OB - Group Dynamics


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Partially based on the Kreitner/Kinicki (2009, McGraw Hill/Irwin) textbook with updated data from a variety of cited sources.

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OB - Group Dynamics

  1. 1. BUSA 220 – Chapter 10 Wallace – Spring 2012
  2. 2. Social Capital The value of social networks, bonding similar people and bridging between diverse people, with norms of reciprocity (Dekker and Uslaner 2001; Uslaner 2001). The folk wisdom that more people get their jobs from whom they know, rather than what they know. (Sander, 2002, p. 213) . The goodwill available to individuals or groups. Its source lies in the structure and content of the individual’s social relations. Its impacts flow from the information, influence, and solidarity it makes available to the individual. (Adler and Kwon 2002, p. 23). http://www.socialcapitalresearch.com/definition.html
  3. 3. Key Social Skills Perception: The ability to read the emotions, traits, motives and intentions of others. Impressions: Creating a favorable first impression. Persuasion: The ability to change other’s opinions and behavior. Adaptability: The ability to be comfortable in a wide variety of social situations.
  4. 4. Your Group Experience?  Sports?  Clubs?  Work teams?  Group projects for class?  Church?  Volunteering?  Study groups? Were they rewarding, challenging or both? Why?
  5. 5. Group Sociological Criteria Common Identity Collective Norms 2+ Freely Collective Interacting Goals Individuals
  6. 6. Group Value Why do we join groups? Why do organizations form groups?  Accomplish complex tasks  Generate ideas & solutions  Coordinate interdependent efforts  Provide a problem-solving mechanism for complex problems  Implement complex decisions  Socialize and train newcomers
  7. 7. Groups Meet Our Needs  Belonging (affiliation)  Enhance self-esteem  Test & share perceptions of social reality  Reduce anxieties & insecurities  Problem-solving for social and interpersonal problems
  8. 8. Social Networking Online Blurring formal and informal groups. Building networks of interrelated professionals globally. Hindering hiring for those displaying a lack of professionalism.
  9. 9. Tuckman’s Theory Performing Adjourning Norming Storming Dependence/ Forming Return to Interdependence IndependenceIndependence
  10. 10. Movie Example  13 Going on 30  In this scene, Jenna is at a Poise magazine party.  How does the group on the dance floor move through the stages of group development?  What type of group is the dance floor group?
  11. 11. Tuckman’s Theory Forming Storming Norming PerformingIndividual What’s my What do others How can I How do I fit in? role? expect of me/ perform better? Why are we fighting over Can we agree What are we Can we do this Group who’s in charge on roles and doing here? job? & who does work as a team? what?
  12. 12. True or False? 1. All groups go through the stages in this order and don’t regress. 2. Knowing the stages helps members and leaders understand the group’s behavior and take corrective action. 3. Participative leadership is more important in earlier stages, while structured leadership is more important in later stages. 4. Feedback becomes more general, less frequent, and more negative as teams progress through the stages. 5. Unclear deadlines make work teams less efficient.
  13. 13. Role Definition Behavior expectations vary with positions. How would you define these?  Team Leader  Devil’s Advocate  Business Developer
  14. 14. Role Interaction Snapshot Role Sender Focal Person Role• Perceived organizational/ Modeling • Perceived role expectations group requirements • Experienced role overload,• Comparative evaluation of role conflict, role ambiguity - Role expectations for focal person Communication • Constructive/destructive of approval responses - Focal person’s behavior or need for change
  15. 15. Role Difficulties  Role Conflict: Others have inconsistent expectations  Role Ambiguity: Confusion arising from not knowing what one is expected to do as the holder of a role.  Role Overload: Others’ expectations exceed one’s ability
  16. 16. Additional Role Conflict59% Fathers in dual- 45% Mothers in dual- income families income families reporting reporting work/life conflict work/life conflict Up from 35% in Up from 40% in 1977 1977 Source: Jayson, S. Gender roles see a “conflict” shift. USA Today, 3/26/09 pg. 1A
  17. 17. Group Norms Shared opinions, feelings and actions that guide social behavior. Formed in 4 ways:  Direct Statements.  Stories (culture) of critical events.  Primacy.  Past behaviors.
  18. 18. Why are Norms Enforced?  Organizational Survival  Behavior Clarification  Embarrassment Avoidance  Values Clarification – Unique Group Identity
  19. 19. Task Roles Initiator suggests new goals or  Orienter keeps group headed ideas toward its stated goals Information seeker/giver  Evaluator tests group’s clarifies key issues accomplishments with various Opinion seeker/giver clarifies criteria such as logic and pertinent values practicality Elaborator promotes greater  Energizer prods group understanding through  Procedural technician examples or exploration of performs routine duties implications  Recorder performs a “group Coordinator pulls together memory” function by ideas and suggestions documenting discussion and outcomes
  20. 20. Maintenance Roles Encourager fosters group solidarity by accepting and praising various points of view Harmonizer mediates conflict through reconciliation or humor Compromiser helps resolve conflict by meeting others “half way” Gatekeeper encourages all group members to participate Standard setter evaluates the quality of group processes Commentator records and comments on group processes/dynamics Follower serves as a passive audience
  21. 21. What do you think?  Karen, a manager, would like to assemble a group to make a difficult, complex decision. Ken, wants to form a group to brainstorm new product ideas. The optimal size for Karen’s and Ken’s groups, respectively, is: Karen Ken a. 20-25 4-5 b. 10-15 10-15 c. 3-5 8-12 d. 8-12 3-5
  22. 22. Leadership Impacts Deviance 60% of employees engage in theft 48% admitted to cutting corners on quality control, covering up incidents, abusing/lying about sick days, cheating on expenses, deceiving customers What role does the corporate culture, human resource systems, and managers play in affecting deviant behavior among employees?
  23. 23. Leadership Impacts DevianceTriggers of Workplace Types of Workplace Costs to Organization Deviance Deviance • Lack of product• Compensation/Reward • Production Deviance consistency Structure • Political Deviance • Higher production costs• Social Pressures to • Property Deviance • Loss of inventory control Conform • Personal Aggression • Inconsistent service quality• Untrusting Attitudes • Loss of profits• Ambiguity about Job Performance Source: The Good, The Bad, and the Misguided: How Managers Inadvertently Encourage Deviant Behaviors, Listzky, B. E., Eddleston, K. A., and Kidder, D. L. (2006). Academy of Management Perspectives.
  24. 24. Group Ethics - Harassment Category Behavior Derogatory Impersonal • Obscene gestures not Attitudes directed at target • Sex-stereotyped jokes Derogatory Personal • Obscene phone calls Attitudes • Belittling the target’s competence Unwanted Dating Pressure • Repeated requests for dates Propositioning • Directly seeking sex
  25. 25. Group Ethics - Harassment Category Behavior Direct Physical Sexual • Embracing, Contact • Kissing Physical Nonsexual contact • Unnecessary Hugs Sexual Coercion • Threatening punishment unless sex is given. • Sexual Bribery
  26. 26. Group Dynamics Going South  Damaging company property  Saying hurtful things to co-workers  Doing poor work; working slowly  Complaining with co-workers  Bending or breaking rules  Criticizing co-workers  Doing something harmful to boss or employer  Starting an argument with a co- worker  Saying rude things about the boss or organization
  27. 27. The Asch Effect The distortion of individual judgment by a unanimous but incorrect opposition.
  28. 28. Reducing Workplace Deviance  Foster trusting relationships  Promote fairness and equity in rules and rewards  Don’t ignore deviant behavior – stop cycle before it starts  Be a role model  Explain organizational goals and impact deviant behavior has on organization
  29. 29. Groupthink When you feel a high pressure to conform and agree, and are unwilling to realistically view alternatives. What are some of the reasons or factors that promote groupthink? What can be done to prevent groupthink?
  30. 30. Groupthink = Poor DecisionsSymptoms of Groupthink Decision-making Defects  Invulnerability 1. Few alternatives  Inherent morality 2. No reexamination of  Rationalization preferred alternatives  Stereotyped views of 3. No reexamination of opposition rejected alternatives  Self-censorship 4. Rejection of expert opinions  Illusion of unanimity 5. Selective bias of new  Peer pressure information  Mindguards 6. No contingency plans
  31. 31. Constructive Conflict Careful observation Rich (rather than thin or superficial) description Normative reasoning about what constitutes a good outcome Consideration of various strategies for accomplishing outcomes Evaluation that reflects different attitudes, beliefs, and values. (c) John M. Bryson, 2004-2011
  32. 32. Constructive Conflict KSA’s Conflict Resolution Collaborative Communication Encourage desirable, but Use participative group Understand communication discourage undesirable, problem solving networks and decentralized team conflict. networks Recognize the type and Recognize obstacles and Transparent: Messages should be: source of conflict and implement appropriate (1) behavior- or event-oriented; (2) implement an appropriate corrective actions. congruent; (3) validating; (4) conflict resolution conjunctive; and (5) owned. Use (win-win) negotiation Listen nonevaluatively and use strategy rather than the active listening techniques.traditional distributive (win- lose) strategy. Verbal vs. Nonverbal Realize the importance of small talk & engagement Campion & Stevens, 1994
  33. 33. Social Loafing  Decrease in individual effort as group size increases  What factors contribute to social loafing?  What actions could you take to prevent social loafing?
  34. 34. 9 Rules of Innovation1. Ideas come from everywhere2. Share everything you can3. You’re brilliant, we’re hiring4. A license to pursue dreams5. Innovation, not instant perfection6. Don’t politic, use data Marissa Mayer – Google VP7. Creativity loves restraint8. Worry about usage and users, not money9. Don’t kill projects, morph them
  35. 35. Related Videos What Airline Workers Learned from Nascar Teamwork Where Good Ideas Come From – Steve Johnson