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  1. 1. I think you already know Of tough and bough and cough and dough? Others may stumble but not you On hiccough, thorough, lough, and through. Well done! And now you wish, perhaps, To lean less familiar traps?
  2. 2. Beware of heard, a dreadful word. That looks like beard and sounds like bird. And dead: it’s said like bed, not bead- For goodness sake don’t call it ‘deed’! Watch out for meat and great and threat They rhyme with suite and straight and debt. (T.S.W., 1970)
  3. 3. Phonetics -study of the characteristics of speech sounds
  4. 4. Articulatory Phonetics • how speech sounds are made or articulated
  5. 5. Articulation • voiced /z/ /v/ /r/ • voiceless /f/ /s/ /p/
  6. 6. Place of articulation
  7. 7. Bilabials -sounds produced formed using both lower and upper lips /p/ /b/ /m/ /w/
  8. 8. Labiodentals -these sounds formed with the upper teeth and the lower lip /f/ /v/
  9. 9. Dentals -sounds formed with the tip behind the upper front teeth /Ɵ/ or /th/ / / soft hard
  10. 10. Alveolar -sounds formed with the front part of the tongue on the alveolar ridge /t/ /s/ /d/ /z/ /n/ /l//r/
  11. 11. Alveo- Palatal -sounds produced with the tongue and the hard palate /sh/ /ch/ /zh/ /j/ Palatal : /y/
  12. 12. Velars -sounds produced with the soft palate and back of the tongue /k/ /g/ /ng/
  13. 13. Glottals -sounds produced without the active use of the tongue and other parts of the mouth /h/
  14. 14. Vowel sounds -produced with a relatively free flow of air typically voiced /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/
  15. 15. Diphthongs • ‘combined’ vowel sounds
  16. 16. Please click on the link below /activities/phonemic-chart
  17. 17. References: • Yule, G. ( 1996). The Study of Language. 2nd ed. Cambridge, United Kingdon: Cambridge University Press. • phonemic-chart