INTRODUCTION TO SOUNDS Language has a very important social purpose, because it is mainly used for linguisticcommunication. A language can be used in two ways for the purposes of communication; it can bespoken or written. Linguistics is a systematic study of language. Phonetics is a branch of linguisticsand it is the branch dealing with the medium of speech. It deals with the production, transmission andreception of the sounds of human speech. Phonetics can be defined as scientific study of speechsounds. Received Pronunciation (RP) is a form of pronunciation of the English language which hastraditionally been the prestige British accent. RP sometimes defined as the “educated spoken Englishof southeastern England.” It is often taught to non-native speakers; used as the standard for Englishin most books on general phonology and phonetics; and represented in the pronunciation schemes ofmost British dictionaries. The Sounds of English and their Representation: In English, there is no one-to-one relationbetween the system of writing and the system of pronunciation. The alphabet, which is used to write, inEnglish has 26 letters but in English there are 44 speech sounds. These sounds can be divided intoVowels and Consonants.Vowels: There are twenty distinctive vowel sounds, made up of twelve pure vowels or monophthongsand eight vowel glides or diphthongs. Vowels are most important sounds. Every word has to have avowel sound. To articulate vowels one needs to allow free flow of air through the mouth. By alteringthe shape of one‟s lips or the tongue position one can articulate various vowels. Vowels are of two kinds- pure vowels and diphthongs. Of the twelve pure vowels ormonophthongs, seven are short and five are long. Besides monophthongs, there are eight vowel soundscalled Diphthongs. They are actually combinations of two vowel sounds with the voice gliding fromone sound to another. Symbol Examples /ɪ/ kit, bid, hymn, minute /e/ dress, bed, head, many /æ/ trap, bad /ɒ/ lot, odd, wash /ʌ/ strut, mud, love, blood /ʊ/ foot, good, put
/ə/ about, common, standard /uː/ goose, two, blue, group /iː/ fleece, sea, machine /ɑː/ start, father /ɔː/ thought, law, north, war /ɜː/ nurse, stir, learn, refer /eɪ/ face, day, break /aɪ/ price, high, try /ɔɪ/ choice, boy /əʊ/ goat, show, no /aʊ/ mouth, now /ɪə/ near, here, weary /eə/ square. fair, various /ʊə/ poor, jury, cureConsonants: Consonants are sounds which involve full or partial blocking of airflow. They are usuallydescribed, taking into account whether they are voiced or voiceless, according to their place andmanner of articulation. Consonants can be described according to their places of articulation. Symbol Examples /p/ pen, copy, happen /b/ back, baby, job /t/ tea, tight, button /d/ day, ladder, odd /k/ key, clock, school /g/ get, giggle, ghost /tʃ/ church, match, nature /dʒ/ judge, age, soldier /f/ fat, coffee, rough, photo /v/ view, heavy, move /θ/ thing, author, path /ð/ this, other, smooth /s/ soon, cease, sister /z/ zero, music, roses, buzz /ʃ/ ship, sure, national /ʒ/ pleasure, vision /h/ hot, whole, ahead
/m/ more, hammer, sum /n/ nice, know, funny, sun /ŋ/ ring, anger, thanks, sung /l/ light, valley, feel /r/ right, wrong, sorry, arrange /j/ yet, use, beauty, few /w/ wet, one, when, queenORGANS OF SPEECH Speech organs produce the many sounds needed for language. The lungs play a vital role inthe production of speech sounds.Organs which are used for production include lips, teeth, tongue,alveolar ridge, hard palate, velum (soft palate), uvula and glottis.The larynx The larynx lies behind and below the prominence in the throat, and is often called the Adam‟sapple. The primary biological function of the larynx is to control the passage of air to and from thelungs while breathing.The glottis The space between the vocal cords is called the glottis. The opening, the closing and theintermediary states of the vocal cords play a vital role in the production of speech.The Tongue The tongue is a fleshy, muscular structure. It is the most flexible of the articulators. The tonguecan be divided into the root, back, front, blade and tip.The lips The lips play an important role in the production of speech sounds.The Teeth The teeth are situated at the front of the mouth and immediately behind the lips.The alveolar ridge or The teeth ridge The ridge between the upper teeth and the hard palate is known as the alveolar ridge. Soundsmade with the tongue making firm contact with this ridge are called alveolar sounds.The hard palate There is a hard, concave area immediately behind the teeth ridge and before the velum in theoral cavity. This is called the hard palate. The hard palate is often called the roof of the mouth.The velum The velum, also known as the soft palate, is the soft, muscular portion behind the hard palate.Uvula
The uvula is used to make guttural sounds. It helps to make nasal consonants by stopping airfrom moving through the nose.CLASSIFICATION OF VOWEL SOUNDS Vowel sounds are classified in terms of height of the tongue, tongue position and lip rounding./ɪ/ is a short, unrounded, front, half-close vowel./iː/ is a long, unrounded, front, close vowel./e/ is a short, unrounded, front, half-close vowel between cardinal vowels./æ/ is a short, unrounded, front, open vowel./ə/ is a short, unrounded, central vowel in between half-close and half-open./ɜː/ is a long, unrounded, central vowel between half-close and half-open./ʌ/ is a short, unrounded, central, half-open vowel./ɑː/ is a long, unrounded, back, open vowel.
/ɒ/ is a short, rounded, back, open vowel/ɔː/ is a long, rounded, back, open vowel./ʊ/ is a short, rounded, back, half-close vowel/uː/ is a long, rounded, back, close vowel.CLASSIFICATION OF CONSONANT SOUNDSConsonants can be characterized by the place of articulation: where in the vocal tract it is made the manner of articulation: how we make it and state of glottis: whether the sound is voiced or unvoicedPlace of articulationBilabial: Bilabial consonants are /p, b, m, w/. Articulators are two lipsLabio-dental Labio-dental consonants are /f,v/. Articulators are the lower lip and the upper teeth.Dental Dental consonants are /θ, ð/. Articulators are the tip of tongue and the upper teeth.Alveolar Alveolar consonants are /t, d, n, s, z, l/. Articulators are the tip of the tongue or blade andalveolar ridgePalat-alveolar Palat-alveolar consonants are/ tʃ, dʒ, ʒ, ʃ/. Articulators are the blade of the tongue andalveolar ridge.Post alveolar Post alveolar consonant is /r/. Articulators are the blade of the tongue and alveolar ridge.Palatal: Palatal consonant is /j/. Articulators are the blade of the tongue and alveolar ridge.Velum Velum sounds are /k,g, ŋ/. Articulators are the back of the tongue and the soft palate.Glottis
Glottis consonant is /h/. Articulator is glottis. The Manner of Articulation: Plosives /p, b, t, d, k, g/ Fricatives /f, v, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, h/ Affricates /ʧ , ʤ / Nasals /m, n, ŋ/ Laterals /l, r/ Semi-vowel /w, j/ State of Glottis Voiceless Consonants (9): /p/, /t/, /k/, /s/, /f/,/θ/, /tʃ /, /ʃ /, /h/ Voiced Sounds (15): /b/, /d/, /g/, /dʒ /, /m/, /n/, /ŋ/, /l/, /v/, /ð/, /z/, /ʒ /, /w/, /j/, /r/ Note: All vowels are voiced sounds. ENGLISH CONSONANT PHONEMES Manner of State ofArticulation Glottis Place of Articulation Bilabi Labio- Dental Alveolar Palato- Palata Velar Glottal al dental alveolar l Plosive voiceless p t k voiced b d g Fricative voiceless f /θ/ s ʃ h voiced v /ð/ z ʒAffricative voiceless tʃ voiced dʒ
Nasal voiced m n ŋ Lateral voiced lSemi-Vowel voiced w r j TRANSCRIPTION International Phonetic Alphabet helps to realize human speech through universally acknowledged symbols which are a very convenient way of showing where and how a particular sound is produced. The process of representing speech using the IPA symbols is called transcription. The transcription refers to the way speech is written in the phonetic alphabet giving as many aspects of a specific pronunciation as possible. It must be written in / /. Important definitions: Linguistics: It is the scientific study of the human language Phonetics: It is a branch of linguistics concerned with the study of speech sounds of a language. Phonology: It is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages. Phone It is a speech sound. Phoneme It is a basic unit of a language‟s phonology, which is combined with other phonemes to form meaningful units such as words.
WORKSHEET ITranscribe the following words on your own and correct with dictionary. S. No Word Own Transcription Correction 01 Difficult 02 About 03 College 04 Nervous 05 Example 06 Information 07 Business 08 Development 09 View 10 Person 11 Language 12 Character 13 Xerox 14 Knife 15 PositionGive English words for the following transcription: 1. /kærət/ 2. /ɜ :n/ 3. /hɑ stəl/ 4. /fraɪ ər/ 5. /kɔ rs/ 6. /deɪ z/ 7. /ɡ reɪ t/ 8. /deɪ z/ 9. /taɪ m/ 10. /θru/
WORKSHEET II1. a ship full of sheep2. Does it fit your feet?3. Please don‟t sit on the seat4. Send me ten bags of sand5. His dead dad has many fans and many fads.6. Why do you want to marry a mad man?7. What have you got in the hot pot?8. a bark in the dark park9. a shop for hot dogs10. an officer‟s ostrich-like policy11. We call him tortoise because he taught us.12. It‟s very dark in the park13. She‟s got a bad cough14. a full moon at noon15. Too many cooks spoil the soup16. A crook hid in a nook17. The troop would move through the woods, if it should.18. early to bed and early to rise19. The early bird catches the worm20. I forgot again!21. Beggars can‟t be choosers22. the colors of the garden in autumn23. a late night show24. might is right25. Have a nice day!26. The hay was piled high.27. Come again another day.28. When it rains in Spain, it rains mainly on the plains.29. I think mice are rather nice.30. The light was on the whole night31. a cold bowl of tomato soup32. The motion was shouted down.33. You can talk till the cows come home.34. He who knows and knows he knows- he‟s wise; follow him.35. With good wishes from near and dear.
INTERACTION IGeneral greetings (Formal) Hello! How are you? How are you doing? How is everything? How‟s everything going? How have you been keeping? I trust that everything is well.General greetings (Informal) Hi. What‟s up? Good to see you. How are things (with you)? How‟s it going? How‟s life been treating you?Greeting a person you haven’t seen for a long time (Formal) It has been a long time. It‟s been too long. What have you been up to all these years? It‟s always a pleasure to see you. How long has it been? I‟m so happy to see you again.Greeting a person you haven’t seen for a long time (Informal) How come I never see you? It‟s been such a long time. Long time no see. Where have you been hiding? It‟s been ages since we last met.Greetings before leaving(formal) It was nice talking to you. It was a pleasure meeting you. Goodbye.
Good night (Generally used after 8p.m.)Greetings before leaving (informal) Bye. See you later. Catch you soon. Meet you soon/again/later. Cheerio.Introducing yourself (formal/neutral) I‟m (name) …… My name is ……Introducing others I don‟t think you‟ve met ….. May I introduce you to ……. I don‟t think you know ….. (name), do you know ……. (name), I‟d like you to meet ……
VIVA Questions 1. What do you understand by the word „linguistics‟? 2. What do you understand by the words „phonetics‟? 3. What do you mean of RP? 4. What is the full form of IPA? 5. Why do we learn phonetics? 6. Write the transcription for the following words a. your name b. English c. Advertisement d. Phonetics e. laboratory 7. How many sounds are there in English language? Explain about them. 8. What are plosive consonants? Mention them 9. Explain about diphthongs. 10. Mention rounded vowels. 11. What are the articulators when we produce the following sounds a. /p/ b. m/ c. /ɵ / d. /d/ 12. How can you identify voiced and voiceless sounds? Mention some of them. 13. Mention any words which are different from spelling to pronunciation. 14. Say something about yourself. 15. Imagine your favorite/ideal/ person or best friend is here. Introduce him/her to me.