Negotiation Power

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Siena Heights University graduate class on Negotiation as Process based on text (2011) from Lewicki, Saunders and Barry (McGraw-Hill).

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  • Seeking power in negotiation arises from one of two perceptions:The negotiator believes he or she currently has less power than the other party.The negotiator believes he or she needs more power than the other party.
  • “an actor…has power in a given situation (situational power) to the degree that he can satisfy the purposes (goals, desires, or wants) that he is attempting to fulfill in that situation”Of course the problem is that power isn’t always absolute, and coercive power often fails to achieve objectives (winning the hearts and minds as it were).PerspectivesPower used to dominate and control the other– “power over”Power used to work together with the other–“power with”
  • French and Raven identified five major types or sources of power (1959): Expert, Reward, Coercive, Legitimate, and Referent.Informational: Data we already have, gather, research and organize (Expert)Personality sources of powerPower based on position in an organizationRelationship-based sources of powerContextual sources of power
  • Information is the most common source of powerDerived from the negotiator’s ability to assemble and organize data to support his or her position, arguments, or desired outcomes, from one’s own expertiseA tool to challenge the other party’s position or desired outcomes, or to undermine the effectiveness of the other’s negotiating arguments
  • Psychological (Broad orientations) within everyone in particular cognitive, motivational and moral compasses that guide our behavior and responses. Cognitive orientationIdeologies about power, beliefs about society. The Unitarian viewpoint that the interests of the individual and society are one; The radical frame of continual clash among social, political and class interests; and the pluralist frame that believes power is distributed relatively equally among groups allowing for the continual bargaining and evolving balance of power.Motivational orientationSpecific motives to use power. Do you have a strong need to control and influence others?Disposition and skillsOrientation to cooperation or competition. Are you more likely to seek to gain power “over” or power “with” the other party. Moral orientationPhilosophical orientation to power and its uses, which we’ll discuss further in the next chapter on ethics.
  • Two major sources of power in an organization:Legitimate power which is grounded in the title, duties, and responsibilities of a job description and “level” within an organization hierarchyLegitimate power is derived from occupying a particular job, office, or position in an organizational hierarchyPower resides in the title and responsibilities of the job itself and the “legitimacy” of the office holderLegitimate power is the foundation of our social structure and may be acquired by birth, election or appointment or promotion. Reciprocity is a foundational in our society and one of three key norms for most of us. Equity, or the right to compensation is another, and the third is of responsibility to aid others. Though as of late legitimate power has been weakened by scandal, corruption, greed or inaction.Power based on the control of resources associated with that position: People who control resources have the capacity to give them to someone who will do what they want, and withhold them (or take them away) from someone who doesn’t do what they want.MoneySuppliesHuman capitalTime EquipmentCritical servicesInterpersonal support
  • Some of the most important resources:MoneySuppliesHuman capitalTime EquipmentCritical servicesInterpersonal support
  • Goal interdependenceHow parties view their goalsReferent powerBased on an appeal to common experiences, common past, common fate, or membership in the same groups.NetworksPower is derived from whatever flows through that particular location in the structure (usually information and resources)
  • Within our organizational networks power from where we’re located in the structure, in particular as opposed to a hierarchy, someone not high in leadership by title can gain power because of their actions and responsibilities.Tie strength is an indication of the quality of the relationship. Tie content refers to the resources that pass along from one person to another.Some Key concepts in this graphic include:Centrality: The more central we are in the network, the more power we will have (control of information).Criticality and relevance: Depending on how essential the node is, there may not be a lot of information flowing through, but there’s still significant power.Flexibility: How key individuals have the ability to make decisions or control access (gatekeeper).Visibility: If the work isn’t being witnessed, affirmation and rewards become much more difficult.Coalition: It’s entirely possible that we may belong to one or more subgroups, as in a Holocracy.
  • Tie strengthAn indication of the strength or quality of relationships with othersTie contentThe resource that passes along the tie with the other personNetwork structureThe overall set of relationships within a social systemTie strength is an indication of the quality of the relationship. Tie content refers to the resources that pass along from one person to another.Some Key concepts in this graphic include:Centrality: The more central we are in the network, the more power we will have (control of information).Criticality and relevance: Depending on how essential the node is, there may not be a lot of information flowing through, but there’s still significant power.Flexibility: How key individuals have the ability to make decisions or control access (gatekeeper).Coalition: It’s entirely possible that we may belong to one or more subgroups, as in a Holocracy.
  • Some Key concepts in this graphic include:Centrality: The more central we are in the network, the more power we will have (control of information).Criticality and relevance: Depending on how essential the node is, there may not be a lot of information flowing through, but there’s still significant power.Flexibility: How key individuals have the ability to make decisions or control access (gatekeeper).Visibility: If the work isn’t being witnessed, affirmation and rewards become much more difficult.Coalition: It’s entirely possible that we may belong to one or more subgroups, as in a Holocracy.
  • Power is based in the context, situation or environment in which negotiations take place. BATNAsAn alternative deal that a negotiator might pursue if she or he does not come to agreement with the current other partyCultureOften contains implicit “rules” about use of powerAgents, constituencies and external audiencesAll these parties can become actively involved in pressuring others
  • Never do an all-or-nothing dealMake the other party smallerMake yourself biggerBuild momentum through doing deals in sequenceUse the power of competition to leverage powerConstrain yourselfGood information is always a source of powerAsk many questions to gain more informationDo what you can to manage the process
  • Negotiation Power

    1. 1. Negotiation Power LDR 655 WallaceSiena Heights University (Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    2. 2. Power Importance?Perceptual battle1. We believe we have less power than the other party.2. We believe we need more power than the other party. (Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    3. 3. Power Definition • Power in a given situation (situational power) that one can satisfy the purposes (goals, desires, or wants) in that situation” • Perspectives – Over – With (Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    4. 4. Power Sources• Informational• Personality• Position• Relationship• Contextual (Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    5. 5. Informational • Most common – Research, build, organize and support your position – Challenge or undermine the opposition’s position. (Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    6. 6. Personality• Psychological• Cognitive – Ideologies about power• Motivational – Specific motives to use power• Disposition and skills – Orientation to cooperation/competition• Moral – Philosophical orientation to power use (Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    7. 7. Position Legitimate Resource• Title and • Resource control responsibilities capacity to give and provide the withhold might “legitimacy” of the include what? office holder• Social construct: may be acquired by birth, election, appointment or promotion (Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    8. 8. Resource Control (Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    9. 9. Relationships • Goal interdependence • Referent power • Networks (Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    10. 10. Hierarchy (Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    11. 11. An Organizational Network (Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    12. 12. 7-12 Network Relationships• Tie strength – Strength or quality• Tie content – Resource passing• Network structure – Social system (Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    13. 13. Holacracy (Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    14. 14. 7-14 Network Structure Power• Centrality• Criticality and relevance• Flexibility• Visibility• Membership in a coalition (Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    15. 15. Contextual • BATNAs – Stands for? • Culture – Implicit rules • Agents, constituencies and external audiences (Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    16. 16. More Power Than You?• Don’t: – All-or-nothing – Degrade – Self-inflate• Do: – Build momentum by sequence – Leverage competition – Constrain yourself• Data• Ask questions• Manage the process (Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    17. 17. Assignments • Watch the video • Read chapter 7 • Journal • Discussion thread posting on your references list for your paper • Chapter 7 quiz • Reflect (Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    18. 18. (Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)

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