velar section
  3. 3. VOWELS DIPHTHONGS VOWEL PRODUCTION The aspects Is a speech sound When vowels consederer to produced by occur in determine the vowel human beings combinations, th features are as when the breath ey are called follows: flows out diphthongs, throught mouth without being Every vowel is voiced in blocked by teeth both languages; vowel tonge or lips quality are clssified as A diphthong simple and complex. starts in one Other is tongue position: position and high middle low. vowels are moves to Area these are front characterized by the another central or back . Muscle relative height/ tention are tense or lax . position orfrontness of the tonge And the lip shape spreadand relaativerounding viceversa. neutral and rounded. of the lips
  4. 4. SPANISH VOWEL PHONEME QUADRANT area front central backT m /i/o u high /u/n s t clg ee e n mid /e/ /o/ sp t e eosi n ti lowtio /a/ on n Spread neutral rounded Lip shape
  5. 5. ENGLISH VOWEL PHONEME QUADRANT area front central backT /iy/ /uw/ tense mo high un sg /I/ /ʊ/ cle e mid /ey/p /ə/ /ow/ /ɛ/ to esi low nti /æ/ /ɔ/ lax tio /a/ on n Spread neutral rounded Lip shape
  6. 6. FRENCH VOWEL PHONEME QUADRANT area front central back Aigue-antérieure centralisée Grave-postériuereT mo /i/ /y/ /u/ Ferme Te un high n sg Mi- d ue cle ferme /e/ /ø/ /o/ e moyennep mid /ə/ to esi R nti Mi- /ɛ/ / / /œ/ /ɔ/ e tio ouverte /œ/ /ɔ/ l low a on /ã/ /∝/ c ouverte n h é NA A Neutre NA A Spread neutral rounded Lip shape
  7. 7. Phonemic and phonetic vowel contrast. Is a single vowel articulated monophthongs without change in a quality throughout the course of a syllable.
  8. 8. SPANISH /i/ with ENGLISH /iy/ and /I/ The fronto section of the tongueSpanish rises to make contact both sides /i/ of the upper lateral teeth Tonge is positioned forward andEnglish high in the oral cavity with the /IY/ sides in contact with the teeth laterally and the tip positioned behind the lower teeth. The tonge is positined forward and slightly lower, with the sidesEnglish in contact with the teeth laterally /I/ and the tip positineed behind the lower teeth.
  9. 9. SPANISH /e/ with ENGLISH /ey/ and /ɛ/ English English /ɛ/Spanish /e/ /ey/ The tonge is positioned The dorso section of The tonge is positioned forward and high in thethe tonge reaches the forward and high in the oral cavity with the borders of the hard oral cavity with it is sides sides in contact with palatal making a in contact with the the lateral teeth and groove between the lateral teeth. The lips are the tip placed behind tongue and the spread and retracted. the lower teeth. The palatal. lips are spread and retracted.
  10. 10. The dorso section of the tongue moves upwards Spanish gently to the central area of /a/ the oral cavity the tongue remains moveless. The tongue positionedSPANISH /a/ slightly forward and low in English the oral cavity with the apex with / æ/ENGLISH /a/ positioned behind the lower and /æ/ teeth. The tonge is slightly back and low in the oral cavity English with the tip of the tonge /a/ placing behind the lower front teeth.
  11. 11. ENGLISH /ə/ The schwa is the common vowel in spoken english ant it is a quite short vowel sound in many ligtly pronouncedOccurs in english but it does unstressed syllables not in spanish. inmultisyllabic words. It sometimes signified The tonge is by the positioned in the pronunciation”uh” middle of the oral cavity The schwa happens mostly as part of unstressed syllables
  12. 12. The tonge is retracted backwards Spanish the oral cavity. The postdorso /o/ section of the tongue moves up towards the soft palatale. Lips are rounded The tongue isSpanish /o/ positioned back English with in a low-med /ɔ/english /ɔ/ position with And /ow/ respect to the height. The dorso section of the English tongue is moved /ow/ backwards. The lips are rounded and protruded.
  13. 13. A diphthong DIPHTHONGS is aphonologica l group consisting of a vowel sound ENGLISH DIPHTHONGSfollowed by a non- adjacentglide within the same A diphthong is a complex vowel, made of two syllable components; a diphthong begins as one vowel and finishes as another. Happen in inital-diphthong Usually, the two components can be position, they are referred to as a nucleus and an off-glide. semiconsonants, but when they occur in final-diphthong position, they are semivowels
  14. 14. ENGLISH DIPHTHONG CHART T o front area central back M u n s /iy/ /uw/ tense g high c u le e mid low /a/ /ɔ/ t p e o n si spread neutral rounded ti ti o o n n Lip shape
  15. 15. SPANISH DIPHTHONGSThe vowels in spanish can be classified as either weak, <i.u> or strong more ann the classificaton candetermine when combinations of two or more vowels are considered to form a separated syllable/a/ /a/ /y//e/ /e/ /w//o/ /o/
  16. 16. SPANISH DIPHTHONG CHART areaTo Mn front central back ug /i/ /u/ su high ce le tense /e/ /o/ midp to low esi /a/ nti ti spread neutral roundedo on n Lip shape
  17. 17. ENGLISH AND SPANISH DIPHTHONGS English and English and spanish spanish diphthong /ay/ diphthong /aw/ This diphthong production isThis diphthong production is pretty similar in bothsimilar in both languages. The languages. The picture picture sequence show the sequence show how the tongue moves from the low- tongue moves from the low- central position to the high- front central position to theback position. The lip change high-front position. The lips their shape from neutra to change their shape from rounded during this neutral to spread during this diphthong production. diphthong production
  18. 18. ENGLISH AND SPANISH DIPHTHONG /oy/ / /ɔy/ English /ɔy/ Spanish /oy/ The tongue moves the tongue moves from from mid-low back the mid backpositionposition to high front to the high front.lipsposition. The lips are are rounded and rounded become become spread. spread.
  19. 19. SPANISH RISING DIPHTHONGS Is voiced,complex non adjancent glide, high front becoming low central tense/ya/ spread becoming neutral/ye/ Voiced complex-adjacent glide high front becoming low front tense spreads/yo/ Voiced. Complex-non adjacent glide high front becoming mid back tense spread bocoming rounded/yw/ Voiced complex-non adjacent glide high front bocoming mid back tense spread becoming rounded. Voiced complex-non adjacent glide high back becoming low central tense/wa/ rounded becoming neutral Voiced complex-non adjacent glide high back becoming mid front tense rounded/we/ becoming spread. Voiced complex non adjacent glide high back becoming high front tense rounded/wy/ becoming spread./wo/ Voiced complex adjacent glide high back becoming mid tense rounded.
  20. 20. SPANISH FALLING DIPHTHONGS Voiced complex non adjacent glide low central becoming high front tense neutral becoming spread/ay/ Voiced complex adjacent glide mid front becoming/ey/ high front tense spread Voiced complex non adjacent glide mid front/ew/ becoming high back tense spread becoming rounded
  21. 21. THE CONSONANT INVENTORYUsed primarily for breathing and eating secondarily for speakingconstrcting airflow in the mouth at various points, we make the distinctive sounds for human speech. The vocal tract has active and passive articulators. They are also know as articulators and points articulation. ARTICULATORY BASIS Four principal dimiensions are considered when regarding “consonant articulation” voicing articulator and point of the articulation cavity and manner.
  22. 22. VOICING Voiced voiceless consonants. A simple explanation of voiced consonants is that Voiceless consonants do notthey used the voice. This is used the voice. They areeasy to test by putting your percussive and hard sounds. finger on your throat. You can test if a consonant is voiceless by putting your finger on your throat
  23. 23. ARTICULATOR AND POINT OF ARTICULATION Point the Manner ofThe articulator cavity articulation articulation It refers to the wayIs the doer of Is any part of how air flows out the It concerns the mouth during the articulation the place production of a that can be and moves where air sound. The sound reached byfreely enough goes through. might be stop theto be active in It can be the fricative nasal lateral articulator. It vibrant affricateor athe apeech. It mouth or is also known continuant. Theis also known nasal cavity. as Major manner of as Major passive consonants describes Active articulator the manner in which Articulator airflow is restricted.
  24. 24. PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC CONSONANT CONTRAST OF CONTRAST. ENGLISH AND SPANISH STOPS The active articulator touches the passive articulator and completely cuts of the airflow through the mouth. STOP OR English and spanish stops include: /p/ /b/ PLOSIVE /t/ /d/ /k/ /g/. If /p/ /t/ or /k/ are pronounced at the beginning of an english words a strong puff of breath will be felt. It is called aspiration HOMORGANI C SOUNDS This refers to sounds made at the same place of articulation literally, with the same organ.
  25. 25. /p-b/ production picture spanish-english bilabial oral stop/b/ voiced Voiceless /p/
  26. 26. SpanishPosition /p/ [p] I M F X XThe /p/ phonemic distribution is : partialThe /p/ phonetic distribution is: partial
  27. 27. EnglishPosition /p/ [ph ] [p] [pˈ] [p-] I X X X M X X X F X XThe /p/ phonemic distribution is: totalThe /p/ phonetic distribution is : partial, complementaryand free variation.
  28. 28. PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC CONSONANT CONTRAST STOP OR PLOSIV E English and Spanish stopsThe active articulator touches include: /p/. /b/ /p/. /d/,/k/. the passive articuator and /g/.If /p/, /t/. or/k/ are completely the airflow pronounced at the beginning of through the mouth an English word, a strong puff of breath will be felt it is called aspiration The puff of air creates a variation of the basic phoneme in English . To prove this, say “ tip” the aspiration will be felt or move the paper slip. If /p/,/t or /k// are pronounced in the middle or end of a word, that aspiration will not be there..
  29. 29. , but with most In phonetic, this sound the organ refers to sound even though the is ten tongue so made at the lower lip also in these cases itHOMORGANI same place of porduces refers to which C SOUND articulation, homorganic point in the oral literally with the sound cavity the same or organ tongue is touching
  30. 30. There are in fact several degrees /p- of aspiration in english it is quite strong in initial position b/PRODUCTION before a stressed vowel as in “pen” and some what less strong PICTURE in medial positionAs it is perceptible speakers dnot aspirate any voiceless stop there are several way tosound in word initial position demonstrate aspiration of thein English furthermore this/p/ voiceless stops/P/ b// /t/ insound in word- final position teaching the propertends to be pronounced like the pronunciation.voicelessEnglish and Spanish /p/ /b/ use Spanish spelling:<p> patron/ the same organ to be uttered. patron , capa /kapa/ The dimension that makes them sound differently is English spelling <p> pick / pick/ voicing happy /hæpIy/
  31. 31. /P/ PHONETIC AND PHONEMIC DISTRIBUTIONSpanish and english voiceless, bilabial,oral,. Stop, however spanihs has just oneallophone [p]voiceless, bilabial, oral,stop,strongly aspirated [-p-] voiceless,bilabial, oral, stop unaspirated[-p’],voiceless, bilabial, oral, stop unreleased,[-p-] voiceless, bilabial, oral, stopreleased.
  32. 32. CONTRASTIVE TRANSFER ANALYSISIn light of the fact that l2 pronunciation error are often caused by the transfer of wellestablished sound systems, it is important to examine some of the characteristicphonological different between Spanish and English• Such observation of L2 pronunciation error above, in turn naturally suggestion the critical need for teachers to become more aware of the impact that learners• Although contrastive analysis has often been criticized for its inadequacy to predict the transfer error that learners will make in actual learning contextsThe fact that native of English can recognize foreign accent in ESL/EFL learnersspeech such as Spanish accent or any other ones is a clear.• Contrastive transfer assists languages learners and teachers to identify easily the sound to be learned, improved or emphasized in their production in order to have a more affective level of communication.
  33. 33. For student who have mastered the ipa phonetic transcriptions can improve their understanding of the importanceHowever, when This manner ofspeaking to native speaking greatlyspeakers, student CONTEXTUALIZED influences, andare often surprise PHONETIC sometimes evenay how the changes, thephonetic TRASCRIPTION pronunciation oftraanscription single word. These words have a strong and a weak form whose pronunciation will depend on some factors
  34. 34. STRONG AND WEAK FORMSIn connected speech, many of the small wordswe use very frequently tend to take on a differentshape from the one listed in the dictionary.Function words are essentially closed classwords, such as pronouns, prepositions,conjunctions, auxiliaries, etc.
  35. 35. /B/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES Both Spanish and English Spanish has two allophones: [b] /b/ sound is voiced, bilabial, voiced, bilabial, oral. Stop, oral, stop[-β-]voiced bilabial [-b] or [-b-] are someoral, fricative, which arbitrary symbols thatocurs after /i7, /r/ can be found in nonebetween vowels as well official IPA notationas between a vowel
  36. 36. Despite the fact that Spanish and English use the same phonological symbols /t/ the consonant quality differs due to the point of articulationEnglish /t/ is This phonemesvoiceless, apico presents just onedental oral, stop allophones [t] isand has seven voiceless, apicovariant [tʰ-] /t/PHONEMIC AND dental, oral, stopvoiceless, apico PHONETIC unaspirated.alveolar, oral, stop, FEATURESstrongly aspirated [-t-] voiceless [-ɾ-]] voiceless apico alveolar apico alveolar , oral, stop , oral, flap. unaspirated ([t̯][ţ]̧[r])
  37. 37. /d/ PONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURESBOTH SPANISH AND ENBLISH USE THE SAME [d] voiced, apico –PHONILOGICAL SYMBOLS/D7, Ts is in dental, oral, stop,Spanish, voiced apico dental, oral, stop and has [-ð-]] voiced, apico –four allophones inerdental, oral, fricative Which is uttered when [-φ] zero allophone found between vowels, which depending on after the flap sound the dialect might occur /r/, and between a in middle and or final vowel and voiced word position consonant sound.
  38. 38. /k/PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURESThe /k/ sound keeps The Spanish /k/ hasthe same features in However, they differ in one allophone [k] both languages: their phonetic voiceless, dorso- velar,voiceless dorsovelar, analysis. oral, stop, oral, stop unaspirated. The english /k/ has [-k-] voiceless dorso four allophones [Kʰ-] velar stop. Strongly voiceless, dorso velar, unaspirated oral, stop, strongly aspirated,
  39. 39. /g/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATUIRESBoth languages have phonemically thesame /g/ sound: voiced, dorso- velar. Oral,stop Spanish has three variations [g] voiced dorso- velar, oral, stop; [-ɤ-] voiced dorso- velar oral, fricative ([ɡ̷])which occurs between vowel sound after /ɾ/ and /I/. And between a vowel sound and a voiced consonant; [φzero allophones. English has one allophone: voiced dorso velar, oral, stop
  40. 40. CONTRATS OF ENGLISH AND SPANISH FRICATIVE Fricative sounds are produced the articulator partially touches the point of articulationand gets close enough that airflow throungh the opening becomes turbulent. ENGLISH SPANISH has a wide /f/ /v/ labio dental dialectal variation, /s/ /z/ apico alveolar consequently /θ/ /ð/ apico speakers of different interdental dialects our /ʃ/ /Ʒ/ fronto palatal pronounciation /h/ glottal problem. TIPSThe letter <v> is a part of the Spanish Alphabet it is pronunced [b] or fricative [β].The /ʃ/ sound is not problem for Ecuadorian Andean speakers due to the kychwa /ʃ/.
  41. 41. /f/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES SPANISH ENGLISHHas two allophones Has one allophone /f/voiceless,labiodental, oral, /f/ voiceless, fricative; /φ/ bilabial, oral, voiceless, fricative. bilabial, oraal,fricative which is used in free variation. REMINDER: Many english.nouns ending in/f/ change inti /v/ went the plural ending is added. This process is known as a morphophonemic change.
  42. 42. /v/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES The /v/ ENGLISHsound does not exist in Spanish. In English , /v/ is voiced, labiodental, oral, fricative and happens in initial, middle and final position.
  43. 43. /s/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES SPANISH ENGLISH Spanish which has many In English /s/ is voiceless, apico- more that English. alveolar, oral, fricative; /-s-/ voiceless, apico-dental, oral, fricative which occurs before the voiceless –alviolar, /t/; /-z-/voiced,REMINDER: The ending <-s> or <- apico-dental, oral, fricative, whiches> has three meanings: the third occurs before a voiced consonant person singularpresent tense, the sound; /-z-/voiced, apico-dental, plural nouns, and the nouns oral, fricative, which happens possessive. before the voiced dental.
  44. 44. /z/ PHONETIC AND PHONEMIC FEATURES SPANISH ENGLISH /z/ sound sccurs before a /z/ sound is voiced, apico- voiced, consonant sound alveolar,oral, fricative, and has because of its posotional one allophone which keeps he variation and it is an same traits as its phoneme:/z/allophone of the voicceless voiced, apico-alveolar, oral, apico-alveolar frivative, fricative.
  45. 45. Both languages have the / f / sound which is voiceless, labio-dental, oral, fricativeapico-alveolar,oral, fricative;[-s-] voiceless, PHONETIC Nevertheless, Spanish has two allophones:apico – dental,oral, fricative. FEATURES [f] voiceless apicoalveolar, oral, fricative. The difference is marked greatly in Spanish which has many more variants than English: voiceless
  46. 46. PRODUCTION Spanish <v> vest / Spellings:vest/, <Iv> although <v>halve / hæv existis in the Spanish alphabet, it is pronounced as English /b/ vaca / Spellings: baka/, burro / buro
  47. 47. PHONEMIC Both English and :the /s/ soundAND PHONETIC Spanish have which is FEATURES /S/ The difference is ;.voiceless, which has many marked greatly in apicoalveolar, oral,more variants than Spanish English fricative:voiceless, apico- [-s-] voiceless, alveolar, oral, apico – dental, fricative oral, fricative
  48. 48. • razor / reyzər/, <zz> buzz / bəz/,<x> example /gz//ig zæmpəl/. • Spanish – English Spanish spellings: [z] happensPRODUCTION • allophone of /s/; <z> and <s> = /s/: • zona / sona/, vez / bes/, asno [ azno]. • English spellings: <z>
  49. 49. PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES/Ө/ The voiceless, apico- [Ө] is voceless, apico- interdental, oral, fricative, /interdental, oral, fricative Ө /, exists in both languages with the distinction than in The English / Ө / sound Spanish it is an allophone has no phonetic variation. while in English it is a Consequently, its allophene phoneme
  50. 50. /f-v/ PRODUCTION /f/ voiceless, labio-dental,oral, fricative. /v/ voiced, labio-dental,oral, fricative. /f/ PHONEMIC /v/ PHONEMIC ANDAND PHONETIC PHONETIC FEATURES FEATURES Both languages The /v/ sound doeshave the /f/ sound not exist in Spanish. which is In English /v/ is voiceless, labio- voiced, labio-dental,oral, fricativ dental,oral, fricative. e. It has one allophone: Spanish has two [v] allophones: [f] [ɸ]
  51. 51. Both languages have the /ð/ sound in Spanish it is an allophone which occurs in middle position betwwen vowels. /ð/ PHONEMIC ANDPHONETIC FEATURES English Examples: English it is a phoneme [ð] Although /əlðow/ in initial, middle and Teethe /tiyð/ final position.
  52. 52. /ʃ/ PRODUCTION /ʃ/ voiced, fronto-palatal, oral, groove, fricative. In Spanish does not occurs . Speanish speakers from Ecuador use it as part of kichwa words loaned to the language. EXAMPLES: EXAMPLES: EXAMPLES: ENGLISH ENGLISH ENGLISH<sh> should /ʃʊd/ <sch> schwa /ʃwa/ <ci> special /„spƐʃəl/ <s> insurance <sc> crescendo <ti> partial /‟parʃəl/ /ɪnʃʊɹəns/ /kɹə‟ʃƐndow/ <xu,xi>=k luxury<ss> issue /‟ɪʃuw/ <ce> ocean /‟owʃƐn/ /„ləkʃəɹɪy/
  53. 53. /ʃ/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES Examples: This /ʃ/ sound occurs English exclusively in English Propulsion /pɹə„pəlʃən/ has one allophone [ʃ] . Permission /pəɹmɪʃən/
  54. 54. /ʒ /PRODUCTION /ʒ/ Sound occurs in English only middle and final position. The English /ʒ / sounds features are voiced, fronto- Examplespalatal, oral, groove, fricative, Garage /gəɹaʒ/ and has an allophone which <si>ocacion /ə„keyʒən/ keeps the same features as <s>measure /mɛʒəɹ/ it s phoneme. <g> regime /ɹeyɪʒiym/ <z> azure /æʒəɹ/ /ʒ/In spanish does not occurs a phoneme.
  55. 55. /x /SPANISH PRODUCTION Oral Dorso velar Fricative Voiceless/x /Is a sound which exists particularly in Spanish. ExamplesThis phoneme has three allophones which may <j>jarabe /xaɾabe/occur in free variation regarding the position. This <g>girasol /xiɾa„sol/are[x] voiceless, dorso-velar,oral,fricative. <x>Xavier /xabyeɾ/[h] voiceless, glottal,oral,fricative.[Ø] zero allophone
  56. 56. /h / PRODUCTION ENGLISH-SPANISH Oral Glottal Fricative VoicelessSpanish /h /has an allophone of [x] used by peoplefront the coastal region. ExamplesThis phoneme in English has two allophones. This <h>holiday /„halɪdey/are <wh>whole /„howl/[h] voiceless, glottal, oral, fricative.[-ɦ-] voiceless, glottal, oral, fricative, and happensjust between voiced sounds.The /h/ sounds never occurs in final position norhas a counterpart.
  57. 57. CONTRAST OF ENGLISH AND SPANISH AFFRICATES Those consonants have the same or similar places of articulation. ENGLISH AFFRICATES SPANISH AFFRICATES/tʃ/ [tʃ] /tʃ/ [tʃ][dʒ]
  58. 58. /tʃ/ /dʒ/ PRODUCTION ENGLISH-SPANISHApico alveolar lamino fronto palatal oral Voiceless /tʃ/ Africative Voiced /dʒ//tʃ/ there are inSpanish and English. It Examples Englishis voiceless, apico <cheap> /tʃɪyp/alveolar, lamino , <preacher> /pɹɪytʃəɹ/fronto , palatal, oral <reach> / ɹɪytʃ/affricate. Its phoneme[tʃ]
  59. 59. /dʒ/ PRODUCTION ENGLISH-SPANISHSpanish spellings: /ʤ/ doesnot exist as a phoneme In english its occurs as phoneme and allophone /ʤ/voiced, apico alveolar, lamino, fronto palatal, oral affricate Examples of English <jam> /ʤæm/ <larger> /laɹʤəɹ/ <large> /laɹʤ/
  60. 60. When we pronounce this consonants, the air to flow out through the nasal cavity. Contrastive nasal sound chart Articulator and point articulation bilabial Apico Dorso Dorso alveolar velar palatalE /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ -S /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ /ɲ/ vd vd vd vd ALL OF THEM ARE VOICED, OCCLUSIVE, CONTINUANT
  61. 61. /m/ PRODUCTION ENGLISH-SPANISH The /m/sounds is similar in both languages:[m] voiced, bilabial, nasal, occlusive, continuant. English SpanishThe /m/ phoneme has threeallophones: The /m/ phoneme has one [m] voiced, bilabial, nasal, occlusive, allophone:continuant[-ɱ-] voiced, labiodental, nasal, [m] voiced, bilabial, nasal,occlusive, continuant which occurs occlusive, continuantbefore the voiceless labiodentalfricative. [m̩ ] voiced, bilabial, nasal, occlusive,continuant, occurs in a word finallysyllable
  62. 62. The /n/ Sound is /n/PHONEMIC voided, apico-aleolar, In SpanishAND PHONETIC nasal , occlusive, FEATURES continuant, in both They are : english and spanish. [nʲ] is voiced, fronto-palatal, [-n̻-] is voiced,apico nasal , occlusive, dental, nasal, [n] is voiced, continuant . And occusive, continuant . apico-alveolar, ocurrer before the And happeens before nasal , occlusive, voiceless palatal a dental stop /t,d continuant affricate sound, /Sound /tʃ/ [-ɱ-] is voiced, [ŋ] is voiced, dorso- labiodental, nasal , velar, nasal , occlusive, occlusive, continuant. And continuant. And ocurrer before the ocurrer before a voiceless dorso velar sound, labiodental fricative /k-g-x/ /f/
  63. 63. And c+[-n̟] is [n] is voiced, In English apico-alveolar, voiced, apico- nasal , occlusive, alveolar, nasal , exist occlusive, continuant continuant.English nasal consonantsmay become syllabic when Syllabyc and occurs occur in final-word just in final untresses- position as part of an REMINDER syllable position whit unstressed syllable and no reduced vowelbesides when the reduced sound vowel sound is dropped
  64. 64. /ŋ/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES Both languages have the /ŋ/ sound. It voiced, is In Spanish, /ŋ/ is voiced, dorso-velar, nasal allophone of /n/. , occlusive, continuant In english, /ŋ/ is a phoneme. The english /ŋ/ has to possible allophones [-ņ-] is voiced, dorso-velar, REMINDER[ŋ] is voiced, dorso-velar, nasal , occlusive, continuant. nasal , occlusive, The spanish [ŋ] occurs Syllabic which happens just in in free vatiation in continuant. contextual speech between 2 final-word position any dorso velar sound, /k-g-x/
  65. 65. REMINDER• The /ɲ/ sound /ɲ/ PHONEMIC occurs in spanish, AND PHONETIC french and Italian. FEATURES• English speakers have the tendency to The /ɲ/ sound tendency to /ɲ/ is voiced, belong particulary pronunce/ny/ dorso-palatal, due to its absence to Spanish. Both nasal , english in the occlusive, the phoneme and consonant . continuant its allopone keep inventory the same features:
  66. 66. CONTRAST OF When an /l/ is formed, the tongue tip ENGLISH AND touches the alveolar ridge (or maybeSPANISH LATERALS the upper teeth)Sounds like this with English lateral only airflow along the incluides /l/. Spanish sides of the tongue laterals includes /l/ are called lateral and /ʎ/
  67. 67. /l/ PHONEMIC Spanish variants English allophonesAND PHONETIC •[l] voiced, apico- are:FEATURES alveolar , oral, lateral •[l] voiced, apico-• English and spanish •[˛l] voiceless, apico- alveolar , oral, lateral have the /l/ sound alveolar , oral, lateral •[˛l] voiceless, apico- which is voiced, apico- •[ l̪ ] ] voiced, apico- alveolar , oral, lateral alveolar , oral, lateral• English has more dental , oral, lateral, •[-ɫ] voiced, dorso- which occurs before a velar, oral, dark, lateral allophones than dental sound /t-d/ spanish •[-˛ɫ] voiced, dorso- velar, oral, dark, lateral, syllabic, which occurs in final-word position
  68. 68. THE PHONEMIC /ʎ/The /ʎ/ does not exist in the english e.g. <llama> language, english speakers /ˈllama/ or/ˈyama/ occasionally pronunce /l/ for /ʎ/ or The correc is /ˈʎama/ virtually use the “yeismo” Which consists of the loss of the traditional palatal lataralThe ye{ismo is a distinctive The term ye{ismo comes phoneme writen <ll>, and itsfeature of many dialects of from the Spanish name of merger into phoneme the Spanish language. the letter y(i griega or ye) written /y/ usually realized as a palatal fricative
  69. 69. /ʎ/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETICFEATURES The /ʎ/ sound belong particulary to spanish. It is voiced, fronto- palatal, oral, lateral. In Ecuador and some other countries of Latin America some variants many happen: [ʎ] voiced, fronto-palatal, oral, lateral [y] voiced, fronto-palatal, oral, groove, frcative These may happen in free variation
  70. 70. The /ɹ/sound of english is called a retroflex The english R- sound certainlycount as an apico- Retroflex CONTRAST OF postalveolar and sounds are ENGLISH AND has a legitimate made with the SPANISH R- claim on the tongue tip SOUNDS symbol even curled backwithout a retracted diacritic. Yetthe symbol for it appears in the IPA chart in the dental-alveolar- palatalveolar mega-column
  71. 71. CONTRASTIVE R-SOUNDS CHART ARTICULATOR AND POINT OF ARTICULATION Apico Apico Apico post alveolar alveolar alveolarenglish /ɹ/ [ɾ] - oralspanish - /ɾ/ /r/ oral retroflex flap trill vd vd vd voicing
  72. 72. R-PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES Despite the fact we ENGLISH, it /ɹ/ is voiced, SPAINISH /ɾ/ ismay refer to r-sounds apico voiced,apico- postalveolar,oral,approxi in both languages, alveolar,oral,flap or mant,reflex and it has the Spanish and English has the following following possibilities: [ɹ] use different variants: [ɾ] voiced,apico- voiced, apico-phonological symbols alveolar,oral,flap;[ŗ] postalveolar,oral,retroflex which implies voiceless, apico- , semiconsonant,[ɹ]different manners of alveolar,oral,flap; [ŗ] voiceless, apico- producing them in voiced, apico- postalveolar,oral,retroflex spanish and english dental.oral.fap. .
  73. 73. SPANISH: /ɾ/ ENGLISH: /ɹ/ Pretty Kitty recia la rajada Creighton had a rueda, ruega cotton batten cat.rugiendo rudamente The cotton batten TONGUE cat was bitten by a rauda: rauda ruega TWISTERS rat. The kitten thatrugiendo rudamente was bitten had a la rajada rueda. button for an eye, Rueda rauda, recia and biting off the rueda, rauda button made the recialmente rueda! cotton batten fly.
  74. 74. The /r/ sound is voiced,apico- REMINDER: American alveolar.oral.trill. It English is considered an occurs in spanish with “R-fulldialect” since/ɹ/ the following variants:[r] is pronounced inall voiced,apico-veolar. positions. The “r-less /r/ PHONEMIC Oral,trill;[r] dialects” drop the /ɹ/AND PHONETIC FEATURES voicedapico- in final-syllable alveolar.oral.fricative. position and the /ə/ resonant,which is takes its place mostly uttered in the <fierce>. /·fiyɹs /, sierra region of our /·fiyəs/ country.
  75. 75. TONGUETWISTERS SPANISH: /r/ Guerra tenia una parra, y parra tenía una parra, y la perra de Parra mordió a la parra de Guerra:- dígame usted, señor Guerra ¿Por qué le a pagado con la porra a la parra ?- porque si la parra de Parra no hubiese mordido a `la parra de Guerra, Guerra no le hubiese pagado con la porra a la perra.
  76. 76. It is possible to have more than aone constriction gesture, English and spanishCONTRAS OF ENGLISH that ia, it is possible approximants AND SPANISH (semiconsonants) to narrow the vocal APPROXIMANTS include /w/ and /y/ trac at two or more places at the same time. The common secondary articulation Eg. /w/ :a simultaneous are: * labialization, a dorso-velar simultaneous [w]. appoximant and bilabial appoximant (or *palatalization, a lip rounding). simultaneous [j]
  77. 77. CONTRASTIVE APPROXIMANT SOUNDSARTICULATOR AND POINT OF ARTICULATIO N Bilabial Fronto dorsovelar palatalenglish /w/ /y/ oralspanish /w/ /y/ oral aproximant vd vd Voicing
  78. 78. In spanish, there following variants spacially as The /w/ approximant sound part of a diphong: [w-] voiced, bilabial-occurs in both languages. It is dorso-velar,oral semiconsonant; [-u] voiced, bilavial-dorso-velar, voiced, bilabial-dorso-velar.oral semi oral, appoximant. vowel :[w]voiced,bilabial-dorso-velar,oral semiconsonant.[g] color. [w-] voiced.bilabial-English as well as in spanish, dorso-velar.the following allophones are Oral,semiconsonat; [-u] part of diphongs or glided sounds: voiced, bilabial-dorso- velar, oral, semivowel. /W/ PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC FEATURES
  79. 79. /y/ PHONEMICAND PHONETIC FEATURES Although both languages have /y/ phoneme, voiced, fronto-palatal, oral, appoximant. It differes i the number of allophones In spanish: they are [y-]voiced,fronto- palatal.oral, semiconsonant,[-i] voiced,fronto-palatal.oral, semivowel. In spanish: the [y-] is voiced, fronto- palatal, oral fricative and happens in initial position of syllable; the [j] is voiced fronto- palatal oral.
  80. 80. PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN CONNECTED SPEECH The phonetic processes in connected speech have to do with the changes in pronunciaion that ocur within and between words due to juxtaposition with neighboring sounds Why teaching the different proceses whichoccur in connected speesc? Because learners of foreign languages try to pronounce eachsingle word so clrearly that they fail to blend words this cause the languege to be chopped. Some rules concerning connected speech arecommon to both spanish and english even though few other heppen only in one of these two languages due to their syntactic, morphlogical, and phonological structure natura.