Before looking at the content of this slide, let’s begin by establishing the importance of understanding group dynamics as a foundation of good management by considering this study that focused on executive derailers. The research findings revealed these four stumbling blocks:Problems with interpersonal relationshipsFailure to meet business objectivesFailure to build and lead a teamInability to change or adapt during a transitionTwo of the four derailers involve an inability to build social capital. This slide describes key social skills that managers can use to build social capital.
A group is defined as two or more freely interacting people with shared norms and goals and a common identity.
Individuals join groups to satisfy the individual’s need for affiliation, enhances a sense of power and control, enhances one’s self-esteem and sense of belonging, and provides guidance in solving social and interpersonal problems.
Satisfy the individual’s need for affiliationDevelop, enhance and confirm individual’s self-esteem and sense of identityGive individuals an opportunity to test and share their perceptions of social realityReduce the individual’s anxieties and feelings of insecurity and powerlessnessProvide a problem-solving mechanism for social and interpersonal problems
Social networking sites are:Breaking down silosBlurring the lines between formal and informal groupsEnabling friendships between managers and subordinatesDiscussion questions:What management challenges does this create?Information security, productivity, privacyHow can SNS’s be used to the organization’s benefit?Enable instant feedback on product/service/benefit ideasPost information about job skills to be searched for if project needs dictateShould managers be friends with direct reports?Discuss the pros and cons. “Compartmentalizing” personal relationships with professional and maintaining candor is important.
Groups and teams in the workplace go through a maturation process that is described in this model.In the forming stage, the team may appear cohesive; however, there is an underlying ambivalence and concern about the unknown task, members, and leader. The team relies on the leader to make sense for them and provide direction by articulating the goals.During the storming stage, team members attempt to define their roles and responsibilities and how they will work together. Conflicts and resistance often occur and the leader can be helpful by guiding role clarification and definition and helping members resolve conflicts. As the group moves through the norming stage, team members have a realistic understanding of the task, each other, and the leader. Norms are established and energy and enthusiasm is displayed. The performing stage is known as the productive stage when the team begins to see significant payoffs from their shared history and the work norms they have developed.In the adjourning stage, team members must make the transition from becoming part of a cohesive team to enlarging their network and sharing their knowledge gained from the team experience.
Relevant conceptsStages of group developmentInformal, formal groupsOverviewThis clip is a fun example of the stages of group development. Jenna Rink (Jennifer Garner) wakes up to find herself 30 years old and working as a magazine editor. At a Poise magazine party, Jenna tries to get everyone involved by dancing to Michael Jackson’s Thriller. Discussion QuestionsHow does the group on the dance floor move through the stages of group development?The five stages of group development are forming, storming, forming, performing and adjourning.Forming - Jenna walks out on the dance floor and begins to dance. She sees Matt and calls to him to join her.Storming – Matt wants no part of being on the dance floor. Jenna has to drag him out to the floor.Norming – As Jenna and Matt dance to Thriller others at the party join them.Performing – Most of the party is on the dance floor performing the steps to Thriller.Adjourning – The party is over and people go home.What type of group is the dance floor group?It should be considered an informal group.
By being aware of group’s stage, you can anticipate problems and proactively solve them.Not all groups will progress through theses stages in this order and many go back and forth between these stages at various points in time. It is important to recognize the dynamics of the group you are involved in so you can adjust your behavior to meet the needs of the group at that time.
True or False?All groups go through these stages in this order and don’t regress to earlier stages. False, Tuckman’s model is only a theory and there are some groups that progress through the stages more quickly and others who get stalled at a particular stage and can’t move on. Also, other researchers have argued that norming typically precedes storming stage. The duration, intensity, and order of these stages will depend on the type of group and individuals within it.Recent research on long-term groups extended the Tuckman model to include stages of group decay. The stages include:De-norming– group members drift in different directions as their interests change.De-storming – an undercurrent of discontent slowly comes to the surface, individual resistance increases and cohesiveness declines.De-forming – the group falls apart as subgroups battle for control and performance rapidly declines.2. Knowledge of these stages helps members and leaders understand the group’s behavior and take appropriate action.True, understanding of the fact that many groups experience these stages is informative for members and leaders of the groups so that they can understand the forces affecting the groups and individuals performance. At every stage, leaders and members should work together to and alter their behavior to address the needs of the groups at that time. For example, in the performing stage, members should continue working together productively and finding ways to improve. However, at the storming stage, roles need to be clarified and conflicts resolved constructively before continuing to pursue the work.3. Participative leadership is more important in earlier stages, while structured leadership is more important in later stages.False, Directive and structured leadership styles are beneficial in the group's early development while a participative and supportive leadership is more effective as the group continues to develop.4. Feedback becomes more general and is offered less often as teams progress through the stages.False, The quantity and quality of feedback varies systematically during the group development process. As the group matures, the quantity of feedback increases, with more positive and less negative; it becomes more specific, and credibility of the feedback increases.5. Unclear deadlines make work teams less efficient.True,Uncertainty about deadlines is a disruptive force. When members accurately perceive important deadlines, the pacing of work and timing of interdependent tasks tends to be more efficient.
A role is a set of behaviors expected of an individual in a group. These may be permanent or temporary but are typically somewhat stable for group members.For example, the team leader’s role is to ensure expectations are clearly understood, help resolve conflicts, provide vision and goals for group, and encourage positive performance.The devil’s advocate role is an example of a role that may be assigned or could emerge as the group works together. This person will try to question assumptions being made to ensure that the group makes the best decision. Often teams or groups will rotate this role because they know how important it is but they don’t want one person to continually be perceived as argumentative. Finally, part of the role expectations for a business developer may be to make initial contacts with potential customers or clients, present the positive aspects of the product or service, and finalize the transaction. Consider now this example based on the fact that the individual in the business developer role typically doesn’t do the work he or she is selling. Because of this, the business developer can face problems if the delivery of the product or service is not meeting the customer’s expectations. Dissatisfied customers often return to their initial contact to voice their dissatisfaction; however, the business developer is in a role that is limited in terms of solving the problem.This brings us to a discussion of potential issues with roles that we’ll discuss beginning on the next slide.
As we’ve discussed, the business developer may be experiencing role conflict. That is that the organization has limited his or her role but customers are demanding that the employee perform duties outside of his or her role. This kind of conflict can create stress for individuals in these roles.Role Ambiguity is when individuals are not sure what their role exactly is. This is common when people enter an organization for the first time and don’t know the norms and culture which convey information about the nature of one’s role. For example, individuals may think they have more authority or decision making discretion than they actually have. Role overload occurs when the scope of someone’s role exceeds what they are actually capable of accomplishing. So having someone responsible for strategically moving a company in the right direction and trying to manage all of the day-to-day operations may be unrealistic. In this situation, neither may get done very well. At the early stages of a company start-up, entrepreneurs often face this challenge.Two meta-analyses indicated that role conflict and role ambiguity were associated with job dissatisfaction, tension and anxiety, lack of organizational commitment, intentions to quit, and, to a lesser extent, poor job performance. Managers can use feedback, rules and procedures, directive leadership, goal setting, participation, and mentoring to reduce role
As we’ve discussed, the business developer may be experiencing role conflict. That is that the organization has limited his or her role but customers are demanding that the employee perform duties outside of his or her role. This kind of conflict can create stress for individuals in these roles.Role Ambiguity is when individuals are not sure what their role exactly is. This is common when people enter an organization for the first time and don’t know the norms and culture which convey information about the nature of one’s role. For example, individuals may think they have more authority or decision making discretion than they actually have. Role overload occurs when the scope of someone’s role exceeds what they are actually capable of accomplishing. So having someone responsible for strategically moving a company in the right direction and trying to manage all of the day-to-day operations may be unrealistic. In this situation, neither may get done very well. At the early stages of a company start-up, entrepreneurs often face this challenge.Two meta-analyses indicated that role conflict and role ambiguity were associated with job dissatisfaction, tension and anxiety, lack of organizational commitment, intentions to quit, and, to a lesser extent, poor job performance. Managers can use feedback, rules and procedures, directive leadership, goal setting, participation, and mentoring to reduce role conflict and ambiguity.
The four ways that norms are formed are as follows: One, by explicit statements by supervisors or coworkers. For example, “We dress professionally when we meet.” Two, by critical events in the group’s history. To illustrate, consider the norm that might be established after a faculty member is fired for letting his class go early on a regular basis. In that environment, no doubt, a norm would develop that classes are held the entire time. Three, by primacy, where what we did initially persists, like sitting at the same place around a table. You’ll notice that students often do the same thing by sitting in the same place in every class. People sometimes get upset if others “violate” the norm by sitting in the seat someone else always sits in. And, four, by carryover behaviors from past situations. For example, individuals who participated in a task force may carry over behavior norms to a different task force.
Let’s consider examples for each of the four reasons listed here that explain why norms are enforced.One, a norm for a training department may be to collect data to justify that the training actually helped the company financially. Not following this norm over time, may make top management wonder what the value is and could remove the training department altogether.Two, the norm that “action is better than inaction” may be important for groups who aren’t co-located or can’t readily communicate. This norm reinforces the idea that when time is scarce, making a decision you’re not 100% sure of is better than stopping progress altogether.Three, a newcomer may perceive another department to have an administrative role. In making a comment that conveyed that view, her boss pulls her aside and says, the people in that group are very sensitive about being perceived as more than just administrative help, so be careful about how you refer to them in the future. Four, “Customer’s are a top priority” may be a norm within a group who believes that their central purpose is to delight customers.
Karen, a manager, would like to assemble a group to make a difficult, complex decision. Ken, wants to form a group to brainstorm new product ideas. The optimal size for Karen’s and Ken’s groups, respectively, is:20-25, 4-510-15, 10-153-5, 8-128-12, 3-5Answer C, research on group size shows that for high quality decisions a group of 3-5 is optimal but for generating creative ideas a group larger than five is better. However, very large groups often create situations in which the leader becomes more directive and satisfaction among group leaders declines.
Source: The Good, The Bad, and the Misguided: How Managers Inadvertently Encourage Deviant Behaviors, Litzky, B. E., Eddleston, K. A., and Kidder, D. L. (2006). Academy of Management Perspectives.Triggers of Workplace DevianceCompensation/Reward StructureSocial Pressures to ConformUntrusting AttitudesAmbiguity about Job PerformanceTypes of Workplace DevianceProduction Deviance – violating quality and quantity standards that guide product consistencyPolitical Deviance – engaging in social interaction that puts other individuals at a disadvantageProperty Deviance – acquiring or damaging the property of an organization without authorizationPersonal Aggression – behaving in a hostile manner towards other individualsCosts to OrganizationLack of product consistencyHigher production costsLoss of inventory controlInconsistent service qualityLoss of profits
Notes:Topic Covered: Group Dynamics and Ethical BehaviorA study by researchers from Canada and the U.S. of 187 work group members from 20 different organizations uncovered a “monkey see, monkey do” effect relative to antisocial behavior. In other words, employees who observed their coworkers engaging in antisocial conduct at work tended to exhibit the same bad behavior.Antisocial behavior, as measured in the study, included the above acts (see slide)The message for managers seems clear—antisocial groups encourage antisocial individual behavior. It is crucial to nip behaviors deemed harmful in the bud so as to avoid a social influence effect. Mangers who expect that isolating or ignoring antisocial groups will encourage them to change are probably mistaken.For discussion: As a manager how would you handle these unethical acts in your work groups?Source: Quoted and adapted from S L Robinson and A M O’Leary-Kelly, “Monkey See, Monkey Do: The Influence of Work Groups of the Antisocial Behavior of Employees,” Academy of Management Journal, December 1998, pp. 658-72 by R Kreitner and A Kinicki, Organizational Behavior, 5th edition (Burr Ridge, Ill. Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 2001) p. 388.
The Asch effect is the distortion of individual judgment by a unanimous but incorrect opposition.In Asch's experiment, group pressure was created by asking one naive subject to indicate which line on the right was equal to the standard line on the left. All of the other “subjects” were actually confederates who purposely chose the wrong line.Thus, the one naïve subject was asked to make an obvious perceptual judgment, but in doing so he or she must make a different judgment from the rest of the group. Interestingly, research indicates a decline in conformity among Americans since the 1950s. Internationally, collectivist countries produced higher levels of conformity than individualistic countries. Managers striving for ethical conduct need to be aware of the Asch effect. Pressures to conform may exist that reward unethical behavior. For example, a recent study (2003) found that 30% of employees would engage in unethical conduct if coworkers behaved unethically and experienced no repercussions.
Source: The Good, The Bad, and the Misguided: How Managers Inadvertently Encourage Deviant Behaviors, Listzky, B. E., Eddleston, K. A., and Kidder, D. L. (2006). Academy of Management Perspectives.Strategies for Reducing Workplace DevianceFoster trusting relationships between employees and managersPromote fairness and equity in rules and rewards – recognize fairness is all about perceptionsDon’t ignore deviant behavior – stop cycle before it starts – do not tolerate deviant behavior, this sends a clear message that this won’t be toleratedBe a role model – managers who act deviantly breed this behavior in employeesExplain organizational goals and impact deviant behavior has on organization – for example, post theft rates and how organization’s profits are impacted
Groupthink occurs most often in highly cohesive groups that want to agree with each other. An example of groupthink is the 1985 Challenger Shuttle Disaster, which was preceded by the controversy over whether launching the shuttle was safe. The engineers at the manufacturer of the O-rings, Thiokol, warned that the launch should be delayed until the weather got warmer because the O-rings could leak gases at temperatures colder than 53 degrees. The engineers were criticized for their concerns and were overturned by top management at Thiokol. NASA officials also pressured Thiokol to soften the urgency of the O-ring problems. Thus, the fateful decision to launch the Challenger was made.Factors that promote groupthink are homogeneous groups, highly cohesive groups, groups where the status of one or more group members affects the evaluation of their opinions by others, norm exists to not “make waves,” and groups have little contact with others outside of the group. Research revealed that groups with moderate cohesiveness levels produce the best decisions; and highly cohesive groups make the poorest decisions, despite high confidence in those decisions.Groupthink prevention techniques include:a. Assign each group member the role of critical evaluator.b. Top-level executives should not use policy committees to rubberstamp decisions that have already been made.c.Different groups with different leaders should explore the same policy questions.d. Introduce fresh perspectives with subgroup debates and outside experts.e. Someone should be assigned the role of devil's advocate when discussing major alternatives.f. Once a consensus has been reached, everyone should be encouraged
This information is not on your quizzes or tests, but you should be aware of it.Healthy” debate is a form of conflict, evident at times in all organizations. Heifetz’s (1994) work in Leadership without Easy Answers concluded that adaptive conflict, the ability of followers to have input, be heard and acknowledged by management, is at the core of successful transformational leadership, and thus organizational change. Make no mistake, any group or organization is fraught with potential conflict as individuals and departments fight over resources and objectives.
Campion & Stevens, Journal of Management.
Laboratory studies have shown that social loafing occurs when the task is perceived to be unimportant, simple, or uninteresting,group members think their individual output is not identifiable, and group members expect their co-workers to loaf.Actions that can be taken to prevent social loafing are toMake each performer identifiable – reduce anonymity and create some individual accountability.Make work tasks more important and interesting.Reward individuals for contributing to their group’s performance.
Innovation ChampioSource: IN June 2006, Champions of Innovation, Michelle ConlinIn today’s business environment, innovation provides competitive advantageIN magazine studied companies known for their innovative approaches and found out exactly how creativity was consistently fostered. They found that these companies had Champions of Innovation with three common characteristics: “they speak the language of design and user-friendliness”, the “derive their clout directly from the top” (i.e., CEO), and are mostly women (75% of the innovation champions are female).Nine Notions of Innovation: Ideas come from everywhere – everyone can innovate, even financeShare everything you can – all ideas, projects, deadlines, all accessible to everyone on the intranetYou’re brilliant, we’re hiring – Favor intelligence over experienceA license to pursue dreams – Employees get a free day a week. Half of new launches come from this “20%” timeInnovation, not instant perfection – Google launches early and often in small beta tests, before releasing new features widelyDon’t politic, use data – Mayer discourages the use of “I like” in meetings, pushing staffers to use metricsCreativity loves restraint – Give people a vision, rules about how to get there and deadlinesWorry about usage and users, not money – Provide something simple to use and easy to love. The money will follow.Don’t kill projects, morph them – There’s always a kernel of something good that can be salvagedns
OB - Group Dynamics
BUSA 220 – Chapter 10 Wallace – Spring 2012
Social Capital The value of social networks, bonding similar people and bridging between diverse people, with norms of reciprocity (Dekker and Uslaner 2001; Uslaner 2001). The folk wisdom that more people get their jobs from whom they know, rather than what they know. (Sander, 2002, p. 213) . The goodwill available to individuals or groups. Its source lies in the structure and content of the individual’s social relations. Its impacts flow from the information, influence, and solidarity it makes available to the individual. (Adler and Kwon 2002, p. 23). http://www.socialcapitalresearch.com/definition.html
Key Social Skills Perception: The ability to read the emotions, traits, motives and intentions of others. Impressions: Creating a favorable first impression. Persuasion: The ability to change other’s opinions and behavior. Adaptability: The ability to be comfortable in a wide variety of social situations.
Your Group Experience? Sports? Clubs? Work teams? Group projects for class? Church? Volunteering? Study groups? Were they rewarding, challenging or both? Why?
Group Sociological Criteria Common Identity Collective Norms 2+ Freely Collective Interacting Goals Individuals
Group Value Why do we join groups? Why do organizations form groups? Accomplish complex tasks Generate ideas & solutions Coordinate interdependent efforts Provide a problem-solving mechanism for complex problems Implement complex decisions Socialize and train newcomers
Groups Meet Our Needs Belonging (affiliation) Enhance self-esteem Test & share perceptions of social reality Reduce anxieties & insecurities Problem-solving for social and interpersonal problems
Social Networking Online Blurring formal and informal groups. Building networks of interrelated professionals globally. Hindering hiring for those displaying a lack of professionalism.
Tuckman’s Theory Performing Adjourning Norming Storming Dependence/ Forming Return to Interdependence IndependenceIndependence
Movie Example 13 Going on 30 In this scene, Jenna is at a Poise magazine party. How does the group on the dance floor move through the stages of group development? What type of group is the dance floor group?
Tuckman’s Theory Forming Storming Norming PerformingIndividual What’s my What do others How can I How do I fit in? role? expect of me/ perform better? Why are we fighting over Can we agree What are we Can we do this Group who’s in charge on roles and doing here? job? & who does work as a team? what?
True or False? 1. All groups go through the stages in this order and don’t regress. 2. Knowing the stages helps members and leaders understand the group’s behavior and take corrective action. 3. Participative leadership is more important in earlier stages, while structured leadership is more important in later stages. 4. Feedback becomes more general, less frequent, and more negative as teams progress through the stages. 5. Unclear deadlines make work teams less efficient.
Role Definition Behavior expectations vary with positions. How would you define these? Team Leader Devil’s Advocate Business Developer
Role Interaction Snapshot Role Sender Focal Person Role• Perceived organizational/ Modeling • Perceived role expectations group requirements • Experienced role overload,• Comparative evaluation of role conflict, role ambiguity - Role expectations for focal person Communication • Constructive/destructive of approval responses - Focal person’s behavior or need for change
Role Difficulties Role Conflict: Others have inconsistent expectations Role Ambiguity: Confusion arising from not knowing what one is expected to do as the holder of a role. Role Overload: Others’ expectations exceed one’s ability
Additional Role Conflict59% Fathers in dual- 45% Mothers in dual- income families income families reporting reporting work/life conflict work/life conflict Up from 35% in Up from 40% in 1977 1977 Source: Jayson, S. Gender roles see a “conflict” shift. USA Today, 3/26/09 pg. 1A
Group Norms Shared opinions, feelings and actions that guide social behavior. Formed in 4 ways: Direct Statements. Stories (culture) of critical events. Primacy. Past behaviors.
Task Roles Initiator suggests new goals or Orienter keeps group headed ideas toward its stated goals Information seeker/giver Evaluator tests group’s clarifies key issues accomplishments with various Opinion seeker/giver clarifies criteria such as logic and pertinent values practicality Elaborator promotes greater Energizer prods group understanding through Procedural technician examples or exploration of performs routine duties implications Recorder performs a “group Coordinator pulls together memory” function by ideas and suggestions documenting discussion and outcomes
Maintenance Roles Encourager fosters group solidarity by accepting and praising various points of view Harmonizer mediates conflict through reconciliation or humor Compromiser helps resolve conflict by meeting others “half way” Gatekeeper encourages all group members to participate Standard setter evaluates the quality of group processes Commentator records and comments on group processes/dynamics Follower serves as a passive audience
What do you think? Karen, a manager, would like to assemble a group to make a difficult, complex decision. Ken, wants to form a group to brainstorm new product ideas. The optimal size for Karen’s and Ken’s groups, respectively, is: Karen Ken a. 20-25 4-5 b. 10-15 10-15 c. 3-5 8-12 d. 8-12 3-5
Leadership Impacts Deviance 60% of employees engage in theft 48% admitted to cutting corners on quality control, covering up incidents, abusing/lying about sick days, cheating on expenses, deceiving customers What role does the corporate culture, human resource systems, and managers play in affecting deviant behavior among employees?
Leadership Impacts DevianceTriggers of Workplace Types of Workplace Costs to Organization Deviance Deviance • Lack of product• Compensation/Reward • Production Deviance consistency Structure • Political Deviance • Higher production costs• Social Pressures to • Property Deviance • Loss of inventory control Conform • Personal Aggression • Inconsistent service quality• Untrusting Attitudes • Loss of profits• Ambiguity about Job Performance Source: The Good, The Bad, and the Misguided: How Managers Inadvertently Encourage Deviant Behaviors, Listzky, B. E., Eddleston, K. A., and Kidder, D. L. (2006). Academy of Management Perspectives.
Group Ethics - Harassment Category Behavior Derogatory Impersonal • Obscene gestures not Attitudes directed at target • Sex-stereotyped jokes Derogatory Personal • Obscene phone calls Attitudes • Belittling the target’s competence Unwanted Dating Pressure • Repeated requests for dates Propositioning • Directly seeking sex
Group Ethics - Harassment Category Behavior Direct Physical Sexual • Embracing, Contact • Kissing Physical Nonsexual contact • Unnecessary Hugs Sexual Coercion • Threatening punishment unless sex is given. • Sexual Bribery
Group Dynamics Going South Damaging company property Saying hurtful things to co-workers Doing poor work; working slowly Complaining with co-workers Bending or breaking rules Criticizing co-workers Doing something harmful to boss or employer Starting an argument with a co- worker Saying rude things about the boss or organization
The Asch Effect The distortion of individual judgment by a unanimous but incorrect opposition.
Reducing Workplace Deviance Foster trusting relationships Promote fairness and equity in rules and rewards Don’t ignore deviant behavior – stop cycle before it starts Be a role model Explain organizational goals and impact deviant behavior has on organization
Groupthink When you feel a high pressure to conform and agree, and are unwilling to realistically view alternatives. What are some of the reasons or factors that promote groupthink? What can be done to prevent groupthink?
Groupthink = Poor DecisionsSymptoms of Groupthink Decision-making Defects Invulnerability 1. Few alternatives Inherent morality 2. No reexamination of Rationalization preferred alternatives Stereotyped views of 3. No reexamination of opposition rejected alternatives Self-censorship 4. Rejection of expert opinions Illusion of unanimity 5. Selective bias of new Peer pressure information Mindguards 6. No contingency plans
Constructive Conflict Careful observation Rich (rather than thin or superficial) description Normative reasoning about what constitutes a good outcome Consideration of various strategies for accomplishing outcomes Evaluation that reflects different attitudes, beliefs, and values. (c) John M. Bryson, 2004-2011
Constructive Conflict KSA’s Conflict Resolution Collaborative Communication Encourage desirable, but Use participative group Understand communication discourage undesirable, problem solving networks and decentralized team conflict. networks Recognize the type and Recognize obstacles and Transparent: Messages should be: source of conflict and implement appropriate (1) behavior- or event-oriented; (2) implement an appropriate corrective actions. congruent; (3) validating; (4) conflict resolution conjunctive; and (5) owned. Use (win-win) negotiation Listen nonevaluatively and use strategy rather than the active listening techniques.traditional distributive (win- lose) strategy. Verbal vs. Nonverbal Realize the importance of small talk & engagement Campion & Stevens, 1994
Social Loafing Decrease in individual effort as group size increases What factors contribute to social loafing? What actions could you take to prevent social loafing?
9 Rules of Innovation1. Ideas come from everywhere2. Share everything you can3. You’re brilliant, we’re hiring4. A license to pursue dreams5. Innovation, not instant perfection6. Don’t politic, use data Marissa Mayer – Google VP7. Creativity loves restraint8. Worry about usage and users, not money9. Don’t kill projects, morph them
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