“Central University” Silvia Carrera Wendy Ramos Fifth Semester
The vowel inventory Front central back high mid low The picture below show the mouth cavity and it spread neutral rounded is equivalent grid in which the tonge is moved up-down or back to utter the vowel sound
In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as English ah! [ɑː] or [oʊ], pronounced with an open oh! vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis. This contrasts with consonants, such as English sh! [ʃː], where there is a constriction or closure at some point along the vocal tract. A vowel is also understood to be syllabic: an equivalent open but non- syllabic sound is called a semivowel.
The word vowel comesfrom the Latin wordvocalis, meaning"speaking", because in mostlanguages words andthus speech are notpossible without vowels.In English, the wordvowel is commonly usedto mean both vowelsounds and the writtensymbols that representthem.
DIPHTHONGS When vowels occur in combinations, they are called diphthongs, A diphthong starts in one position and moves toanother position or viceversa.
VOWELS VOWEL PRODUCTION The aspects Is a speech sound consederer to produced by determine the vowel human beings features are as when the breath follows: flows out throught mouth without being Every vowel is voiced in blocked by teeth both languages; vowel tonge or lips quality are clssified as simple and complex. Other is tongue position: high middle low. vowels are Area these are front characterized by the central or back . Muscle relative height/ tention are tense or lax .frontness of the tonge And the lip shape spreadand relaativerounding neutral and rounded. of the lips
SPANISH VOWEL PHONEME QUADRANT area front central backT m /i/ /u/o u highn s t clg ee e n mid /e/ /o/ sp t e eosi nti ti lowo /a/ on n Spread neutral rounded Lip shape
ENGLISH VOWEL PHONEME QUADRANT area front central backT /iy/ /uw/ tense mo high un sg /I/ /ʊ/ cle e mid /ey/p /ə/ /ow/ /ɛ/ to esi low nti /æ/ /ɔ/ lax tio /a/ on n Spread neutral rounded Lip shape
FRENCH VOWEL area PHONEME QUADRANT front central back Grave- Aigue-antérieure centraliséeT postérgueme mo /i/ /y/ /u/ Ferme Te un high n sg Mi- d ue cle ferme /e/ /ø/ /o/ e moyennep mid /ə/ to esi R nti Mi- /ɛ/ / / /œ/ /ɔ/ /ɔ/ e tio ouverte /œ/ l low a on /ã/ /∝/ c ouverte n h é NA A Neutre NA A Spread neutral rounded Lip shape
SPANISH /i/ with ENGLISH /iy/ and /I/ The fronto section of the tongue rises to make contact both sides ofSpanish /i/ the upper lateral teeth Tonge is positioned forward and English high in the oral cavity with the /IY/ sides in contact with the teeth laterally and the tip positioned behind the lower teeth. The tonge is positined forward and slightly lower, with the sidesEnglish /I/ in contact with the teeth laterally and the tip positineed behind the lower teeth.
SPANISH /e/ with ENGLISH /ey/ and /ɛ/ English /ɛ/ Spanish /e/ English /ey/ The tonge is positioned The dorso section of The tonge is positioned forward and high in thethe tonge reaches the forward and high in the oral cavity with the sides borders of the hard oral cavity with it is sides in contact with the palatal making a in contact with the lateral lateral teeth and the tip groove between the teeth. The lips are spread placed behind the lower tongue and the and retracted. teeth. The lips are palatal. spread and retracted.
The dorso section of the tongue moves up wards Spanish gently to the central area of /a/ the oral cavity the tongue remains moveless. The tongue positioned slightly forward and low in SPANISH /a/ English the oral cavity with the apexwith ENGLISH / æ/ positioned behind the lower /a/ and /æ/ teeth. The tonge is slightly back and English low in the oral cavity with the /a/ tip of the tonge placing behind the lower front teeth.
ENGLISH /ə/ The schwa is the common vowel in spoken english ant it is a quite short vowel sound in many ligtly pronounced unstressed Occurs in english but it does syllables inmultisyllabic not in spanish. words. The tonge isIt sometimes signified by positioned in the the pronunciation”uh” middle of the oral cavity The schwa happens mostly as part of unstressed syllables
The tonge is retracted backwardsSpanish /o/ the oral cavity. The postdorso section of the tongue moves up towards the soft palatale. Lips are rounded The tongue isSpanish /o/ positioned back English with in a low-med /ɔ/english /ɔ/ position with And /ow/ respect to the height. The dorso section of the English tongue is moved /ow/ backwards. The lips are rounded and protruded.
A diphthong DIPHTHONGS is aphonological groupconsisting of a vowel sound followed by ENGLISH DIPHTHONGS a non- adjacentglide within the same A diphthong is a complex vowel, made of two syllable components; a diphthong begins as one vowel and finishes as another. Happen in inital-diphthong Usually, the two components can be position, they are referred to as a nucleus and an off-glide.semiconsonants, but when they occur in final-diphthong position, they are semivowels
ENGLISH DIPHTHONG CHART area T M o front central back u n s /iy/ /uw/ tense g high c u le e mid low /a/ /ɔ/ t p e o n si spread neutral rounded ti ti o o n n Lip shape
SPANISH DIPHTHONGSThe vowels in spanish can be classified as either weak, <iu> or strong more and the classificaton can determine when combinations of two or more vowels are considered to form a separated syllable /a/ /a/ /y/ /e/ /e/ /w/ /o/ /o/
SPANISH DIPHTHONG CHART areaTo Mn front central back ug /i/ /u/ su high ce le tense /e/ /o/ midp to low esi /a/ nti ti spread neutral roundedo on n Lip shape
ENGLISH AND SPANISH DIPHTHONGS English and English and spanish diphthong spanish diphthong /ay/ /aw/ This diphthong production is This diphthong production is pretty similar in bothsimilar in both languages. The languages. The picture picture sequence show the sequence show how the tongue moves from the low- tongue moves from the low- central position to the high- front central position to the back position. The lip change high-front position. The lips their shape from neutra to change their shape fromrounded during this diphthong neutral to spread during this production. diphthong production
Vowels (Vocales)Spanish has 5 A is similar to English a in car,vowels: A, E, I, O but two times shorter;and U:All Spanish E is similar to English e in pet,vowels are open but is more open;and they vary I is pronounced similar toonly slightly instressed and English i in fit;unstressed O is similar to English aw inpositions, opened law, but two times shorter;and closedsyllables, cf.: U is similar to English u in put.
OPEN CLOSEDSYLLABLES SYLLABLES tomar tomacho male takefecha date comer to eat sino but servir to serve
ENGLISH DIPTHONG A diphthong, also known as a gliding vowel, refers to two adjacent vowel sounds occurring within the same syllable. Technically, a diphthong is a vowel with two different targets: That is, the tongue moves during the pronunciation of the vowel. In most dialects of English, the words eye, hay, boy, low, and cow contain diphthongs.
SPANISH DIPTHONG When a Spanish word has two vowels side by side, various pronunciation issues come into play: syllable division, diphthongs, and hiatus. In terms of syllable division, Spanish vowels are divided into two categories: strong vowels (A, E, O) and weak vowels (I, U).
ENGLISH AND SPANISH DIPHTHONG /oy/ / /ɔy/ English /ɔy/ Spanish /oy/The tongue moves from the tongue moves from mid-low back position the mid backposition to to high front position. the high front.lips are The lips are rounded rounded and become become spread. spread.
SPANISH RISING DIPHTHONGS Is voiced,complex non adjancent glide, high front becoming low central tense spread/ya/ becoming neutral/ye/ Voiced complex-adjacent glide high front becoming low front tense spreads/yo/ Voiced. Complex-non adjacent glide high front becoming mid back tense spread bocoming rounded/yw/ Voiced complex-non adjacent glide high front bocoming mid back tense spread becoming rounded. Voiced complex-non adjacent glide high back becoming low central tense rounded/wa/ becoming neutral Voiced complex-non adjacent glide high back becoming mid front tense rounded/we/ becoming spread. Voiced complex non adjacent glide high back becoming high front tense rounded/wy/ becoming spread./wo/ Voiced complex adjacent glide high back becoming mid tense rounded.
SPANISH FALLING DIPHTHONGS Voiced complex non adjacent glide low central becoming high front tense neutral becoming spread/ay/ Voiced complex adjacent glide mid front becoming high/ey/ front tense spread Voiced complex non adjacent glide mid front becoming/ew/ high back tense spread becoming rounded
FALLING DIPHTHONGDefinition A diphthong (as ȯi inˈ iz noise) composed nȯof a vowel followed by aless sonorous glide
a diphthong in which the first of the two apparent vocalic elements is of greater stress or sonority and the second is of lesser stress or sonority, as in (ī), (ou), (oi), etc.
ARTICULATOR AND POINT OF ARTICULATION Point the Manner ofThe articulator cavity articulation articulation Is the doer of Is any part of It refers to the way the It concerns how air flows out the mouth during the production articulation the place that can be of a sound. The sound and moves where air reached by might be stopfreely enough goes through. the fricative nasal lateralto be active in It can be the articulator. It vibrant affricateor athe apeech. It mouth or continuant. The is also knownis also known nasal cavity. manner of consonants as Major as Major passive describes the manner Active in which airflow is articulator restricted. Articulator
PHONEMIC AND PHONETIC CONSONANT CONTRAST OF CONTRAST. ENGLISH AND SPANISH STOPS The active articulator touches the passive articulator and completely cuts of the airflow through the mouth. STOP OR English and spanish stops include: /p/ /b/ /t/ PLOSIVE /d/ /k/ /g/. If /p/ /t/ or /k/ are pronounced at the beginning of an english words a strong puff of breath will be felt. It is called aspiration HOMORGANIC This refers to sounds made at the same SOUNDS place of articulation literally, with the same organ.